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Maryland Navy Galley
Baltimore





Baltimore

Captain Thomas Walker

Patrol Craft

25 December 1776-18 May 1779

Maryland Navy Galley


Commissioned/First Date:

[July] 1776

Out of Service/Cause:

28 June 1779/sold out of service


Tonnage:



Battery:

Date Reported: January 1778

Number/Caliber    Weight      Broadside

  2/18-pounder      36 pounds 18 pounds

14/4-pounder        56 pounds 28 pounds

Total: 16 cannon/92 pounds

Broadside: 8 cannon/46 pounds

Swivels: six


Date Reported: 10 December 1778

Number/Caliber    Weight      Broadside

  2/18-pounder      36 pounds 18 pounds

14/4-pounder        56 pounds 28 pounds

Total: 16 cannon/92 pounds

Broadside: 8 cannon/46 pounds

Swivels:


Crew:

(1) 19 August 1777: 26 [not including commissioned officers]

(2) January 1778: 22 [total aboard (including sick)]

(3) 10 December 1778: 25 [estimated/total]


Description:



Officers:

(1) First Lieutenant James Anderson, 16 May 1777-; (2) First Lieutenant Edward Markland, 18 May 1778-; (3) Second Lieutenant Richard Brogdon, January 1778; (4) Midshipman Abraham Strong, -[December 1777]; (5) Midshipman Thomas Weems, January 1778; (6) Midshipman Daniel Boyle, -[December] 1777; (7) First Lieutenant of Marines James Boyle, January 1778-; (8) Second Lieutenant of Marines John Crapper, 16 May 1777-


Cruises:

(1) Baltimore, Maryland to, 6 October 1777-


(2) [Annapolis], Maryland to Tangier Sound, [24] November 1777-[4] December 1777, with Maryland Navy Galley Independence and Maryland Navy Galley Conqueror


(3) Annapolis, Maryland to Annapolis, Maryland, [23] December 1777-[30] December 1777


(4) Annapolis, Maryland to Baltimore, Maryland, January 1778-January 1778


Prizes:



Actions:



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The origin of the Maryland Navy Galley Baltimore lay in a resolution of the Maryland Convention to build seven gondolas for the defense of the colony.  To further the construction of these gondolas, the Maryland Council of Safety dispatched Stephen Steward to Philadelphia to examine the Pennsylvania galleys. In a letter to the Maryland delegates to the Continental Congress, dated 1 June 1776, the Council noted “we expect to contract with him for building most of those that are ordered to be built for our province, the difference of tide in our Bay from that in Delaware will we apprehend necessarily occasion some alteration in the manner of building and rigging our Gondolas from those of Pennsylvania . . .” The Council asked the delegates for their thoughts on the gondolas, after conferring with Steward.1


On 4 June the Maryland Council of Safety contracted with Samuel Galloway and Stephen Steward “for the Building of five Gondolas for the Defence of this Province, and agree to pay Mr Steward's Expences to Philadelphia for the Purpose of viewing those constructed there; they also contract with Thomas Smyth Esquire for building two Gondolas upon Terms and Conditions hereafter to be agreed on.” Galloway and Steward received a £500 advance and Smyth a £200 advance on these contracts.2

Almost immediately the plan was changed. The Maryland Convention, on 25 June, resolved that the “council of safety contract for the building, fitting out, and equipping, with all expedition, seven row gallies, of such construction and force as they may think most proper, and at the public expense, instead of the seven gondolas directed to be built by resolutions of this convention in the last session . . .”3 The Maryland Council of Safety cancelled the contracts the same day, and re-issued the contracts to the same builders.4

George Wells, on 2 July 1776, agreed to build several galleys, on the same terms as those given to Stephen Steward. He informed the Maryland Council of Safety that he was laying in the materials for the galleys, which would take him to Philadelphia. When he returned he would call on the Council of Safety. Wells requested the dimensions of the galleys.5 The contract was signed on 15 July, with Wells to build two galleys by 30 October 1776.6

On 1 October 1776, Lux and Bowley enlightened the Council of Safety concerning the rigging for the galleys. “We are favor'd with yours of the 27th ulto, respecting the Cordage we were to furnish Mr Stewart for the Gondolas &c on the public account.

We did not enter into any agreement with him to finish it at any particular day; but on his return from Philadelphia, as he could not get it there, we promised to do our endeavours to compleat it as soon as possible, and which we mean to comply with, so soon as we get rid of the Frigates Riging, which we think will be finished in a week after that, we hope to furnish for the Gondolas nearly as fast as it is wanted, and shall agreable to Mr Stewart's directions forward it to Annapolis as we make it.”7

Builder George Wells notified the Maryland Council of Safety on 5 November 1776 that the galleys were ready for masting. Wells needed to know how that was to be done before he provided the spars.8 On 8 November Archibald Buchanan reported to the Maryland Council of Safety that both galleys (“Gondols”) were decked and were now being caulked. As he had received only £500 towards their construction, he requested an additional sum and noted that the Council of Safety could now order the rigging when it wished.9

On 10 December 1776 the Council of Safety wrote to Buchanan concerning the galleys. The Council would try to assist Buchanan in getting anchors and cables. The men recommended by Buchanan as officers needed to come down to Annapolis so the Council could “converse with them on the subject of their appointment.” The Council also suggested that the galleys remain on the stocks until anchors and cables were obtained.10

Again, on 1 January 1777, Wells suggested “it would doe best you should name a Capt. for the Gaily, & leave the masting to

him.” Wells sent forward his accounts against the four galleys he was building “by which it will appear that I have expended considerably more money than I have yet received, please to send the ballance by Bearer.”11

The Council of Safety was ahead of Wells: on 1 January, Thomas Walker had been commissioned as Captain in the Maryland Navy and assigned to the galley Baltimore.12 In a letter to the builder, George Wells, it was noted that Walker would have charge of the masting of the galley.13 Walker had served aboard the Maryland Navy Ship Defence (Captain George Cook) as First Lieutenant of Marines. He was aboard her in that capacity from at least October to November 1776.14 Walker served as the prize master of the sloop Daniel, captured by the Defence15 on 4 October 1776,16 and sent into Baltimore. She was in port on 5 November 1776.17

On 8 February 1777, the Maryland Council of Safety granted permission for Samuel Chase, representing the Continental Congress, to speak to Walker regarding use of his men for a project of the Continental Congress.18 Apparently nothing came out of this request. Again, on 11 May 1777, Captain George Cook of the Maryland Navy Ship Defence, requested that some of the sailors recruited by Walker for the Baltimore be used in his ship. Cook understood that these men were being lodged in Baltimore and were not aboard the incomplete galley.19 On 17 May Walker requested the Maryland Council to order George Wells, then building a vessel at Baltimore for the state, to delay her completion until the Baltimore was finished. The Maryland Council agreed, candidly admitting that the state was unable to man those already launched.20

On 16 May 1777 the Maryland Council commissioned James Anderson as First Lieutenant in the Maryland Navy and assigned him to the Baltimore. John Cropper was commissioned as Second Lieutenant of Marines aboard the galley at the same time.21

In June 1777 the Maryland Council ordered Maryland Navy Galley Conqueror (Captain John David) on a mission. David had sickness within his crew. On 2 June the Maryland Council ordered Walker to furnish men to the Conqueror from the crew of the Baltimore. David was going to land his sick men at Baltimore and Walker was directed to care for them.22 Still, Walker was attempting to get Baltimore ready for action. On 25 June the Maryland Council ordered that the Commissary of Stores at Annapolis deliver to Walker seventeen pieces of sail cloth for the galley.23 Again, on 31 July 1777, the Commissary of Store was directed to deliver Walker various items of sail cloth and rigging. Walker was also paid £150 by the Maryland Council for the use of the galley.24

In August 1777 the massive British invasion fleet under Lord Howe entered Chesapeake Bay. The Baltimore still had no guns and Walker sent his clerk to the foundry to see to their status on 13 August. Nothing had been done since Walker’s personal visit some time before.25 Walker was at Annapolis on 15 August, where he drew his pay, £90, from 25 December 1776 to 25 May 1777. He also received £1000 to transmit to Jesse Hollingsworth, probably money toward the building and outfit of the galleys. Walker obtained a letter from the Maryland Council to Samuel Dorsey, asking Dorsey to turn over to Walker any guns at the foundry that had been proved, for the state was “in great Want of the Guns you contracted to make for the Public.”26

Meanwhile, the Maryland authorities sent Captain George Cook to Baltimore to quickly get the three galleys building there ready for service. Cook arrived on 1927 or 20 August and reported to the governor the next day. Walker was not aboard the Baltimore when Cook arrived but the officer aboard,28 Lieutenant James Anderson,29 informed Cook of her status. She was not well designed for a galley. Her big bow guns prevented any larger artillery in the forward positions in the broadside than 4-pounders or 6-pounders. She also had no stern ports. Cook thought she could not be gotten ready for service in less than ten days, and proposed to distribute her crew to the other two galleys.30 Anderson stated that the Baltimore had twenty-six men aboard, exclusive of commissioned officers. The galley was ready to bend sails but these were not made yet and could not be ready in less than eight days. Some work remained on her gun carriages, but she had no guns. She also needed small arms, two anchors and numerous other items.31

Maryland Navy Galley Baltimore (Captain Thomas Walker) sailed from Baltimore, Maryland on the afternoon of 6 October 1777, bound down Chesapeake Bay to oppose the British frigates there, in company with Maryland Navy Galley Conqueror (Captain John David). According to Jesse Hollingsworth, the Maryland agent at Baltimore they were “in as Good Order as the Times Will admit . . .,” for some items were “Not to Bee had . . .”32

On 22 November 1777, Baltimore was part of a force of three Maryland galleys (the third galley was the Independence) placed under the command of Captain George Cook. The mission of this force was to attack the British vessels and tenders in Chesapeake Bay and prevent communication with the eastern shore. When Cook felt his mission was over, or needed to withdraw, he was to leave the Baltimore below as a guard boat,33 but only with such men aboard as were part of her regular crew.34

The three galleys, under Cook’s command, got into Tangier Sound on 26 November and anchored for the night at the mouth of the Great Annamessick River. For the next four or five days the galleys patrolled the sound, observing no enemy vessels. Cook was informed they had dropped back down the bay. No contact with the land forces was received at the appointed contact point, Cape Waters.35 On 28 November the three galleys, Baltimore, Conqueror, and Independence, were in company. A Mr. Carvin had been impressed aboard the Independence as a pilot. In working into a harbor that night, Carvin’s boat was carried away. On 3 December 1777 the captains of the galleys met on the Baltimore, at Annamasick, and valued the boat at £10, for the purpose of compensating Carvin.36

About 1 or 2 December 1777, Cook ordered the “borrowed” men aboard the Baltimore to be distributed to the other two galleys. In exchange the Baltimore received provisions from the other two galleys to enable her to get up to Annapolis. Cook had been informed that no enemy vessels were in the Potomac River.37 On 22 December the Maryland Council ordered Colonel George Dashiell to ship some arms and supplies, located at Cherry Stones, aboard the Baltimore for transportation up the bay.38 The Maryland Council ordered Walker to proceed down the bay, load the supplies at a safe and prudent location, and return them to Annapolis.39

Baltimore performed this mission, going down the bay and taking on her cargo of arms and provisions. After her departure the Maryland forces down the bay heard a substantial cannonade and were fearful that the galley had been captured. Word of her arrival at Baltimore was received by Colonel Joseph Dashiell before 24 January.40

On 3 February 1778, Walker was ordered to be paid £716.18.0 for the payroll of his crew.41 One Winder Cannon was a sailor aboard the Baltimore about this time.42 In early March he deserted the galley and went down to Somerset County, Maryland. On the night of 8 March 1778,  at the landing owned by Henry Lowes he found a newly built schooner, loaded with wheat. With some assistants Cannon stole the schooner and was seen going down Tangier Sound. Writing to Governor Thomas Johnson on 11 March, Lowes valued his loss at £460 and asked for a flag of truce to attempt to recover his property.43

On 31 March 1778 some members of the crew of the Baltimore were at Annapolis to take the oath of allegiance. Two of these men were the Marine lieutenants, James Boyle and John Crapper. The other three men from the galley were John Cox, Thomas Howard, and John Chevear.44 Chever [Chevear] was aboard the Maryland Navy Galley Chester as Lieutenant of Marines about January 177845 and may have been transferred to the Baltimore by March. While at Annapolis, Cox and Crapper, as well as others, testified that one John Green, lately aboard the galley, was a loyalist, citing instances of his actions aboard the Baltimore. The Maryland Council ordered him arrested pending him giving a security bond of £50.46 Baltimore presumably was at Annapolis when these events transpired.

The number of officer deserters from the Baltimore, as well as the crew deserters, the Cannon incident, and the actions of crew member Green, indicate the difficulty in manning this galley. The presence of the British war ships in southern Chesapeake Bay inspired loyalists in particular, and trouble-makers in general, to create problems.

While at Annapolis, Baltimore was loaded with a cargo of clothing and some officers and soldiers they had recruited. The cargo and men were, presumably, to be delivered to Baltimore. The Maryland Council informed the commissary as to the expected arrival of the clothing on 3 April 1778.47 On 11 April the Maryland Council ordered Lieutenant James Boyle to receive a wide variety of clothing for the use of the galley’s crew.48 On 16 April one of the most “indifferent” of the Baltimore’s hands was ordered to the Defence, to assist in care taking aboard.49

On 17 April the Maryland Council ordered one Lieutenant Cox to proceed to Cambridge in the Baltimore and deliver arms to the county colonels of militia there. Cox was to then load such state and Continental goods as were at Cambridge and return them to Annapolis.50 Baltimore was evidently back from this mission by 27 April, when Lieutenant Boyle drew additional clothing.51

On 11 May 1778 Lieutenant Crapper drew cloth from the commissary for the galley.52 The Maryland Council began loading tobacco aboard the Baltimore, for delivery to the Maryland Navy Trading Ship Molly. By 14 May fifty hogsheads had been loaded aboard, and the Maryland Council was still seeking more.53 On 18 May the Maryland Council ordered Lieutenant James Boyle to receive “one barrel Whiskey, 3 Barrels flour four Barrels Beef two Barrels Pork and 8 Barrels Bread & 150 lb of Bacon for the Baltimore Galley . . . That the said Commissary of Stores deliver to Lieut Boyle two Bolts Canvas for the Galley Baltimore.54

At the same time (18 May) commissions were issued to James Boyle, appointed as First Lieutenant of Marines on the Baltimore, and to First Lieutenant Edward Markland and Second Lieutenant Richard Brogden.55 Meanwhile, the Maryland Navy Brig lively had arrived with a cargo of goods for the state. About 18 May the Baltimore and the galley commanded by Gordon were sent down to pick up the state’s portion of the cargo, and transport it to Baltimore or Head of Elk.56

On 3 July 1778 the Maryland Council ordered Lieutenant Boyle to receive additional supplies of clothing from the Commissary of Stores.57 On 14 August 1778 Boyle was paid £459.17.1 and £662.4.0 for the payroll of the crew of the Baltimore, from 1 February 1778 to 1 August 1778.58 No further mention is made of the Baltimore until 7 November 1778, when Boyle is paid £103.14.08 on account for the galley.59 On 21 November the Maryland Council ordered the treasurer to pay Commodore Grason £410.03.02 for the payroll of the galley.60

Meanwhile, an expedition against the British colony of East Florida was being planned in the south. Maryland’s requisition was naval forces. On 7 December 1778 the Maryland House of Delegates delivered a resolution to the governor and council to “fit and Man &ca the Gallies, Independence and Baltimore to go on an Expedition against East Florida &ca.”61

A muster roll for the Baltimore, drawn up about this time (December 1778), exits. This indicates that the officers aboard were Walker, First Lieutenant Richard Brogdon, and Midshipmen Abraham Strong, Thomas Weems and Daniel Boyle. Of these men Boyle and Strong were listed as deserters and were not present. James Boyle was listed as First Lieutenant of Marines and John Crapper as Second Lieutenant of Marines.62 Strong and Crapper had previously served in the Maryland Navy as an Able Seamen aboard the Maryland Navy Ship Defence.63  Seventeen sailors and six marines are listed on the roll. Of these, one sailor is listed as “drown’d,” four as being in the Maryland Navy Galley Conqueror, and three as being sick on shore or as unfit for service. Of the six marines two are listed as having deserted. Thus, of thirty-one crew on the muster roll, only twenty were aboard the galley, and one of these was unfit for service.64

A list of guns aboard the galleys, probably drawn up about the same time as the muster roll, indicates that the Baltimore mounted two 18-pounders, fourteen 4-pounders and had six swivel guns. In addition four 4-pounders received from the sloop Molly were aboard, as were fourteen 6-pounders from the Maryland Navy Ship Defence.65

While Maryland was no doubt were willing to comply with the request for the use of its galleys, the reality was that the two galleys in question were totally incapable of this mission. In a letter to the Maryland delegates to the Continental Congress, dated 10 December, the governor and council pointed out the difficulties: “ . . . the Independence and Baltimore are destined for that Service and we are directed to Man them, including the Men already belonging to them. We have constantly endeavored to get our Gallies manned but with so little Success that whenever we send two of them down the Bay, we have been obliged to strip the others and to send a Number of our Matrosses; nor do we expect the Additional Encouragement offered will have the desired Effect; wherefore we have desired the Congress if they can, to send down the deficient Number of Men. If the Expedition is still an Object, we shall do all we can to procure the Men and push the Business forward; but we cannot but express our Apprehension that these Vessels are not safe for the Voyage at this season and we are sure that Measures ought to be well concerted for a regular supply of Provisions if they reach their Destination, for they will not carry Provisions for more than two Months, if so long, for their proper Compliment, which ought to be, for each 80 Men, at the least.” The Council asked for the immediate opinion of Congress.66

If they were forced to send the galleys, the governor and council hoped to sail them with the galleys to be sent from Virginia. At the same time the council protested to Congress, it sent a pessimistic letter to Governor Henry of Virginia. “One of the

Gallies destined for the Expedition carries 2-18 Pounders, 2 Twelves; 2 sixes & 4 fours; the other 2 Eighteens & 14 fours they have together about 50 Men and ought to have, at least 160. Fearing the Encouragement offered by the Assembly may not have the desired Effect, we have requested Congress, if they have Men who can be turned over to this Service, to send the deficient Number. It is much our Wish that your Gallies and ours could proceed in Company to Charles Town, but unless Congress can assist in manning ours, we think there's little Chance of it.”67

On 21 January 1779 the Maryland Council noted that “The Congress having laid aside the Design of employing the Baltimore & Independence Gallies, Como Grason is therefore Ordered not to enlist any Men for a Southern Expedition in Consequence of our Former Orders and he is to give Orders accordingly to the Officers in his Department.”68

On 19 February 1779 the Maryland Council directed the treasurer to pay to Commodore Grason £344.01.10 for the payroll of the Baltimore.69 On 3 March 1779 the Maryland Council ordered Lieutenant James Boyle [here spelled Bayle] to be paid £72.08.09 due to him on account of the Baltimore.70 Grason was again paid, on 4 March, £179.15.0 for the Baltimore’s payroll.71

On 29 April 1779, Lieutenant John Crapper was ordered to receive £11.10 due him in lieu of rations. He was also directed to draw ninety-two rations from the commissary.72

On 18 May 1779 the Governor and Council, acting under the directions of the General Assembly to select two galleys of the Maryland Navy and one boat to keep in service, with the remainder to be sold, selected to retain the galleys Conqueror and Chester. The other galleys, including the Baltimore had been removed from commission and advertised for sale. “Thomas Walker having been Capt of the Baltimore Galley til she was put out of Commission as mentioned before was Discharged from the Service of the State for the Cause before recited & no other . . .,” added the Council.73

However, a sudden emergency prolonged the career of the Baltimore. The arrival of several British warships in Chesapeake Bay and a rumor of an attack on Baltimore prodded Samuel Purviance, on 17 May, to inquire of the Maryland Council whether the Baltimore and other vessels at Annapolis  might not be used to defend that port, perhaps moored as floating batteries. The council answered Purviance on 20 May. The council agreed to lend the vessels: “the Baltimore & Johnson, they are gunned, we have them ready to send up to Indian Landing with Pork and some other Articles, but if you can get a Force to use them as Batteries, Baltimore Town may have them for that Purpose. If Men can be engaged to carry up the Balto & Johnson and act in them in Case it should become necessary we will on this Occasion draw their Pay for the little Time they can be wanted, out of the Treasury & risk the Assembly's Approbation of our Conduct.”74 By 28 May the Baltimore and Independence were at Indian Landing, awaiting men from Baltimore to carry them up to that place.75 On 3 June 1779 the council heard definite news that there was no attack on Baltimore being planned and cancelled the sending of the Baltimore to Baltimore.76

On 8 June the Maryland Council ordered Richard Brogden’s account, £35.12.09, to be paid to him.77

Baltimore was sold on 28 June 1779, to Samuel Chase of Baltimore, for £6000.10.0, which included her stores and equipment.78



1 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, August 29, 1775 to July 6, 1776, 11:458

2 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, August 29, 1775 to July 6, 1776, 11:462-463

3 Archives of Maryland: Proceedings of the Conventions of the Province of Maryland, 1774-1776, 78:169

4 NDAR, “Journal of the Maryland Council of Safety,” V, 741

5 NDAR, “George Wells to Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer,” V, 884

6 NDAR, “Agreement of George wells to Build Two Galleys for the State of Maryland,” V, 1092

7 Archives of Maryland:  Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, July 7 - December 31, 1776, 12:313

8 NDAR, “George Wells to the Maryland Council of Safety,” VII, 52-53

9 NDAR, “Archibald Buchanan to the Maryland Council of Safety,” VII, 90

10 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, July 7:December 31, 1776, 12, 516

11 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, January 1-March 20, 1777, 16:6-7

12 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety, January 1-March 20, 1777, 16:3

13 NDAR, “Maryland Council of Safety to George Wells,” VII, 839-841 and 841 note

14 NDAR, “Muster Roll of the Maryland Ship of War Defence,” VII, 39-40

15 NDAR, “Stephen Steward to the Maryland Council of Safety,” VII, 109 and note; “Journal of the Maryland Council of Safety,” VII, 53 and note

16 NDAR, “Stephen Steward to the Maryland Council of Safety,” VII, 109 and note

17 NDAR, “Journal of the Maryland Council of Safety,” VII, 53 and note

18 NDAR, “Maryland Council of Safety to Samuel Chase, Baltinmore,” VII, 1146-1147 and 1147 note

19 NDAR, “Captain George Cook to Governor Thomas Johnson,” VIII, 948

20 NDAR, “Maryland Council to George Wells,” VIII, 988 and note

21 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the State Council, March 29, 1777-March 28, 1778, 16:258

22 NDAR, “Maryland Council to Captain Thomas Walker,” IX, 7 and note

23 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the State Council, March 29, 1777-March 28, 1778, 16:299

24 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the State Council, March 29, 1777-March 28, 1778, 16:323

25 NDAR, “Captain Bennett Mathews to Governor Thomas Johnson,” IX, 753-754

26 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the State Council, March 29, 1777-March 28, 1778, 16:335

27 NDAR, “Report on the Condition of Maryland Navy Row Galley Baltimore,” IX, 768

28 NDAR, “Captain George Cook to Governor Thomas Johnson,” IX, 778-779

29 NDAR, “Report on the Condition of Maryland Navy Row Galley Baltimore,” IX, 768

30 NDAR, “Captain George Cook to Governor Thomas Johnson,” IX, 778-779

31 NDAR, “Report on the Condition of Maryland Navy Row Galley Baltimore,” IX, 768

32 NDAR, “Jesse Hollingsworth to Governor Thomas Johnson,” X, 64 and notes

33 NDAR, “Maryland Council to Captain George Cook,” X, 572 and note

34 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the State Council, March 29, 1777-March 28, 1778, 16:422

35 NDAR, “Captain George Cook to Governor Thomas Johnson,” X, 736-737

36 NDAR, “State of Maryland to Peter Carvin,” X, 659. Carvin was paid on 8 December.

37 NDAR, “Captain George Cook to Governor Thomas Johnson,” X, 736-737

38 NDAR, “Maryland Council to Colonel George Dashiell,” X, 782; “Maryland Council to Colonel Joseph Dashiell,” X, 782

39 NDAR, “Maryland Council to Captain Thomas Walker,” X, 783 and note

40 NDAR, “Colonel Joseph Dashiell to Governor Thomas Johnson, Jr.,” XI, 202-203 and 203 note

41 NDAR, “Order for Payment to Captain Thomas Walker,” XI, 275

42 NDAR, “Henry Lowes to Governor Thomas Johnson, Jr., XI, 641 and notes

43 NDAR, “Henry Lowes to Governor Thomas Johnson, Jr.,” XI, 605-606 and 606 note; “Henry Lowes to Governor Thomas Johnson, Jr., XI, 641 and notes

44 NDAR, “Journal of the Maryland Council,” XI, 847

45 NDAR, “Lieutenant John Chever to Maryland Council,” XI, 10 and note

46 NDAR, “Journal of the Maryland Council,” XI, 847

47 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:4

48 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:28

49 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:36-37

50 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:39

51 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:59

52 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:77

53 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:82

54 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:90

55 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:91

56 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:91, 97

57 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:154

58 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:185

59 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:232

60 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:248

61 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:260

62 NDAR, “A List of Men belonging to the Baltimore,” XI, 8

63 NDAR, “Muster Roll of the Maryland Ship of War Defence,” VII, 39-40

64 NDAR, “A List of Men belonging to the Baltimore,” XI, 8

65 NDAR, “Armament of Maryland Navy Galleys,” XI, 9-10

66 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:263

67 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:263

68 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:281

69 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:304

70 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:312

71 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:313

72 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:370

73 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:399

74 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:407

75 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:427-428

76 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:441

77 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:446

78 Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:462


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