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Massachusetts Privateer Ship Grand Turk





Grand Turk

(1) Commander Thomas Simmons

Frigate

13 June 1781-September 1781

Massachusetts Privateer Ship

(2) Commander Joseph Pratt
27 September 1781-30 April 1783


Commissioned/First Date:

13 June 1781

Out of Service/Cause:

30 April 1783/end of hostlities


Owners:

Elias Hasket Derby et al of Salem, Massachusetts


Tonnage:

300


Battery:

Date Reported: 13 June 1781

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

28/6-pounder     168 pounds    84 pounds

Total: 28 cannon/168 pounds

Broadside: 14 cannon/84 pounds

Swivels:


Date Reported: 27 September 1781

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

24/6 pounder     144 pounds    72 pounds

Total: 24 cannon/72 pounds

Broadside: 12 cannon/72 pounds

Swivels:


Crew:

(1) 13 June 1781: 141 [total]
(2) 27 September 1781: 101 [total]


Description:

Copper bottomed.


Officers:


Cruises:

(1) Salem, Massachusetts to Salem, Massachusetts, [25] June 1781-[10] September 1781

(2) Salem, Massachusetts to Salem, Massachusetts, 17 October 1781-18 October 1781

(3) Salem, Massachusetts to Bilbao, Spain, 26 October 1781-16 December 1781

(4) Bilbao, Spain to Salem, Massachusetts, 13 March 1782-4 May 1782

(5) Salem, Massachusetts to Salem, Massachusetts, [July] 1782-[September] 1782

(6) Salem, Massachusetts to Martinique, French West Indies, November 1782-17 December 1782

(7) Martinique, French West Indies to Montserrat, French West Indies, 26 December 1782-[28] December 1782, with Continental Navy Ship Hague and Connecticut Privateer Ship Hunter

(8) Montserrat, French West Indies to Martinique, French West Indies, [30] December 1782-[20] January 1783

(9) Martinique, French West Indies to Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, French West Indies, 5 February 1783-22 February 1783

(10) Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, French West Indies to Martinique, French West Indies, [25] February 1783-[20] March 1783

(11) Martinique, French West Indies to Salem, Massachusetts, 7 April 1783-30 April 1783


Prizes:

(1) Brigantine Nonsuch, [July] 1781

(2) Brig Defiance, [July] 1781

(3) Brig Venus, [July] 1781

(4) British Privateer Brig Providence (Rains), 17 October 1781, in Boston Bay

(5) Schooner [unknown], 17 October 1781, in Boston Bay

(6) [unknown], November 1781

(7) Ship Mary (Henry Barnes), [November] 1781, off the Irish coast

(8) Brig John Grace (John Phillips), [November] 1781

(9) Schooner Industry (Thomas Bell), [April] 1782

(10) Schooner Primrose (Charles Ashwell), [April] 1782

(11) Brigantine Thomas and Betsey, [April] 1782

(12) Schooner Triton (Mowat), [April] 1782

(13) Ship Ann (John Cockburne), [August] 1782

(14) Brigantine Rambler (Edward Mason), [August] 1782

(15) Ship Maria (John Christie), [August] 1782

(16) Brigantine Brayton, [August] 1782

(17) Ship Minerva (Jochem Koler), [November] 1782

(18) [unknown], November 1782

(19) Barque “HMS” Swift, 5 December 1782

(20) [Ship] Mary, [10] December 1782

(21) Sloop Polly, [1] January 1783

(22) Snow Sally and Polly, [March] 1783

(23) Ship Echo, [March] 1783

(24) Ship Active (John Cleater), [March] 1783

(25) Ship Pompey (John Garrett), 12 March 1783


Actions:

(1) Action with 18-gun brig, [July] 1781


Comments:

Grand Turk was a purpose built privateer ship of 300 tons, designed for speed and yet still having a good cargo capacity.1 She was pierced for twenty-eight guns and was built for the firm controlled by Elias Hasket Derby. Grand Turk was wrought by Thomas Barstow at his Two Oaks yard in Hanover, Massachusetts. One of Derby’s captains, James Gibaut, was sent to Hanover to supervise the construction.2 It is of interest to note that she was largely paid for by barter, with goods (rum, butter) being exchanged for the labor and materials.3 It is also of interest to note that Grand Turk was coppered.4 She was launched in May 1781.5


Massachusetts Privateer Ship Grand Turk. From Logs of the Grand Turks

Massachusetts Privateer Ship Grand Turk was commissioned on 13 June 1781 under Commander Thomas Simmons of Salem, Massachusetts. She was listed as being armed with twenty-eight guns,6 6-pounders,7 and as having a crew of 140 men. Her $20000 bond was signed by Simmons, Elias Hasket Derby and Robert Stone, both of Salem.8 So popular was this ship that more than 100 of her crew of 120 had enlisted within three days of the recruiting notices.9 Grand Turk sailed on her first cruise about the end of June 1781.10

Among the enlistees was John Boutwell. In a later pension application Boutwell stated that the Grand Turk “sailed from Salem to the bay of St. Lawrence on this cruise we had an Engagement with a british brig of 18 guns but she escaped at the End of our 3 months tour we returned to Salem . . .”11


Elias Hasket Derby. From Logs of the Grand Turks.

While Simmons was in command the 160-ton brigantine Nonsuch was captured. She was captured only four days after she had sailed, outward bound from Quebec, Quebec with a cargo of spars, lumber and staves. Nonsuch was described as a newly coppered, well found vessel, pierced for fourteen guns. She was sent in to Salem, where she was advertised for sale on 17 September 1781, with the sale to be held on 19 September.12

Two additional prizes were captured: the British brigs Defiance and Venus. These two prizes produced a net of *1504.2.6 at sale, according to an account sheet in Derby’s papers. Half went to the crew and half to the owners.13

Grand Turk was re-commissioned on 27 September 1781 under Commander Joseph Pratt of Salem. She was listed with a reduced battery of twenty-four guns and a reduced crew of 100 men. Grand Turk's new $20000 bond was executed by Pratt, Derby and Thomas Saunders of Salem.14 Pratt was one of Derby’s most trusted captains.15


Grand Turk sailed from Salem on 17 October 1781 and immediately fell in with16 the 130-ton17 British Privateer Brig Providence18 (Rains),19 armed with fourteen 4-pounders and with a crew of sixty-five men. Providence was quickly captured and Grand Turk brought her in to Salem on 18 October.20 A schooner with salt was also captured and brought in.21 The Providence  was libeled in the Massachusetts Maritime Court of the Middle District on 3 January 1782, with her trial set for 8 January.22


Providence was advertised for sale on 25 October, with the sale to be held on 26 October. She was described as remarkably fast sailing, 100 tons, and mounted fourteen 3-pounders when taken.  The 25-ton schooner was advertised for the same sale.23


Meanwhile, Grand Turk sailed again, on 26 October,24 bound for Europe. An unknown vessel was captured about November 1781 and manned with a prize crew of fifteen men. She was dispatched to America but was recaptured by the British. Her prize crew was committed to Mill Prison on 7 December 1781. By June 1782 one had died, one had escaped and one had entered British service.25


Joseph Pratt, second commander of the Grand Turk. From Logs of the Grand Turks.

Pratt approached the southern coast of Ireland and soon was within sight of the coast, not far from Queenstown. Grand Turk fell in with the 200-ton26 ship Mary27 (Henry Barnes).28 Mary had loaded in Jamaica and sailed for Ireland without convoy.29 She was later described as a “large ship with upwards of 900 Hogsheads of Sugar some Coffee & Kampeche Wood . . .”30 Mary was easily captured,31 about nine miles from Cork.32 A prize crew was placed on board,33 and the Mary’s crew was sent ashore in her own boats.34 The Grand Turk and Mary steered for Bilbao, Spain. The small35 brig John Grace36 or John St. Grace; (John Phillips)37 with a cargo of fish,38 bound from Ireland,39 fell in with Pratt and was also captured.40

Grand Turk and her two prizes anchored in Bilbao on 16 December 1781. Pratt had a letter of introduction to Jos* Gardoqui & Sons, with whom the Derbys had done business for years. According he turned the prizes over to Gardoqui’s care and set about refitting the Grand Turk.41  The cargoes of both prizes were sold in Bilbao, netting $6580242 It does not appear that the vessels were sold there. On 28 January 1782 it was reported in the Boston papers that Grand Turk had taken six prizes in European waters.43


Grand Turk sailed from Bilbao on 13 March 1782, sailing for the West Indies.44 She captured the schooner Industry (Thomas Bell), 40 tons, en route from Antigua, British West Indies to Nova Scotia with a cargo of rum and molasses, probably in April. Industry was sent into Boston, Massachusetts. Her trial was set for 12 June 1782.45


The last prize46 captured by the Grand Turk was the 90-ton schooner Triton.47 She had sailed 17 April 1782, bound from Antigua to the Penobscot River 48 and was probably armed with four 3-pounders.49 Triton was commanded by one Mowat, a notorious Tory who had recently commanded a privateer brig out of the Penobscot River. One Salem paper noted that “ . . . the doughty Captain Mowat, who sometime since was confined in the gaol of this town, for his good behaviour, and who effected his escape by seizing on the gaoler, locking him up, and running off with the keys: The said Mowat has infested this coast, in a privateer brig, for some time, and never discovered much humanity to those who became prisoners to him . . .” By the prisoners from this vessel came the first reports of the Battle of the Saintes, but the Americans were skeptical, for it came “from the mouth of a man whose character is so imperfect as Mr. Mowat.”50 Triton was ordered in to Salem, and arrived there on 6 May 1782.51 She was promptly advertised for sale (9 May), with the auction to be held on 14 May.52


On 4 May 1782 Grand Turk returned to Salem, bringing in two prizes.53 These were probably the 40-ton schooner Primrose (Charles Ashwell),54 and the brigantine Thomas and Betsey.55 Primrose was libeled on 23 May, with her trial set for 11 June 1782.56 An account of the settlement of the sales of these prizes (Triton, Primrose, Thomas and Betsey), drawn up in June 1782, indicates the net proceeds at *3960.57


It would seem that the Mary and John Grace arrived at Salem about June or July 1782. Mary, stated to be 190 tons and a brigantine, was advertised for sale on 18 July, with the sale to take place on 24 July.58


Grand Turk sailed again from Salem, in July 1782.59 Little record of this cruise survives. In September the Grand Turk returned to Salem, bringing in two prizes, the ship Ann and the brigantine Rambler.60 Pratt returned to sea to cruise again.


Ann was advertised for sale on 2 September 1782, with the sale to be held two days later. She was said to be 240 tons, river built, and about three years old. Six 10-pounders were to be sold at the same time, presumably belonging to the Ann.61 Rambler was advertised for sale on 30 September, with the sale to be held on 3 October 1782. She was said to be 90 tons.62 Rambler (100 tons, Edward Mason) was libeled on 14 November 1782 with her trial to be held on 3 December 1782.63 The 200-ton ship Ann (John Cockburne) was libeled on 19 September 1781 in the Massachusetts Maritime Court of the Middle District. Her trial was set for 24 September.64 At the same time the following prizes were libeled: ship Mary (200 tons, Henry Barnes); ship Maria (180 tons; John Christie); and brigantine John St. Grace (John Phillips). Mary and John Grace were the two prizes taken and carried into Cadiz. They were seemingly sent back to Salem for condemnation.


Ship Grand Turk, from a painting by Robert S. Peabody, from the punch bowl design made at Canton, China in 1786. In the Peabody Museum, Salem. Compare to the punch bowl below.


It might have been about this time that Grand Turk captured the British brigantine Brayton. She was ordered in to Salem, but was re-captured five days later by the British.65


Grand Turk was in port at Salem in October 1782, preparing to sail. Pratt had enlisted some British prisoners among the members of his crew. A cartel from Halifax, Nova Scotia arrived, bringing American prisoners for exchange. Since there were insufficient British prisoners to effect the exchange, some of the Americans petitioned the Massachusetts government to delay the sailing of the Grand Turk and remove the British prisoners from her. On 2 November 1782 the governor directed the Grand Turk not to be cleared to sail and ordered Pratt to answer the complaint against him.66


John Boutwell rejoined the Grand Turk for this cruise. He later said “That in the fall of 82 I think he again Entered on board of the Grand Turk then Commanded by Capt. Pratt for a cruise off the West India Islands took several prizes & carried them in to Martinica, that is some of them and a part in to Salem the Particulars of this Cruise he cannot particularly state for that whilst on this Cruise he was taken sick & in this situation he returned home in to the port of Salem was out on this cruise he thinks 6 Months.”67


Pratt got to sea and proceeded to Martinique, French West Indies. On this cruise Grand Turk captured the 250-ton ship Minerva (Jochem Koler) in November,68 only a few days after sailing from Salem. She was manned and sent into Salem.69 Minerva was libeled in the Massachusetts Court of the Middle District on 23 December 1782, with trial set for 7 January 1783.70


On 29 November a prize arrived at Salem, sent in by the Grand Turk, She was bound from Cura*ao, Netherlands West Indies, with a cargo of cotton, indigo, and 55000 dollars in specie. She had been captured by a British privateer out of Bermuda, and then recaptured by the Grand Turk.71


According to Aaron Grigsby, a sailor aboard the Grand Turk, she captured a “barque HMS Swift” about 5 December 1782. Grigsby was part of the prize crew sent aboard. Pratt ordered the prize into Martinique. The Swift was re-captured by HMS Dolphin (50 guns, 240 men) on 8 December. Grigsby became a prisoner at Barbados on 30 January 1783.72


Grand Turk arrived at St. Pierre, Martinique on 17 December 1782, bringing in the prize Mary, which she had captured a few days before her arrival. Mary was bound from England to Jamaica with a cargo of dry goods and provisions. She was turned over to Brenton, Shattuck and Jarvis, a firm at Martinique, and sold for 102335 livres.73


The day after Christmas, Pratt sailed from St. Pierre with Continental Navy Ship Hague (Captain John Manley) and Connecticut Privateer Ship Hunter (Commander Timothy Sage).74 Soon after sailing six sail were seen coming out of Dominica. Pratt climbed to the topgallant mast with his telescope. After examining the ships he determined they were a fleet of British frigates75 and four ships-of-the-line.76 The British sighted the Americans about the same time and put about in chase. The Americans split up and ran. By dark the British were out of sight, but Grand Turk’s fore topgallant mast was sprung, so Pratt steered in to Montserrat for a short repair.77 Hunter had to throw her guns overboard to escape.78


After a few days she sailed again. The little sloop Polly, out of Barbados, was encountered and captured. She had a small cargo of West India goods and nine slaves aboard. Polly was manned and sent into St. Pierre, where the sloop, cargo, and slaves were sold for 21019 livres.79


About the end of January 1783 Grand Turk returned to St. Pierre, to replenish. On 5 February 1783 she sailed again, cruising in the Windward Islands. On 22 February she put into Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, for a brief stay, and soon returned to her cruise.80


Early in March 1783 the British snow Sally and Polly, and the British ships Echo and Active were captured. Active was sent to Salem with a prize crew aboard. The other two were sent into St. Pierre. Sally and Polly was sold for 10740 livres and Echo for 16334 livres.81


As for Active, she safely arrived at Salem. The “elegant European-built, copper-sheathed”82 10083 or 200-ton ship Active (John Cleater)84 was advertised for sale on 8 April in Salem. Her cargo of candles, butter, beef, pork, dry goods, and numerous other items, including 500-700 pounds of gunpowder, was to be sold at the same time.85 Active was libeled on 23 April, with her trial set for 13 May 1783.86


Grand Turk was still at sea in the West Indies, off St. Christopher’s.87 On 12 March 1783 she encountered the large88 two deck89 25090 or 400-ton ship Pompey91 (John Garrett),92 bound from London, England.93 Pompey had sailed from England on 11 February 1783.94 She was newly built, only ten months old, had a coppered bottom95 and was armed with twenty-two 9-pounders and had a crew of seventy men aboard.96 Pompey had a cargo of dry goods,97 gunpowder, bread, peas, vinegar, lead and medicines aboard.98 Despite her size and guns Pompey surrendered without firing a shot. The prize arrived at Salem on 199 or 2 April 1783.100 She was advertised for sale on 17 April, with the sale to be held on 22 April.101 Pompey was libeled on 24 April and tried on 13 May 1782.102


The Canton punch bowl with a painting of the Grand Turk in 1786. From the National Maritime Museum of the United Kingdom. The bowl is decorated with a ship portrait and the words 'Ship Grand Turk at Canton, 1786.’ Referring to it as 'a true portrait of the ship Grand Turk’ In fact, years later it was determined that the ship depicted is actually the British West Indiaman Hall and that the image was copied from Hutchinson’s Naval Architecture, first published in London in 1777. http://www.jmr.nmm.ac.uk/server/show/conMediaFile.6163


The reason for Pompey’s easy surrender was given by her captain. When he sailed from London the preliminary peace treaty between Great Britain and the United States had been signed. He was sure, therefore, that hostilities how now ceased. Pratt was skeptical, and correctly so, for the war was still going on, although it was nearly over. Pompey’s crew was sent ashore in her boats to St. Christopher’s and the prize, as has been seen, sent into Salem.103


Grand Turk returned to St. Pierre, possibly to check on the news of peace being at hand. Pratt settled his accounts there.104 Grand Turk sailed for home on 10 April 1783, from Martinique. At 36°66'N she met the brig Jenny (Lakeman), out seventeen days from St. Kitts, and owned in Ipswich, England. Jenny had sprung a leak in a gale, lost her rudder, and was greatly damaged. Her fifteen man crew were rescued by the Grand Turk and carried into Salem. Grand Turk arrived at her home port on 30 April.105


Salem Harbor scene, 1790. Derby Wharf is on the left. The scene would have been very much the same in 1783, at Grand Turk’s homecoming. From Logs of the Grand Turks.


Although this was the end of the Grand Turk as a privateer, she had a notable post-war career in the China trade.



1 Peabody, Robert E., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217

2 Peabody, Robert E. The Logs of the Grand Turks, Houghton Mifflin: Boston and New York, 1926, 12

3 Eastman, Ralph M., Some Famous Privateers of New England, Salem: Kessinger Publishing, 2004, 38,

4 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Boston Gazette of 22 October 1781

5 Peabody, Logs, 12

6 NRAR, 320; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158

7 Felt, Joseph B. The Annals of Salem, From Its First Settlement, Salem: W. & S.B. Ives, 1827, 569

8 NRAR, 320; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158

9 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217

10 Peabody, Logs, 14

11 Pension application of John Boutwell at http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nycattar/pioneer/boutwell.htm. Accessed 8/29/08.

12 The Independent Ledger, and the American Advertiser [Boston], Monday, September 17, 1781

13 Peabody, Logs, 14

14 NRAR, 321; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159

15 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217

16 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Boston Gazette of 22 October 1781

17 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, January 3, 1782

18 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Boston Gazette of 22 October 1781

19 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, January 3, 1782

20 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Boston Gazette of 22 October 1781

21 The Massachusetts Spy: Or, American Oracle of Liberty [Worcester], Thursday, October 25, 1781, datelined Boston, October 20

22 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, January 3, 1782

23 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, October 25, 1781

24 Peabody, Logs, 14

25 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, June 22, 1782

26 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, September 19, 1782

27 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217; Peabody, Logs, 14-15

28 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, September 19, 1782

29 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217; Peabody, Logs, 14-15

30 Peabody, Logs, 17, quoting from Gardoqui to Derby, letter

31 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217; Peabody, Logs, 14-15

32 Peabody, Logs, 17, quoting from Gardoqui to Derby, letter

33 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217; Peabody, Logs, 14-15

34 Eastman, Ralph M., Some Famous Privateers of New England, Salem: Kessinger Publishing, 2004, 38; Peabody, Logs, 15

35 Peabody, Logs, 17, quoting from Gardoqui to Derby, letter

36 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217; Peabody, Logs, 15 (John & Grace).

37 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, September 19, 1782

38 The Boston Gazette, and The Country Journal, Monday, January 28, 1782; Peabody, Logs, 15

39 Peabody, Logs, 17, quoting from Gardoqui to Derby, letter

40 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217

41 Peabody, Logs, 16, and from the letter of Gardoqui to Derby quoted in the text

42 Peabody, Robert R., “Derbys of Salem,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections, Essex Institute: Boston, 1908, v. 44, 217. Peabody, Logs, 18, says 820276 reales, or $41000, of which half was given to the crew and half credited to Derby’s account, less expenses.

43 The Boston Gazette, and The Country Journal, Monday, January 28, 1782

44 Peabody, Logs, 19

45 Faibisy, A Compilation of Nova Scotia Vessels . . ., in NDAR, X, 1201-1210

46 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, May 30, 1782, datelined Salem, May 9

47 The Salem Gazette, Thursday, May 9, 1782

48 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, May 30, 1782, datelined Salem, May 9

49 The Salem Gazette, Thursday, May 9, 1782

50 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, May 22, 1782, datelined Boston, April 29

51 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, May 30, 1782, datelined Salem, May 9

52 The Salem Gazette, Thursday, May 9, 1782

53 The Norwich Packet and the Weekly Advertiser, Thursday, May 9, 1782, datelined Boston, May 6

54 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, May 23, 1782

55 Peabody, Logs, 19

56 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, May 23, 1782

57 Peabody, Logs, 19

58 The Salem Gazette, Thursday, July 18, 1782

59 Peabody, Logs, 24

60 Peabody, Logs, 24

61 The Independent Ledger and the American Advertiser [Boston, Monday, September 2, 1782

62 The Independent Ledger and the American Advertiser [Boston], Monday, September 30, 1782

63 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, November 14, 1782

64 The Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, September 19, 1782

65 Granville Hough Ship Listing “B”

66 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 57-58, 158-159;  Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary War: A Compilation from the Archives By Massachusetts, Boston: Wright & Potter, 1902, 83.

67 Pension application of John Boutwell at http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nycattar/pioneer/boutwell.htm. Accessed 8/29/08.

68 The Boston Gazette and the Country Journal, Monday, December 23, 1782; repeated December 30, 1782

69 Peabody, Logs, 24

70 The Boston Gazette and the Country Journal, Monday, December 23, 1782; repeated December 30, 1782

71 The Freeman’s Journal: or, The North-American Intelligencer [Philadelphia], Wednesday, December 18, 1782

72 Pension application of Aaron Grigsby at http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mdtscdar/patriotbios.htm. Accessed 8/29/08

73 Peabody, Log, 25

74 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, January 30, 1783

75 Peabody, Logs, 26-27

76 The Continental Journal [Boston], Thursday, March 20, 1783, datelined Basseterre, January 25

77 Peabody, Logs, 26-27

78 The Continental Journal [Boston], Thursday, March 20, 1783, datelined Basseterre, January 25

79 Peabody, Logs, 27

80 Peabody, 28

81 Peabody, Logs, 28

82 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 3, 1783

83 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 24, 1783

84 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 3, 1783

85 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 3, 1783

86 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 24, 1783

87 Peabody, Logs, 29

88 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Salem Gazette of 3 April 1783

89 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 17, 1783

90 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 24, 1783

91 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 17, 1783;  Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Salem Gazette of 3 April 1783

92 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 24, 1783

93 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 3, 1783

94 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Salem Gazette of 3 April 1783

95 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 17, 1783

96 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Salem Gazette of 3 April 1783

97 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 3, 1783

98 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 17, 1783

99 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 158-159, from the Salem Gazette of 3 April 1783

100 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 3, 1783

101 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 17, 1783

102 The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], Thursday, April 24, 1783

103 Peabody, Logs, 29-30

104 Peabody, Logs, 31

105 The Boston Gazette and the Country Journal, Monday, May 5, 1783, datelined Salem, May 1


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