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New York Navy Sloop Montgomery





Montgomery

Captain William Rogers

Armed Sloop

15 March 1776-[15] June 1777

New York Navy Sloop


Commissioned/First Date:

17 April 1776/[15] March 1776

Out of Service/Cause:

1 July 1777/sold out of service


Tonnage:


Battery:

Date Reported: 16 April 17761

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

6/4-pounder        24 pounds 12 pounds

Total: 6 cannon/24 pounds

Broadside: 3 cannon/12 pounds

Swivels:


Date Reported: 17 April 17762

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

6/4-pounder        24 pounds 12 pounds

Total: 6 cannon/24 pounds

Broadside: 3 cannon/12 pounds

Swivels:


Date Reported: 28 June 17763

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

6/

Total: 6 cannon/

Broadside: 3 cannon/

Swivels: [four]


Crew:

(1) 17 April 1776: 40 [total]
(2) 24 April 1776: 30 [total]
(3) 28 June 1776: 44 [total]
(4) 26 March 1777: 26 [total]


Description:


Officers:

(1) First Lieutenant Theunis Chew [Tunis Thew, Theunis Thew], 7 April 1776-[25] June 1777; (2) Second Lieutenant John Leaycraft [Seaycraft], 1 April 1776-[25] June 1777; (3) First Mate Jabez Westcott, 24 April 1776-[25 June] 1777; (4) Surgeon Titus Conkling, February 1777-[25] June 1777


Cruises:

(1) New York, New York to Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, [30] April 1776-21 May 1776

(2) Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to Fire Island Inlet, New York, 23 May 1776-[10] June 1776

(3) Fire Island Inlet, New York, to sea and return, 14 June 1776

(4) Fire Island Inlet, New York, to sea and return, 27 June 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler

(5) Fire Island Inlet, New York, to sea and return, 28 June 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler

(6) Fire Island Inlet, New York, to sea and return, 11 August 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler

(7) Fire Island Inlet, New York, to sea and return, [15] August 1776

(8) Fire Island Inlet, New York, to sea and return, 20 August 1776-20 August 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler and Continental Army Schooner General Mifflin

(9) Fire Island Inlet, New York to Fairfield, Connecticut, 3 September 1776-3 September 1776

(10) Fairfield, Connecticut to Hampton, Virginia, [November] 1776-3 January 1777

(11) Hampton, Virginia to Baltimore, Maryland, [6] January 1777-7 January 1777

(12) Baltimore, Maryland, to the Eastern Shore, Maryland, and return, 9 February 1777-2 March 1777

(13) Baltimore, Maryland to New London, Connecticut, [10] April 1777-22 April 1777

(14) New London, Connecticut, to New Haven, Connecticut, [28] April 1777-[28] April 1777

(15) New Haven, Connecticut to Middletown, Connecticut, [5] May 1777-[5] May 1777


Prizes:

(1) Schooner Hiram, 27 June 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler

(2) Brigantine Speedwell (Bunker), 27 June 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler

(3) Brigantine Pembroke, 27 June 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler

(4) Sloop Nonesuch (William Hefferman), 27 June 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler

(5) British Army Transport Sloop Charlotte (Samuel Cox), 28 June 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler

(7) Brigantine Temple (Joshua Morris), 20 August 1776, with Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler and Continental Army Schooner General Mifflin

(6) Sloop Mary (Duncan Campbell), 28 August 1776

(8) Sloop Phoenix (John Brown), 28 August 1776

(9) Sloop Sally (Solomon Smith), 28 August 1776

(10) Schooner Hannah (William Wilkinson), [15 December] 1776

(11) Brig Minerva (John Winning), [15 December] 1776

(12) Sloop Friendship (Nicholas Houtvat), [15] April 1777


Actions:


Comments:


New York Navy Sloop Montgomery was purchased by the New York Marine Committee in early March 1776.4  She was a new vessel under construction at the time.5 Captain William Rogers, a New York man who had recently acquired some renown in the capture of the British transport ship Blue Mountain Valley, was selected as her commander and put in charge of fitting her out for sea. Rogers entered the sloop’s payroll on 15 March.6 William Mercier was assigned by the New York Committee of Safety to superintend Rogers.7 Second Lieutenant John Leaycraft (or Seaycraft) reported aboard about 1 April 1776, and First Lieutenant Theunis Thew (or Tunis Thew, or Theunis Chew) on 7 April 1777. These officers were paid at the prevailing rates in the Continental Navy.8 The fitting out process proceeded smoothly and by 16 April the Montgomery was nearly ready for sea. She was armed with a battery of six 4-pounders,9 and her crew was fixed at forty men.10 Montgomery impressed savvy Alexander McDougall, who reported her cannon were “the best Guns of their Denominations,” and that the sloop was “very well calculated for the Service.”11 The only holdup was recruiting the crew. The wages for the sailors had not yet been fixed,12 and it was difficult to engage men upon unknown terms. The British intelligence service took note of the lack of recruits.13


On 17 April Mercier appeared before the New York Committee of Safety and requested that six pair of pistols, cartridges, musket balls and six hundred pounds of gunpowder, be supplied to the Montgomery. He also requested an advance of £200 towards fitting out expenses.14 The Committee of Safety issued Rogers his commission on the 17th, following a novel procedure. Rogers executed a Continental privateer bond for $5000, with Joseph Hallett of New York City as his guarantor. The Committee then issued a Continental privateer commission to Rogers.15


On 19 April the draft of Rogers’ sailing orders were presented to the New York Committee of Safety by the New York Marine Committee. Montgomery was to patrol between Sandy Hook and Cape May, or between Sandy Hook and Montauk Point. Rogers was to “keep some inlet under your lee, so that you may secure a retreat from a superior force.” Prizes were to be sent into any convenient port within the colonies. American vessels in trouble were to be rendered assistance, with New York vessels to be given the preference. The Committee of Safety approved the orders and issued them at once.16 The payment of sailor’s wages had now been resolved, with the Continental model again to be followed.17 On 23 and 24 April Rogers issued a month’s advance pay to twenty-eight crew members, including First Mate Jabez Westcott and First Lieutenant Thew.18 With a crew of at least thirty men Montgomey set sail near the end of April 1776.


Rogers was at sea off Montauk Point on 5 May 1776, when Montgomery spoke a schooner bound to Rhode Island from the West Indies. The schooner’s skipper, Casey, reported seeing eight sail of large ships standing north on 1 May, at 36o30'N, 71oW. Rogers turned back to Montauk Point and saw a large ship on 6 May, to which he gave chase. The weather was hazy and thick and the ship stood away from the Montgomery. Rogers pulled to within three miles before he noticed that, although her topgallant sails were set (indicating she was in full flight), her mainsails were hauled up and all staysails down. Rogers at once gave over the chase, and the British warship, for such she was, turned after him. The frigate gained and Rogers turned round Montauk Point, the frigate following. When Montgomery ran in behind a reef there the British finally broke contact and headed back out to sea. A fishing boat out of Block Island informed Rogers that there were British warships patrolling there, so he headed back out to sea and steered south. On 18 May Montgomery was off Sandy Hook, and saw two British ships at anchor, but they ignored the sloop. On 21 May Rogers put into Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to water and wood. Rogers planned to sail again on 23 May, steering down toward Cape May. He was disappointed in not finding the New York Navy Schooner General Putnam (Captain Thomas Cregier) on the New Jersey coast.19


After a fruitless cruise off the New Jersey coast, the Montgomery headed north again, and arrived at Fire Island Inlet in early June 1776. Here she joined the Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler and the Continental Army Schooner General Mifflin. On 14 June, at daybreak, Montgomery’s crew saw a sail offshore and gave chase, the wind being favorable. Two hours later she was about twenty miles off the coast and close enough to discover the chase was another British warship. Rogers put about and ran for Fire Island Inlet, but was beating against the wind now. He barely made it, crossing the bar at 1200, with the enemy only a mile astern: “we saved ourselves and that was all.” On 17 June, Lieutenant Thew brought supplies down from the New York Marine Committee, and the next day Rogers hauled Montgomery into the creek and began heaving down. While the sloop was incapacitated, the two Army sloops captured the Crawford and another prize, much to Rogers’ disgust: “we seem to be damned unlucky . . . That it is damned hard to think we have cruised so long and got nothing . . .” And that wasn’t all: while the sloop was heaving down, six men deserted in the night. Although Montgomery’s boat had been secured, these six found another near a party of soldiers and escaped in it. Rogers requested the New York Marine Committee to take steps to recover the men. If such things went unnoticed, all discipline would be lost.20 The New York Provincial Congress agreed and took steps to help recover the deserters on 28 June, while Rogers offered a $2 reward per man for their return.21 And the British continued to patrol off the coast. On 23 June Montgomery and her consorts were anchored in “Jones’ Inlet,” where they were sighted by HM Frigate Cerberus (Captain John Symons), patrolling off the south coast of Long Island.22 But Rogers’s luck was about to change.


On 24 June HM Frigate Greyhound (Captain Archibald Dickson) was twenty-seven miles east of Sandy Hook. She had collected four prizes en route to Sandy Hook, but all parted on the morning of that day.23 Montgomery went out on patrol with the General Schuyler soon after, and they fell in with Greyhound’s prizes on 27 June.24 Two whaling brigs belonging to Nantucket,25 the Speedwell26 (Bunker)27 and the Pembroke,28 a schooner bound to Massachusetts from the West Indies (the Hiram)29 and a sloop with lumber, outward bound from Rhode Island (the Nonesuch, William Hefferman)30 were all recaptured. Valuable intelligence was recovered from the prisoners.31 All prizes were escorted into Fire Island where the prisoners were sent to headquarters under guard.32 On 28 June the Marine Committee ordered William Mercier to go to Fire Island and unload the vessels, transporting their cargoes to Huntington by wagon, with the necessary papers for condemnation. The vessels were to be left at Fire Island for the time being, as it was unsafe to bring them around the east end of Long Island. Nonesuch could be left at Fire Island Inlet if Rogers and Mercier thought it was safe.33


Nor were Rogers and Montgomery finished. On 28 June Rogers was back out at sea, again with the General Schuyler in company. This time they fell in with British Army Transport Sloop Charlotte (Samuel Cox),34 a 40-ton vessel,35 which had sailed from Halifax for Sandy Hook with a cargo of entrenching tools36 for the British Army. Aboard was the storekeeper for the British engineering department.37 Charlotte was part of Shuldham and Howe’s invasion convoy and had sailed from Halifax on 10 June.38 She was taken into the inlet, where the tools were unloaded and sent up to the Continental Army.39 The prisoners went up to White Plains.40


Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler sailed from Fire Island Inlet on 11 August 1776, in company with the Montgomery. The two dogged the inbound British shipping near the south shore of Long Island, then pounced on a brig in the afternoon. After a fifteen minute fight the brig was captured and taken into Fire Island Inlet. The two sloops put out to sea again.41  


The prize was the sloop Nancy,42 was chartered by Clarke & Nightingale of Providence, Rhode Island, to be used in fulfilling a Continental munitions contract, and sailed on the Continental account. On her return to the United States she was captured by a British tender, and apparently sent to New York. Before she made port, she was recaptured by the General Schuyler, and taken into Fire Island Inlet on the south side of Long Island. The cargo of gunpowder, firearms, saltpeter, and dry goods was removed and sent to the Continental Army, for whom it had been imported anyway. An additional cargo of molasses was removed by the captors.43 Since the capture was solely credited to the General Schuyler, Rogers had nothing to do with the subsequent issues regarding her capture.


On 20 August the three cruisers (Montgomery, Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler (Captain Charles Pond), and Continental Army Schooner General Mifflin (Captain Clarke) caught another prize, but this one was just a thorny problem. Whaling brigantine Temple had cleared out from Nantucket for the whaling grounds on 26 May 1775, but did not sail until 31 October 1775. In the meantime (15 August 1775) the Massachusetts Council of Safety put an embargo on all whaling vessels, unless special permission was granted by the Council. Owner William Rotch obtained the permission, but did not put a copy aboard the Temple. Temple sailed for the coast of Brazil, collected three hundred barrels of whale oil, and headed home. She was captured by the British about early August, taken into Sandy Hook, detained a few days, then dismissed by Admiral Lord Howe with a pass to proceed to Nantucket. She was taken into Fire Island Inlet and kept there until Long Island was evacuated by the Americans, when she was sent to Providence, Rhode Island to be libeled.44


On 28 August Montgomery captured three small sloops: the Mary (Duncan Campbell), from Halifax to Sandy Hook,45 with a crew of seven; the Phoenix (John Brown), with a crew of seven; and the Sally (Solomon Smith), also with a crew of seven. All were captured off Fire Island Inlet and taken in there. The prisoners were handed over to local guards before 28 August.46


The General Schuyler, Montgomery, and General Mifflin now were forced to abandon Fire Island Inlet because the war situation had worsened. All prizes had been taken into the inlet, where the cargoes were unloaded and shipped to Huntingdon. When the Americans lost the battle for the island and evacuated to Manhattan, the little squadron sailed for New London, arriving there on 3 September.47 The Charlotte and the Temple were sent to Providence, Rhode Island for condemnation.48


Temple arrived at Providence about 5 September 1776, where Continental Agent Daniel Tillinghast and Commodore Esek Hopkins looked over her papers and declined to libel her. Captain Rogers of the Montgomery wrote to Clarke & Nightingale and retained them as agents for New York. Clark & Nightingale wrote to the New York Provincial Congress for directions on 16 September. The New York Committee of Safety received this letter on 25 September and referred it to the New York Convention, then meeting.49 Sloop Charlotte (Samuel Cox), was libeled on 14 September 1776.50


Meanwhile, on 18 September the New York Convention ordered the New York Prize Agent, Joseph Hallett, to go to New England to take care of the trial and sale of Montgomery’s prize goods and vessels which had arrived there. A motion to order the sale of the sloop was referred to a committee,51 and died there. By 8 October John Sloss Hobart was retained to act as agent for the Montgomery at Fairfield, Connecticut, probably by Joseph Hallett. Hobart contacted the New York Committee of Safety regarding the sloop. On 16 October the Committee of Safety ordered the crew paid off and the vessel refitted at Fairfield, Connecticut. The agent was sent £800 to cover the expenses.52


Montgomery was back at sea in late 1776, cruising south into the Atlantic. Two prizes were taken: schooner Hannah and brigantine Minerva. Schooner Hannah (William Wikinson),53 had sailed from Liverpool54 for Halifax in late 1776.55 At Halifax she picked up a varied cargo of woolens, Irish linen, cheese,56 porter,57 provisions, cordage and hardware58 for delivery at New York and St. Augustine. She sailed in late November 1776.59 Traveling aboard her were the owner and his wife.60 She was captured about 15 December. Brigantine Minerva (John Winning)61 sailed from Anguilla, British West Indies,62 and was captured by Montgomery about the same time. Minerva was laden with 300063 (or 3500)64 bushels of salt.65 Montgomery took both prizes into Chesapeake Bay, arriving at Hampton, Virginia on 3 January 1777.66 Hannah was warped into Hampton River, while Rogers traveled up to Williamsburg.67 On 7 January 1777 the prizes sailed up to Baltimore,68 Rogers paying a hefty pilotage fee for the Hannah’s pilot.69 Rogers was quite pleased with the Hannah: a sixty-ton, double-decked vessel, stuffed full of assorted goods.70 The cargo of the Minerva, however, was immediately claimed by residents of Baltimore as their own property. Rogers was very unconvinced that she would be condemned.71 The prospects were not good when Rogers wrote to the New York Convention on 17 January 1777, enclosing the brigantine’s papers. Rogers suggested appointing a local agent to help, or sending Tom Pierson, the agent in New York, down to expedite the trial.72 Meanwhile, New York Delegate to the Continental Congress and Marine Committeeman Francis Lewis interested himself in the case. By 31 January he had obtained and filed libels on the two vessels with trial set for 10 February 1777.73 Part of the schooner’s perishable cargo was to be sold under care of Maryland’s Continental Agent, William Lux, and other parts reserved for the use of New York.74 As was surmised, brig Minerva was acquitted at her trial. On 7 April 1777 William Lux executed a bond in favor of John Winning for £250, so that Rogers could appeal the case.75 According to Rogers the Hannah sold for £11000 (Maryland),76 but another source indicates the amount was £11,281.77


Meanwhile the master of the Hannah, “Wilkson,” became ill, and died at Baltimore. The crew of three were paid their wages. On 20 March 1777, Rogers was reimbursed by agent William Lux for all the expenses relating to the Hannah.78 Francis Lewis notified the Council of Safety on 31 May 1777 that the delayed accounts of the sloop’s Baltimore stay would be soon forwarded, along with the captor’s share of the prize monies.79


The prospects were not good when Rogers wrote to the New York Convention on 17 January 1777. Money was the issue: If the brig was acquitted, then Rogers would have no money. Without money there would be no crew, for they would leave, and it was impossible to ship sailors in Baltimore. But one prize was condemned, the sailors were given money from the sale, and Lewis advised Rogers to fit out for sea again. Lewis also noted that the mouth of Chesapeake Bay was blockaded.80


Meanwhile a Tory uprising had occurred on Maryland’s eastern shore, in Somerset and Worcester Counties. Continental troops were transported across the bay, and Montgomery was pressed into service as an escort for the convoy, receiving orders from John Hancock (as Marine Committee President) on 9 February 1777. Following the escort service, Montgomery was to patrol down the Bay and interdict boat traffic between the British warships and the shore, harass the British tenders, and protect incoming American vessels.81 On 13 February the New York Committee of Safety ordered the sloop prepared for sea again.82

 

On 26 March 1777 Rogers and his crew received their pay for the expedition to the eastern shore, in Continental service. They had been paid at the Continental wages, and the sloop’s rental came to 90/per day. Rogers was reimbursed for provisions expended. Her time in service came to twenty-one days, from 9 February to 2 March 1777. According to the payroll, the two lieutenants were First Lieutenant Theunis Chew and Second Lieutenant John Leaycraft. Dr. Titus Conkling was aboard as Surgeon. The total crew was twenty-five.83 On 1 April, in response to letters from Lewis, the Convention agreed to award half the proceeds of the prizes to the crew, to be paid by Lewis.84


In early April 1777, perhaps the 10th, Montgomery sailed from Baltimore. About 15 April she was off Sandy Hook and fell in with sloop Friendship (Nicholas Houtvat).85 Houtvat had sailed from Virginia bound to St. Eustatius86 with a cargo of bread,87 flour,88 and tobacco.89 HM Frigate Emerald (Captain Benjamin Caldwell) captured her outside the Virginia Capes on 3 April, removed her crew and put a prize crew of six men aboard.90 Friendship was ordered to New York by Caldwell.91 Rogers removed the prize crew and put his own men aboard,92 keeping the sloop with him as he steered for New London, Connecticut. As they approached the coast, Friendship parted company. On the night of 23 April93 Friendship lay just outside Fisher’s Island, when HM Frigate Lark (Captain Richard Smith) came upon the scene. Montgomery’s prize crew took to the boat and rowed ashore on Fisher’s Island, Lark securing the Friendship.94 Emerald’s prize crew were landed as prisoners at New London on 22 April, when Montgomery made port.95


A few days later Montgomery moved to New Haven. Here Colonel John Broome, New York agent in Connecticut, thought she was exposed to the British raiders, and ordered her up the Connecticut River to Middletown. Broome recommended fitting and provisioning Montgomery for another cruise to the New York Convention on 5 May 1777, but Rogers and crew refused to sail until prize money was settled from the previous patrols. Rogers informed Broome that he had “engaged” on the same terms as the Continental service: wages plus half the prize money for the crew. Broome wanted to know if the New York Convention understood the terms in the same way. Broome had no chance to look at Rogers’s accounts, but understood there was considerable debt incurred under Hallett, from her last refit at New Haven. According to Rogers there would be no sailing until the accounts were settled. Broome requested £7000 be forwarded to clear up these affairs.96 Rogers and crew became so importunate to Broome about the wages and prize noney that he forwarded Rogers to the New York Convention on 20 May 1777. Meanwhile Broome had consulted Governor Trumbull concerning the Montgomery. Trumbull “was so polite” as to offer any port within Connecticut for refitting her and keeping her safe, but refused to allow any Connecticut men to be enlisted. Only refugees from New York could therefore, be enlisted in her crew. Broome wondered if he should retain Rogers, “on the terms he exacts.”97


When Rogers came to the Convention one Zephaniah Platt requested he present his thoughts on fitting the Montgomery for another cruise to that body. Rogers complied on 1 June. He thought she was too small to take enemy ships of any force, and those were the valuable ones; furthermore, she carried the same number of officers as a bigger vessel, making the “pay come very high for so small a vessel.” However there was no better vessel of her size about, so if the Convention planned on keeping armed vessels they should then keep the Montgomery. If a larger vessel were fitted out, then Montgomery could be armed and manned from the larger one. For Rogers himself, he would only cruise again in a larger vessel. If the Convention planned to fit out a larger one, then he would take a short patrol in the Montgomery. If otherwise, he chose not to sail.98


On 5 June 1777 the Council of Safety took up the report on the Montgomery. The Council resolved to advance Rogers *1000 to pay the wages of the crew and reimburse him for his advances over the years. It ordered him to render his accounts for a final settlement. Finally, the Council ordered Lieutenant Colonel John Broome to discharge the officers and crew, and sell the sloop.99 Montgomery was sold at Middletown, Connecticut on 1 July 1777 at public auction, being bought by Colonel Comfort Sage for £3550.100



1 NDAR, “Alexander McDougall to John Jay,” IV, 847

2 NDAR, “Secret Intelligence from New York City,” IV, 866-867

3 NDAR, “Daniel Tillinghast’s Account Against the Prize Sloop Charlotte,” VII, 1169

4 NDAR, “Sloop Montgomery Portage Bill,” IV, 1236, shows Captain William Rogers as entering the sloop’s payroll on 15 March 1776. She would have been purchased a little before this. Paullin, 472, consistently spells Rogers’s name as “Rodgers.”

5 McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 495

6 NDAR, “Sloop Montgomery Portage Bill,” IV, 1236

7 NDAR, “Minutes of the New York Committee of Safety,” IV, 861-865

8 NDAR, “Sloop Montgomery Portage Bill,” IV, 1236

9 NDAR, “Alexander McDougall to John Jay,” IV, 847; “Secret Intelligence from New York City,” IV, 866-867

10 NDAR, “Secret Intelligence from New York City,” IV, 866-867

11 NDAR, “Alexander McDougall to John Jay,” IV, 847

12 NDAR, “Alexander McDougall to John Jay,” IV, 847

13 NDAR, “Secret Intelligence from New York City,” IV, 866-867

14 NDAR, “Minutes of the New York Committee of Safety,” 4, 861-865

15 NDAR, “Minutes of the New York Committee of Safety,” IV, 861-865

16 NDAR, “Minutes of the New York Committee of Safety,” IV, 1164-1165

17 Paullin, 473

18 NDAR, “Receipts for One Month’s Advance Pay for Crew of the New York Sloop Montgomery,” IV, 1237-1241

19 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers to the New York Provincial Congress,” V, 204-205

20 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers to Jacobus Van Zandt and Thomas Randall,” V, 661 and note

21 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Provincial Congress,” V, 790

22 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Cerberus, Captain John Symons,” V, 729 and note

23 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Greyhound, Captain Archibald Dickson,” V, 713 and note

24 NDAR, “Lieutenant Joseph Davidson to George Washington,” V, 770

25 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Greyhound, Captain Archibald Dickson,” V, 662, 680-681; “Lieutenant Joseph Davidson to George Washington,” V, 770 and note; “Extract of a letter from New York, dated June 28.,” V, 790; “New-York Gazette, Monday, July 1, 1776,” V, 853-855

26 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Greyhound, Captain Archibald Dickson,” V, 662; “Libels Filed in New Haven Admiralty Court,” VII, 62-63 and 63 note

27 NDAR, “New-York Gazette, Monday, July 1, 1776,” V, 853-855

28 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Greyhound, Captain Archibald Dickson,” V, 680-681; “Libels Filed in New Haven Admiralty Court,” VII, 62-63 and 63 note

29 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Greyhound, Captain Archibald Dickson,” V, 626; “Lieutenant Joseph Davidson to George Washington,” V, 770 and note; “Extract of a letter from New York, , dated June 28.,” V, 790;  “New-York Gazette, Monday, July 1, 1776,” V, 853-855;  “Libels Filed in New Haven Admiralty Court,” VII, 62-63 and 63 note

30 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Greyhound, Captain Archibald Dickson,” V, 697 and  note;“Lieutenant Joseph Davidson to George Washington,” V, 770 and note; “Extract of a letter from New York, , dated June 28.,” V, 790;  “New-York Gazette, Monday, July 1, 1776,” V, 853-855;  “Libels Filed in New Haven Admiralty Court,” VII, 62-63 and 63 note

31 NDAR, “Lieutenant Joseph Davidson to George Washington,” V, 770 and note; “George Washington to John Hancock,” V, 789

32 NDAR, “Lieutenant Joseph Davidson to George Washington,” V, 770 and note

33 NDAR, “New York Marine Committee to William Mercier,” V, 789-790

34 NDAR, “Examination of James Auchmuty,” V, 946-947 and 947 note, “Parole of Samuel Cox, Master of the Sloop Charlotte,” V, 947 and note

35 NDAR, “List of All the Vessels Cargoes &c Brought into the Port of Providence and Libeled Tried and condemned in the Maritime Court A.D. 1776,” V, 642-647

36 NDAR, “New-York Gazette, Monday, July 1, 1776,” V, 853;  “Examination of James Auchmuty,” V, 946-947 and 947 note;  “Parole of Samuel Cox, Master of the Sloop Charlotte,” V, 947 and note

37 NDAR, “Examination of James Auchmuty,” V, 946-947 and 947 note;  “Parole of Samuel Cox, Master of the Sloop Charlotte,” V, 947 and note

38 NDAR, “Examination of James Auchmuty,” V, 946-947 and 947 note

39 NDAR, “Clarke & Nightingale to the President of the New York Provincial Congress,” VI, 854-855

40 NDAR, “Examination of James Auchmuty,” V, 946-947 and 947 note;  “Parole of Samuel Cox, Master of the Sloop Charlotte,” V, 947 and note

41 NDAR, “Extract of a letter from New York, August 12.,” VI, 155 and note

42 NDAR, “Libels Filed in New Haven Admiralty Court,” VII, 62-63 and 63 note

43 NDAR, “Clarke & Nightingale to Nathaniel Shaw, Jr.,” VI, 1056-1057

44 NDAR, “Clarke & Nightingale to the President of the New York Provincial Congress,” VI, 854-855; “Journal of the New York Committee of Safety,” V, 987

45 NDAR, “Libels Filed in New Haven Admiralty Court,” VII, 62-63 and 63 note

46 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers’ Account of Prisoners Taken off Fire Island,” VI, 337-338

47 NDAR, “Connecticut Gazette, Friday, September 6, 1776,” VI, 723 and note

48 NDAR, “Clarke & Nightingale to the President of the New York Provincial Congress,” VI, 854-855

49 NDAR, “Clarke & Nightingale to the President of the New York Provincial Congress,” VI, 854-855; “Journal of the New York Committee of Safety,” VI, 987

50 NDAR, “Libels of Commodore Esek Hopkins and Captains Jabez Whipple, John Warner and William Rhodes Against Various Prize Vessels,” VI, 820-821

51 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Provincial Congress,” VI, 885

52 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Committee of Safety,” VI, 1290-1292

53 NDAR, “Receipt of William Wilkinson, Master of the British Schooner Hannah,” VII, 100

54 NDAR, “Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, Friday, January 3, 1777,” VII, 857

55 NDAR, “Receipt of William Wilkinson, Master of the British Schooner Hannah,” VII, 100

56 NDAR, “Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, Friday, January 3, 1777,” VII, 857

57 NDAR, “Maryland Journal, Thursday, January 16, 1777,” VII, 974 and note

58 NDAR, “Francis Lewis to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VII, 1071-1072

59 NDAR, “Receipt of William Wilkinson, Master of the British Schooner Hannah,” VII, 100

60 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers to Abraham Ten Broeck, President of the New York Convention,” VII, 987

61 NDAR, “Francis Lewis to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VII, 1071-1072

62 NDAR, “Connecticut Gazette, Friday, April 25, 1777,” VIII, 426-427

63 NDAR, “Francis Lewis to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VII, 1071-1072

64 NDAR, “Connecticut Gazette, Friday, April 25, 1777,” VIII, 426-427

65 NDAR, “Francis Lewis to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VII, 1071-1072

66 NDAR, “Purdie’s Virginia Gazette, Friday, January 3, 1777,” VII, 857

67 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers’ Account Against the Prize Schooner Hannah,” VIII, 158-159

68 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers to Abraham Ten Broeck, President of the New York Convention,” VII, 987

69 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers’ Account Against the Prize Schooner Hannah,” VIII, 158-159

70 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers to Abraham Ten Broeck, President of the New York Convention,” VII, 987

71 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers to Abraham Ten Broeck, President of the New York Convention,” VII, 987; “Francis Lewis to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VII, 1071-1072

72 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers to Abraham Ten Broeck, President of the New York Convention,” VII, 987

73 NDAR, “Francis Lewis to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VII, 1071-1072

74 NDAR, “Francis Lewis to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VII, 1071-1072. The perishables were sold on 4 February 1777. NDAR, “Maryland Journal, Tuesday, February 4, 1777,” VII, 1106

75 NDAR, “Bond of William Lux in Behalf of Captain William Rogers’ Appeal from Acquittal of the Brig Minerva,” VIII, 291-292

76 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Convention,” VIII, 933-934

77 Paullin, 475

78 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers’ Account Against the Prize Schooner Hannah, VIII, 158-159

79 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Council of Safety,” IX, 41-43

80 NDAR, “Francis Lewis to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VII, 1071-1072

81 NDAR, “John Hancock to James Campbell and William Rogers,” VII, 1153 and note

82 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Committee of Safety,” VII, 1190-1192

83 NDAR, “Accounts of the New York, Navy Sloop Montgomery,” VIII, 207-208

84 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Provincial Convention,” VIII, 242-243

85 NDAR, “List of Vessels seized as Prizes, and of Recaptures made, by the American Squadron, between the 1st of January, 1777, and the 22nd of May following, according to the Returns received by the Vice Admiral the Viscount Howe,” VIII, 1053-1063

86 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Emerald, Captain Benjamin Caldwell,” VIII, 267 and note

87 NDAR, “List of Vessels seized as Prizes, and of Recaptures made, by the American Squadron, between the 1st of January, 1777, and the 22nd of May following, according to the Returns received by the Vice Admiral the Viscount Howe,” VIII, 1053-1063

88 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Emerald, Captain Benjamin Caldwell,” VIII, 267 and note; “List of Vessels seized as Prizes, and of Recaptures made, by the American Squadron, between the 1st of January, 1777, and the 22nd of May following, according to the Returns received by the Vice Admiral the Viscount Howe,” VIII, 1053-1063

89 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Emerald, Captain Benjamin Caldwell,” VIII, 267 and note; “Journal of the New York Convention,” VIII, 933-934; “List of Vessels seized as Prizes, and of Recaptures made, by the American Squadron, between the 1st of January, 1777, and the 22nd of May following, according to the Returns received by the Vice Admiral the Viscount Howe,” VIII, 1053-1063

90 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Emerald, Captain Benjamin Caldwell,” VIII, 267 and note

91 NDAR, “Connecticut Gazette, Friday, April 25, 1777,” VIII, 426-427 and 427 note

92 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Convention,” VIII, 933-934

93 NDAR, “List of Vessels seized as Prizes, and of Recaptures made, by the American Squadron, between the 1st of January, 1777, and the 22nd of May following, according to the Returns received by the Vice Admiral the Viscount Howe,” VIII, 1053-1063

94 NDAR, “Connecticut Gazette, Friday, April 25, 1777,” VIII, 426-427 and 427 note; “List of Vessels seized as Prizes, and of Recaptures made, by the American Squadron, between the 1st of January, 1777, and the 22nd of May following, according to the Returns received by the Vice Admiral the Viscount Howe,” VIII, 1053-1063

95 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Convention,” VIII, 933-934

96 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Convention,” VIII, 933-934

97 NDAR, “Colonel John Broome to Abraham Ten Broeck,” VIII, 1003

98 NDAR, “Captain William Rogers to the New York Convention,” IX, 3

99 NDAR, “Journal of the New York Council of Safety,” IX, 23-24

100 NDAR, “Sale of the New York Navy Sloop Montgomery,” IX, 196 and note


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