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Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Fair American




Fair American

(1) Commander Stephen Decatur

Sloop-of-War [Brig/Sloop]

20 April 1780-

Pennsylvania Privateer Brig

(2) Commander Joseph Jakways
9 December 1780-
(3) Commander Phineas Eldridge
22 May 1781-2 January 1782


Commissioned/First Date:

20 April 1780

Out of Service/Cause:

2 January 1782/captured by HM Frigate Garland


Owners:

(1) Blair McClenachan and Charles Miller & Co., of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; (2) [Charles Miller & Co.] of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Tonnage:

150, 180


Battery:

Date Reported: 20 April 1780

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

16/

Total: 16 cannon/

Broadside: 8 cannon/

Swivels:


Date Reported: 16 October 1780

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

16/

Total: 16 cannon/

Broadside: 8 cannon/

Swivels:


Date Reported: 9 December 1780

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

16/

Total: 16 cannon/

Broadside: 8 cannon/

Swivels:


Date Reported: 22 May 1781

Number/Caliber  Weight        Broadside

16/

Total: 16 cannon/

Broadside: 8 cannon/

Swivels:


Crew:

(1) 20 April 1780: 131 [total]
(2) 16 October 1780: 130 [total]
(3) 9 December 1780: 102 [total]
(4) 22 May 1781: 112 [total]


Description:

[modern reconstruction, based on the model at the United States Naval Academy]: 68′ length on the deck, 55′5′′ length on the keel, 24′ beam, 9′ depth in the hold


Officers:

(1) First Mate Phineas Eldridge, 9 December 1780-22 May 1781; (2) First Mate Uriah Swaine, 22 May 1781-


Cruises:

(1) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [25] April 1780-24 June 1780

(2) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [27] July 1780-[5] September 1780, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Holker

(3) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [25] September 1780-[7] November 1780

(4) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Cap Cap François, Saint-Domingue,[15] December 1780-22 January 1781

(5) Cap François, Saint-Domingue to Cap François, Saint-Domingue, 1 February 1781-16 February 1781, with Continental Navy Ship Confederacy, Continental Navy Sloop Saratoga, and HMCM Brig Cat

(6) Cap François, Saint-Domingue to Cap François, Saint-Domingue, 20 February 1781-28 February 1781, with Continental Navy Ships Confederacy and Deane, Continental Navy Sloop Saratoga, and HMCM Brig Cat

(7) Cap François, Saint-Domingue to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 15 March 1781-21 April 1781, as part of convoy escort

(8) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [25] May 1781-[28] June 1781

(9) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [15] July 1781-15 October 1781

(10) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to sea, [25] December 1781-2 January 1782


Prizes:

(1) Sloop Swallow (Stephen Snell), [April] 1780, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Argo and Massachusetts Privateer Ship Jack

(2) British Privateer Brig Arbuthnot (James Downey), [April] 1780, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Argo

(3) Sloop [unknown], [April] 1780, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Argo

(4) British Privateer Brig Elphinston (Thomas Kennedy), [April] 1780, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Argo

(5) Brig Nymph (David Hunter), [May] 1780, with Massachusetts Privateer Ship Jack

(6) British Privateer Boat Lewistown Revenge (Hall), 28 May 1780, off Cape May, New Jersey

(7) Schooner [unknown], 28 May 1780, off Cape May, New Jersey

(8) Brigantine Sally (Alexander Foster), [May] 1780

(9) Ship Eleanora (George Ponsonby), [June] 1780

(10) Brig Three Sisters (Thomas Redshaw), [June] 1780

(11) Schooner Secretary, [June] 1780

(12) Brig Gloucester (William Stokes), 2 August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker

(13) HM Packet Ship Mercury (Captain Joseph Dillon), 7 August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brigs Holker and Enterprize

(14) Schooner Nancy (Alexander Morrison), 8 August 1780, southeast of Sandy Hook, New Jersey, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brigs Holker and Enterprize

(15) Schooner Arbuthnot (Roger Pye), 9 August 1780, southeast of Sandy Hook, New Jersey, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brigs Holker and Enterprize

(16) Schooner Poplar, [14] August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker

(17) Schooner Gage, 17 August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker and Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene

(18) Schooner Lewis, 17 August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker and Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene

(19) Sloop [unknown], 17 August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker and Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene

(20) British Privateer Ship Queen Charlotte (Ridley), 17 August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker and Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene

(21) Ship Lady Margaret (Alexander Hugh), [28] August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker and Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene

(22) Brig [unknown], [28] August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker and Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene

(23) Sloop Dispatch [Delight] (James Phillips), [30] August 1780, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker and Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene

(24) Brigantine Fame (Moses Griffin), [1] October 1780, off the Delaware Capes

(25) Brig Rodney (Wignall), 7 October 1780, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Holker

(26) Brig Rodney (William Ribbons), 8 October 1780, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Holker

(27) Brig Richard (William Robison), 14 October 1780, off Charlestown, South Carolina, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Holker

(28) Ship Richmond (George Jameson), 16 October 1780, off Charlestown, South Carolina, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Holker

(29) British Privateer Schooner Restoration (Thomas Burnham), 3 November 1780, in Delaware Bay

(30) Brigantine Fanny, [5] January 1781, off the Carolina coast

(31) Brig [unknown], [5] January 1781, off the Carolina coast

(32) British Privateer Brig [unknown], [8] February 1781, in the West Indies

(33) British Privateer Brig [unknown], [12] February 1781, in the West Indies

(34) British Privateer Ship Diamond (Hudson), [25] February 1781, with Continental Navy Ships Confederacy and Deane, Continental Navy Sloop Saratoga, and HMCM Brig Cat

(35) Sloop Northampton (Moses Ventris), [March] 1781

(36) Brig Allday (Timothy Steward), 5 June 1781, off the Delaware Capes, with Connecticut Privateer Schooner Raven

(37) British Privateer Brig Porcupine (Irwin), [25] June 1781

(38) Snow St. Joseph and Joachim, 18 July 1781, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker

(39) Sloop Phoenix (Abbutt), 9 September 1781, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, with Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker

(40) Brig Rambler, [25] September 1781

(41) Sloop Polly (John Hall), [5] October 1781

(42) Brig King George (James Hogg), [10] October 1781, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey

(43) Brig Nancy (Quinten), [10] October 1781, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey

(44) Brig York (Charles Grant), [10] October 1781, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey

(45) Brig Ann (Thomas Montgomery), [10] October 1781, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey


Actions:

(1) Action with HM Packet Ship Mercury, 7 August 1780
(2) Action with the ship Richard, 15/16 October 1780


Comments:


Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Fair American was commissioned on 20 April 1780 under Commander Stephen Decatur of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was listed as having a battery of sixteen guns and a crew of 130 men. Fair American's $10000 bond was signed by Decatur and by Charles Miller of Philadelphia.1 In the application for her commission Fair American was said to have had fifteen guns and to measure 150 tons. Her owners were given as “Blair McClenachan Charles Miller & Co.”2


Fair American seems to have gone to sea soon after her commission was issued. She met and sailed with the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Jack (Commander Nathan Brown) and the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Argo (Commander John Ridge). They met and captured the sloop Swallow (Stephen Snell). She was sent into a port in New Jersey and was libeled there on 11 May 1780, with her trial set for 8 June 1780.3


 

Lithograph of Stephen Decatur, Sr., at a later period in his life.

 

 

 

The 14-gun4 British Privateer Brig Arbuthnot (James Downey) was captured about this time by the Fair American and the Argo. She was sailing out of New York. Arbuthnot was sent into Philadelphia,5 where she arrived on 8 May,6 and was libeled on  11 May, with her trial set for 5 June 1780.7 A sloop outbound from New York was captured about the same time.8


Another prize, the 100-ton9 British Privateer Brig Elphinston10 (Thomas Kennedy11 [or Lawrence])12  was captured by the Fair American and Argo. Elphinston was armed with twelve 6-pounders and was bound from New York, New York, to St. Christopher’s, British West Indies. She had arrived in South Carolina on 16 April 1780.13 Elphinston was sent into Philadelphia,14 where she also arrived on 8 May,15 and was libeled on 11 May, with trial set for 5 June.16


Fair American continued her cruise with the Argo parting company and the Jack rejoining. These two captured the 40-ton brig Nymph (David Hunter), outward bound from New York.17 She was formerly the privateer Neptune of Philadelphia. With the Nymph in company Fair American stood down toward Cape May, New Jersey, to discharge her prisoners, and was off the cape on 28 May.18


A letter from the brig reported on what happened next: “Yesterday morning [28 May] in standing in here . . . about 6 o’clock A.M. we perceived two small sails standing in for Sandy Hook, which we gave chase ro and came up with very fast, at 8 o’clock the smallest sail bore away, and we stood after a small river schooner which we took, she proved to be a prize loaded with Indian corn, taken by a whale boat of 34 feet long, open decked, called the Lewistown Revenge, commanded by — Hall, mounting one blunderbuss in her bow, one swivel in her head, and fifteen muskets, with 13 men; we then gave her chace, and took her about 10 o’clock: He has a proper commission and has been on our coast since the 13th of March, during which time he has taken 28 prizes; loaded with different produce for the Philadelphia market, and is the boat that has so much annoyed the trade of our bay and river this spring. We send her up with the Captain and people; and her prize this tide.”19


A modern reconstruction of the lines of the Fair American, based on the contemporary model in the United States Naval Academy Museum at Annapolis, Maryland. It is unclear which Fair American is represented by the model, but there seem to be only two real candidates: the Pennsylvania privateer and the South Carolina privateer. This reconstruction is by Millar, from American Ships of the Colonial and Revolutionary Periods. Mr. Millar thinks that this is the Pennsylvania brig in this book. In a later book he thinks that the model is of the South Carolina brig.

 

Nymph was also sent up to Philadelphia, where she was libeled on 1 June 1780, with her trial set for 22 June.20


Fair American next captured the 140-ton brigantine Sally (Alexander Foster), which was sent into Philadelphia. She was libeled on 11 June, with her trial set for 22 June. Sally was bound to New York from London.21


 
 

Hull form of the Fair American as reconstructed by Millar.

Fair American returned from this cruise on 24 June. She brought in the ship Eleanora (Ponsonby), the brig Three Sisters (Redshaw) and the schooner Secretary. The latter was a recapture having been captured previously by refugee boats. The other two were bound from South Carolina to New York.22  The 300-ton brig Three Sisters (Thomas Redshaw)was libeled on 26 June, with her trial set for 10 July 1780. She was bound from South Carolina to New York.23 The 200-ton Eleanora (George Ponsonby) was libeled on 27 June, with her trial also set for 10 July.24


Fair American sailed about the end of July 1780, accompanied by another privateer brig owned by McClenachan, the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker (Commander Roger Keane). The pair steered for the concentration of enemy shipping around the approaches to New York, New York.25


The two privateers were soon off Sandy Hook. On 2 August they intercepted and captured26 the 100-ton27 brig Gloucester28 (William Stokes),29 bound from the Madeira Isles to New York with a cargo of wine. The Americans escorted their prize to the Delaware Capes and sent her off up the river to Philadelphia. The prisoners were landed at Cape May.30 The prize arrived in Philadelphia about 10 August.31 The Pennsylvania Admiralty Court had the Gloucester and cargo appraised at *1,596,954 (assuredly Pennsylvania money). Of that sum, the vessel itself was valued at only *75,000.32 Gloucester was libeled on 12 August, with her trial set for 26 August.33


After sending off the Gloucester, Fair American and Holker were joined by the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Enterprize (Commander Peter Day). The three captains agreed to sail together.34


A few days later, on 7 August,35 the three privateers encountered HM Packet Ship Mercury (Captain Joseph Dillon).36 Dillon had sailed about 22 June 1780 from Falmouth, England, with the June mail aboard.37 Dillon put up a hard fight and was finally captured only when the Americans boarded the packet. Dillon managed to sink his dispatches. Aboard the Mercury was a small cargo of cheese, porter and dry goods, along with eleven passengers.38 The passengers were “ . . . Capt. Campbell of the 44th regiment, Capt. Mure of the 82d, Capt. Lyman of the Prince of Walesregiment, Capt. Murray of Wentworthdragoons, Capt. Wallop of Knyphausenregiment, and Capt. Landen of a letter of marque, with Mrs. Griffiths and Mrs. Anderson, and three servants.”39 Holker manned the prize and sent her off to Philadelphia.40 Mercury arrived at Philadelphia on 15 August.41 The Pennsylvania Admiralty Court valued the prize at *451,535.12.7.42


On 8 August 1780 the three privateers captured the schooner Nancy (Alexander Morrison), away to the southeast of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Nancy had a cargo of tobacco aboard. On 3 August she had been captured in Chesapeake Bay by the British Privateer Restoration, while going up the bay to Head-of-Elk, Maryland. The British sent her off to New York, where she ran into the patrolling American privateers. Holker manned the prize and sent her off to Philadelphia. Nancy was libeled on 17 August, with her trial set for 11 September 1780.43


The next day another prize fell into the privateer’s net: the schooner Arbuthnot44 (Roger Pye),45 bound to New York from St. Christophers, British West Indies, with a cargo of rum.46 Arbuthnot had sailed about 3 August.47 She was manned from the Fair American and also dispatched to Philadelphia.48 Arbuthnot arrived in Philadelphia on 22 August.49 Arbuthnot arrived in Philadelphia on 22 August,50 was libeled on 23 August, and her trial was set for 11 September 1780.51


A cutter was sighted on 10 August and chased.52 The cutter was bound for England from New York and was owned by one Major Cochrane, who was traveling in her. After a time she hove to, and one of the privateers sent over a boat and crew to take possession of the cutter. The crew got aboard, but Cochrane managed to get away, taking the boat and crew with him.53 In the evening Enterprize parted company from Holker and Fair American.54


The captains of the privateers evidently removed some items from one or more of the prizes made by the three together, for charges of embezzlement were later lodged against them by Matthew Clarkson in the Pennsylvania Admiralty Court, Clarkson being the marshal of the court. On 25 September 1780, the grand jury returned a verdict of “ignoramus,” failing to convict.55


About 13 or 14 August the two privateers met and captured the schooner Poplar. She was an American vessel captured by the British Privateer Fox (or Cox) in Chesapeake Bay, and had a cargo of tobacco aboard. Poplar was manned from the Fair American. She was eventually dispatched to Philadelphia, but may have been kept with the privateers for a time,56 for she only got to Philadelphia on 22 August.57 She was libeled on 23 August with her trial set for 11 September 1780.58 On 15 August, south of Sandy Hook, the Holker and Fair American were joined by the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene (Commander Samuel Hollinshead).59


A very busy day began about 17 August. Two schooners, the Gage and the Lewis, and an un-named sloop were captured by the three privateers. All three had cargoes of tobacco aboard and had been captured by Loyalist refugee boats in Chesapeake Bay, and then ordered into New York. As the privateers were removing the British prize crews another sail was seen coming up on the horizon.60


The stranger was the 18-gun61 British Privateer62 Ship Queen Charlotte63 (or Queen; Ridley),64 bound to New York from New Providence, Bahama Islands, with a cargo of turtle, fruit65 and sugar.66 The three privateers ran down to her and Ridley surrendered.67 All four British masters were put on the un-named sloop and American prize crews put on all four vessels. All were sent off for Philadelphia, but only three made it. The sloop with the British masters did not. As she was sailing up the Delaware River the British rose and seized her and then sailed her to New York.68 The sloop got into New York on 24 August.69


The Queen Charlotte arrived at Philadelphia on 23 August, and the two schooners arrived on 27 August.70


The three privateers were still operating off Sandy Hook at the end of August, when they captured the 220-ton ship Lady Margaret71 (Alexander Hugh,72 Houie),73  bound to New York from Glasgow, Scotland with a cargo of beef, flour,74  dry goods, cordage,75 and a few passengers. Lady Margaret had sailed from Glasgow about 1 June 1780. Two hours later they also took a brig bound from Antigua, British West Indies for New York. The brig was sent off to Philadelphia, but the Lady Margaret was kept with the three privateers. As the brig approached the Delaware Capes she was recaptured by HM Sloop Savage. (Graves)76  The three Americans steered for the Delaware bringing along the Lady Margaret. One more prize remained to to be captured: the 90-ton sloop Dispatch77 (or Delight; James Phillips),78 with a cargo of rum, bound from Jamaica to New York, was captured off the New Jersey coast.79 Aboard the sloop as a passenger was a Royal Navy lieutenant, Abraham Hayward of HM Frigate Guadeloupe.80 She was added to the convoy.81 The prisoners arrived at Philadelphia on 1 September 1780.82


On 31 August the Fair American, General Greene, and Holker entered Delaware Bay and stood up the river, intending to replenish water, provisions and stores, and pick up prize crews. In the vicinity of Reedy Island they met, perhaps, the most fearsome enemy of the cruise. Continental Navy Ships Trumbull (Captain James Nicholson) and Deane (Captain Samuel Nicholson) were in the river, preparing to sail. They just needed more men. The Continentals stopped the three privateers, sent boats to them, and began to impress sailors. Despite the vehement protests of Decatur and Keene, nineteen or twenty men were taken from the Holker and twenty-one from the Fair American. Hollinshead was equally vociferous and equally stripped of sailors.83


A messenger was dispatched to Philadelphia from the crippled privateers. Charles Miller prepared a petition and immediately presented it to Congress, on 2 September 1780. In his petition Miller said:


“That the said Privateer fair American having fitted out here on three Months Cruize Against the enemies of the United States from the 25th July last, that said privateer having within the said time been very fortunate in taking Prizes which she was obliged to man in order to send them into Port, and by which reason the said Privateer became at last so scarce of hands as to Oblige her to return up the River in Order to take her Men, Provisions &c again on board.


“That before said Privateer could get her men & Provisions on board the frigates Trumbull & Deane sent their Boats along side and took out Twenty one Men which if said men cannot be got again it will break up the Cruize to the great detriment of the Owners, your Petitioners therefore pray that an Order may be Issued for the delivery of said men, that the said Privateer may be enabled to pursue her Cruize . . . That said frigates have likewise been on board the Privateer Brig Holker which is exactly under the same circumstances with the Fair American and took nineteen or twenty out of her, she being likewise detained for want of said men, and pray that an Order may be Issued for the delivery of said men.”84


Congress referred the petition to the Board of Admiralty with instructions to take action on it. The Board of Admiralty accordingly ordered Nicholson to release the men on the same day, turning them over to officers of the two privateers.85 The Board of Admiralty advised Miller of this action in a letter dated the same day, and enclosed the letter to Nicholson with. Miller was to deliver the orders himself, or to the officers of the privateers, who would deliver it.86 It was pretty clear that the Board of Admiralty hoped its two frigates would be long gone before Nicholson received its orders to release the men.


Meanwhile the Lady Margaret continued on to Philadelphia, where she arrived on 3 September 1780.87 By 14 February 1781 she had been sold and the public was informed that the Admiralty court was ready to distribute the proceeds.88


The possibility of actual prize money from this cruise produced this interesting advertisement: “Philadelphia, Sept. 21, 1780. THESE are to forewarn all persons not to contract or take any power for receiving any prize money that are or shall be due, unto a certain DENNIS BERRY, who has been on board the brig Fair American  this last cruize, as the said Dennis Berry is an indented servant. HENRY HAINS.”89


Fair American sailed again about the third week of September 1780. Holker followed about a week later, with orders from the owners to join Fair American and cruise between New York and Charlestown, South Carolina.90


Fair American did not await Holker to begin her operations. The 90-ton brigantine Fame (Moses Griffin) had been captured by the British and ordered in to New York. She was re-captured by Decatur and sent up to Philadelphia. Fame was libeled on 6 October 1780, with her trial set for 12 October.91


When Holker joined the Fair American the two privateers set out south, sailing down the coast in the direction of South Carolina. On 7 October92 they happened upon the brig Rodney (Wignall),93 bound from Liverpool, England to Charlestown, South Carolina with a cargo of dry goods and hardware.94 Rodney got into a New Jersey port, probably Gloucester, where she was libeled on 10 November 1780, with her trial set for 19 December 1780.95


The next day, 8 October,96 the privateers captured another brig Rodney97 (William Ribbons),98 bound from Plymouth, England to Charlestown with a cargo of brandy, wine and cordage aboard.99 The second Rodney was dispatched to the Delaware and also got into Gloucester. She was libeled on 10 November 1780, with her trial set for 19 December 1780.100


On 14 October101 the brig Richard (William Robison)102 was captured, near Charlestown. She was bound to Charlestown from Glasgow, Scotland with a cargo of provisions. Richard was sent off to the Delaware.103 She got into New Jersey and was libeled on 19 November 1780, with her trial set for 19 December 1780.104


The day after the capture of the Richard, 15 October,105 the American privateers were off Charleston Bar. There they sighted the ship Richmond (George Jameson), near the bar. Richmond was from Greenock, Scotland, and probably bound to Charlestown. Richmond was armed with two 9-pounders and eight 6-pounders, with six cohorns, and had a crew of thirty-four men aboard. Her captain was armed with a determination not to be captured. What followed is described by the Scots captain: “A smart Engagement ensued, and the Richmond beat them off with the Loss of one Man killed and three wounded. They attacked her again the next Morning, and after a close Action of an Hour and twenty Minutes, were obliged t o sheer off, after having received very material Damage. The same day, at half past 11 o’clock, the Rebels made a third attack, and after a severe Engagement of Three Quarters of an Hour, obliged the Richmond to strike.”106 Keane said that she struck after a brief action and that he had one man killed and one wounded.107


Fair American and Holker put a prize crew aboard the Richmond and sent her north. Eight of the British sailors had been left aboard, including some who were wounded.108 These managed to conspire with part of the American prize crew, led by one Thomas Wilkinson, to seize the vessel.109 The British sailors managed to seize the arms chest and rose on the prize crew, recapturing the ship and making prisoners of “such of the American crew as would not join them.”110 Richmond got into Charlestown on 31 October.111


About six months later, two of the Americans who had joined with the British, Wilkinson and Nicholas Coleman, rather brazenly returned to Philadelphia. They were arrested and, in the Admiralty Court on 23 April 1781,  “tried for piracy, in joining with others of the crew in a revolt, subduing the prize masters, and carrying the prize ship called the Richmond, into Charlestown, after having been put on board her as a mariner, to navigate into an American port. He was convicted, and sentenced to be hanged.” Coleman was acquitted.112


Meanwhile Decatur and Keane headed for home. They became separated in a gale on 17 October.113 Holker got in to Philadelphia near the end of October 1780, with some damage.114 Fair American arrived in Delaware Bay about 2 November 1780. The next day, while going up river he encountered a “refugee pickarooning boat from New-York, which had advanced nearly as high as New-Castle, had done much mischief to the small craft in our bay, and did not submit until fired upon by the Fair American, by which one man (prisoner on board the boat) was unfortunately killed, and two or three of the plundering crew were wounded.”115


This boat was probably the 30-ton schooner Restoration (Thomas Burnham). She was sent up to Philadelphia, where she was libeled on 9 November 1780, with her trial set for 15 November.116 She was advertised for sale on 18 November, with the sale to be held on 24 November.117


Fair American was re-commissioned on 9 December 1780 under Commander Joseph Jakways [Jackways; Jakuays] of Philadelphia. Phineas Eldridge of Philadelphia served aboard as First Mate. While Fair American’s battery remained the same, her crew was decreased to 100 men. Her new $20000 bond was signed by Jakways and Miller.118


Jakways and the Fair American were soon out at sea, sailing for the West Indies. About the early part of January 1781 he captured the brigantine Fanny,120 bound from New York to Charlestown121 with a cargo of salt, sugar, wine, pickles, oil  and dry goods.122 She was captured off the Carolina coast.123  Fanny was sent in to Philadelphia,124 where she arrived on 15 January.125 Her cargo was advertised for sale on 29 January, with the brig to be sold the next day.126


A second brig was captured about the same time and place. The cargo of the second brig was fish, so Jakways kept her with the Fair American. Fair American arrived at Cap François, Saint-Domingue on 22 January 1781, at 1100 bringing in her prize with her. The Continental Navy Ship Confederacy (Captain Seth Harding), was then in port. The day after she arrived at Cap François a detachment from the Confederacy boarded the Fair American, examined the crew, and removed a deserter.127


At the request of the Governor of Saint-Domingue, the Confederacy, the Continental Navy Sloop Saratoga (Captain John Young), the Fair American and HMCM Brig Cat sailed on a cruise on 1 February 1781. The squadron escorted some American vessels to sea. Saratoga and Fair American parted after a few days. On 9 and 10 February Confederacy chased, and was chased by, two brigs, which eventually proved to be the Fair American and a prize she had captured. The prize was a brig of fourteen guns and seventy men out of Nassau, New Providence, in the Bahamas.128 A few days later the Fair American took another brig of sixteen guns, from the same place.129 The squadron returned to Cap François on 16 February.130


Perhaps about this time something unusual occurred on the Fair American: Jakways seems to have died in an unknown way. His relatives at Philadelphia were notified in some way, perhaps by a prize sent into port. Jakways’s will was proved on 23 March 1781. His friend and executor was listed as Stephen Decatur.131


On 20 February another short cruise was made, with the addition of Continental Navy Ship Deane (Captain John Nicholson) to the squadron. About 25 February the squadron met the twenty, or thirty-two gun ship Diamond132  (Hudson),133 bound from St. Christopher’s to Jamaica, both in the British West Indies. Diamond had 200 slaves aboard and was also laden with plunder from the British sack of St. Eustatius. She was eventually sold at Cap François for just over 265,292 livres. By 28 February the squadron had returned to Cap François.134


Fair American sailed for home on 15 March 1778, acting as part of the escort for a convoy of eighty-eight sail, thirty-two of which were bound for America.135


About mid-April 1780 Fair American was nearing her home port. She captured the sloop Northampton (Moses Ventris), bound from Charlestown to New York with a cargo of tar and rice. She was sent into Philadelphia, arriving there on 17 April 1781.136 Her cargo was advertised for sale on 24 April,137 with the sloop to be sold on 4 May 1781.138 The proceeds were ready for distribution by 12 May.139 Fair American came into port on 21 April, “from a successful cruize.”140


The brig was commissioned for a third time on 22 May 1781, with Eldridge promoted to command. Uriah Swaine of Philadelphia served as First Mate. The battery was unchanged but the crew was increased to 110 men. The new $20000 bond was signed by Eldridge and Miller.141


Fair American  was back at sea not long after, where she met the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Raven (Commander Gideon Olmsted). On 5 June 1781, off the Delaware Capes,142 they captured the 90-ton brig Allday (Timothy Steward [Stewart]), from Cork, Ireland to New York with a cargo of provisions. Allday had sailed from Cork in a convoy of 170 sail with 4000 troops aboard, bound for Charlestown, Chesapeake Bay and New York. The convoy was escorted part of the way by the British home fleet of thirty-two sail. The convoy sailed on 27/28 March. At a certain latitude the British fleet separated and the convoy continued with a ship-of-the-line and a frigate as an escort. Allday was sent into Philadelphia where she arrived on 10 June. She was libeled on 11 June and tried on 14 June.143 Her sale had been completed by 11 July 1781.144


Fair American continued to hang around the New York approaches. She was reportedly seen there, with two privateer sloops in company, on 25 June.145


About this time Fair American captured the British Privateer Brig Porcupine (Irwin), a heavily armed vessel with sixteen 6-pounders, eight swivels,146 and, possibly, two big caliber carronades.147 She was coppered and had taken many prizes around St. Kitts. Unfortunately for the British, most of her crew had been impressed by the British warships at St. Kitts and she only had sixteen men aboard when she fell in with Eldridge. She was sent into Philadelphia, arriving there on 28 June.148 Porcupine’s sale was advertised for 14 July, along with thirteen 6-pounders and two carronades.149 The proceeds were ready for distribution by 26 July.150


Fair American sailed about mid-July 1781, in company with her old partner, the Holker.151 The two privateers served as escorts to three armed merchant vessels (letters-of-marque). On the night of 18 July a large snow was sighted and chased. She was run down at sunrise and was revealed to be the Spanish St. Joseph and Joachim. The first lieutenants of the two brigs, Uriah Swaine (Fair American) and John Quinlan (Holker) went aboard to investigate, and discovered a dilemma. She was a cartel vessel, bound to New York from Pensacola with 150 British prisoners taken there. The terms of the British surrender to the Spanish allowed the parole of the British, as long as they did not serve against the Spanish forces or against allies of Spain until exchanged. The United States was not an ally of Spain. In other words, the British forces captured and paroled at Pensacola could serve against the United States, but not France. There was a great deal of controversy in the United States about these terms, and the American captains knew the controversy well. Ordinarily, the passport of a flag of truce would have protected the St. Joseph and Joachim, but not in this case. After all, the British aboard were not prisoners of the Americans, nor of one of their allies. Eldridge and Keane gave their opinion by taking possession of the Spanish snow.152


A British officer described the actions of the lieutenants while waiting for a prize crew to come aboard: “One of them named S. of the Fair American, a New England Man, his Behaviour was extremely insolent and abusive, often times declared, that if he had the liberty to treat what Prisoners he may take as he would chuse, he would hang them all. The Other employed himself in filching and pilfering.”153


After a space of two or three hours the prize crews came aboard, an officer from each brig with seventeen men from the Holker and thirteen men from the Fair American. The two American commanders also boarded the St. Joseph and Joachim. To again quote the British officer: “strutted about the Quarter-Deck, asked several immaterial Questions, and then returned on board again, carrying with them the two Officers that were sent on board us, when we were brought to.”154


St. Joseph and Joachim was ordered in to Philadelphia,155 but the United States was spared from a major international incident by two British privateers, the Surprize (Ross) and the General Arnold (Lawton),156 which re-captured the Spanish snow on 20 July. Twenty-eight of the prize crew were removed and the St. Joseph and Joachim ordered into New York.157


And yet the saga of the Spanish snow was not over. Off Sandy Hook, the Connecticut Privateer Brig Favourite (Buddington) stopped the snow. Buddington  examined the original passport and clearly saw a situation that he wanted to steer away from. He permitted the St. Joseph and Joachim to proceed, but removed the four remaining Americans from the original prize crew to the Favourite.158 “The last of the garrison of Pensacola arrived here on Monday,” 23 July, announced one of the New York papers.159


Meanwhile, the two American privateers had parted after capturing the St. Joseph and Joachim, and gone their separate ways. Fair American cruised, seemingly without success, until the early part of September 1781.


Around 4 September, Fair American touched at Cape May and again met the Holker. The two privateers cruised together for a few days. About 9 September160 they intercepted the 60-ton sloop  Phoenix (Abbutt), bound from New York to Quebec, Quebec.161 with a cargo of tobacco, coffee, rum and numerous items of general merchandise.162 Phoenix was sent into Philadelphia, where she arrived on 10 September, being mistakenly reported as bound for Newfoundland with a cargo of salt.163 Phoenix was libeled on 12 September, and tried on 15 September.164 Sale of the Phoenix’s cargo began on 24 September165 and continued on 27 September, along with the sloop.166 All sales were completed by 16 October 1781, when the marshal of the court advertised for delivery of the sales proceeds.167


The two privateers again separated and cruised independently. About the end of September 1781, Fair American fell in with the former Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Rambler168 (Commander John Durry),169 which had been captured by HM Frigates Nymph and Pearl on her first cruise. Fair American easily re-captured the Rambler and sent her into Philadelphia. She arrived in Philadelphia, and was libeled, on 3 October 1781 and tried on 8 October.170 Rambler was advertised for sale on 9 October, with the sale to be held on 15 October.171


Eldridge’s luck changed in early October. First he encountered the sloop Polly172 (John Hall),173 out of Philadelphia and bound for Cap Fran*ois, Saint Domingue, with a cargo of flour174 and staves.175  She had been captured by the British Privateer Ship Goodrich (John Buchanan) and ordered to New York.176 Fair American re-captured her. She was with the privateer for the time being, for Fair American had sighted a large convoy.177


The convoy of about ninety-five sail had left Europe about mid-July 1781. Twenty-five were bound for Charlestown, South Carolina, and the rest for New York. Eldridge saw about forty of them go into Sandy Hook on 13 October178 and began hunting stragglers.


Fair American quickly captured179 the 130-ton180 brig King George181 (James Hogg182 [Hog]), bound from London to New York;183 the 170-ton184 brig Nancy (Quinten [Quinton]), from London to New York;185 the 120-ton brig186 York (Charles Grant), Newry to New York;187 and the 200-ton brig Anne188 [Ann]  (Thomas Montgomery), also from Newry189 (or London)190 to New York. The cargoes consisted of cheese, butter, flour, ironwork and dry goods. With so many prizes Eldridge headed for home escorting all five into Philadelphia on 15 October.191


Sloop Polly was libeled on 15 October, along with a slave captured with her. She was tried on 20 October.192 Polly was advertised for sale on 23 October, along with her cargo. The sale began on 26 October.193 Three additional slaves taken on the Polly were libeled on 6 November 1781, with trial set for 9 November.194 All sale proceeds had been received by 20 November, when the receivers of the proceeds were requested to pick up the balances.195


On 16 October 1781 the 200-ton brigantine Anne (Thomas Montgomery), the 170-ton brigantine Nancy, the 120-ton brigantine York (Charles Grant), and the 130-ton brigantine King George (James Hogg) were all libeled, with the trials set for 20 October.196


The sales of the cargoes began on 26 October. First was the York’s cargo of flour, beef, pork and butter.  The cargoes of the King George and the Anne were to be sold on 29 October, and the next day, that of the Nancy. The public was assured that the sale of the vessels would soon follow.197 The sales of the cargoes continued through November. Part of the cargo of the King George was still being offered for sale on 15 January 1782.198


Even before the sales of the prizes began, the owners of the Fair American had decided to sell the brig. The Fair American was advertised for sale on 20 October, with the sale to take place on 24 October, “as she came from sea.”199


 

Detail of the painring by Vemey of the Hyder Aly-General Monk fight, showing Fair American aground.

 

 

 

Fair American’s owners now loaded her with a cargo of 550 barrels of flour. She was to sail to Havana, Cuba and discharge her cargo there, and then patrol to the east and northeast of Jamaica. She dropped down to Delaware Bay, where about twenty other vessels had collected, many with the same destination. On 31 December 1781 Fair American and seven other vessels sortied from Delaware Bay. Fair American was soon sighted and chased by HM Frigate Garland (Captain Charles Chamberlayne), 24 guns. Perhaps the cargo had slowed down the fast privateer, for Garland ran down and captured the Fair American on 2 January 1782.200


Fair American was escorted in to New York, arriving with the Garland on 5 January.201 Her British captors crowed about her capture: she was “so remarkable for the depredations she has committed on the British trade these two years past and always escaping our cruizers by her swiftness of sailing . . .”202 She was tried in the New York Admiralty Court and condemned.203 Fair American was purchased by British and Loyalist investors and served as a successful British privateer until the war ended. An advertisement for her sale appeared in the New York newspaper on 23 April 1783, where she is described as 180 tons.204



1 NRAR, 286

2 McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 304, quoting from the application, April 20, 1780

3 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, May 17, 1780

4 Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 275

5 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, May 10, 1780

6 The Connecticut Courant [Hartford], Tuesday, May 23, 1780, datelined South Carolina, April 17, 1780

7 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, May 10, 1780

8 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, May 13, 1780

9 The Connecticut Courant [Hartford], Tuesday, May 23, 1780, datelined South Carolina, April 17, 1780

10 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], May 13, 1780

11 The Connecticut Courant [Hartford], Tuesday, May 23, 1780, datelined South Carolina, April 17, 1780

12 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, May 13, 1780

13 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, May 10, 1780

14 The Connecticut Courant [Hartford], Tuesday, May 23, 1780, datelined South Carolina, April 17, 1780

15 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, May 13, 1780

16 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, May 10, 1780

17 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, May 13, 1780

18 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], June 3, 1780

19 “Extract of a Letter from on board the Fair American, commanded by Captain Stephen Decatur, dated Cape May, May 29th, 1780,” in The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], June 3, 1780

20 “Extract of a Letter from on board the Fair American, commanded by Captain Stephen Decatur, dated Cape May, May 29th, 1780,” in The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], June 3, 1780

21 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], June 3, 1780

22 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], June 20, 1780

23 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, July 5, 1780

24 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia] July 1, 1780

25 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, June 28, 1780

26 Clark, Holker, 40

27 Clark, Holker, 41

28 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, August 26, 1780

29 Clark, Holker, 41

30 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, August 26, 1780

31 Clark, Holker, 41

32 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, August 12, 1780

33 McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 304

34 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, August 26, 1780

35 Clark, Holker, 41

36 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, August 21, 1780

37 Clark, Holker, 41

38 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, August 16, 1780

39 Clark, Holker, 41

40 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, August 16, 1780

41 Clark, Holker, 41

42 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, August 16, 1780

43  McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 305

44  The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, August 19, 1780

45  Clark, Holker, 42

46 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, August 19, 1780

47  Clark, Holker, 42

48 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, 28 August 1780

49  Clark, Holker, 42

50 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, August 23, 1780

51 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, August 23, 1780

52 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, August 19, 1780

53  Clark, Holker, 42

54 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, August 21, 1780

55  McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 305

56 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 24, 1780

57  Clark, Holker, 42

58 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, August 23, 1780

59 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, August 26, 1780

60  McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 305

61 Clark, Holker, 43

62 Clark, Holker, 43

63 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, 28 August 1780

64 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, August 30, 1780

65 Clark, Holker, 43

66 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, August 30, 1780

67 Clark, Holker, 43

68 Clark, Holker, 43; according to McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 305, there was a short action.

69 Clark, Holker, 43

70 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, 28 August 1780

71 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, August 30, 1780

72 Clark, Holker, 44

73 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, September 2, 1780

74 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, September 11, 1780

75 Clark, Holker, 44

76 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, September 6, 1780

77 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, September 4, 1780

78 Clark, Holker, 44

79 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, September 2, 1780

80 Clark, Holker, 44

81 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, September 2, 1780

82 Clark, Holker, 44

83 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, September 2, 1780

84 Paullin, Charles Oscar, Out Letters of the Continental Marine Committee and the Board of Admiralty, August 1776-September 1780, Naval History Society, New York: 1914, II, Board of Admiralty to James Nicholson, 2 September 1780, 255-256

85 Paullin, Out Letters, Board of Admiralty to James Nicholson, 2 September 1780, 255-256

86 Paullin, Out Letters, Board of Admiralty to James Nicholson, 2 September 1780, 255-256

87 Paullin, Out Letters, Board of Admiralty to Charles Miller, 2 September 1780, 256-257

88 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, September 6, 1780

89 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, February 14, 1781

90 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, September 27, 1780

91 Clark, Holker, 46

92 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, October 7, 1780

93 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, November 1, 1780

94 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, November 22, 1780

95 Clark, Holker, 47

96 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, November 22, 1780

97 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, November 1, 1780

98 Clark, Holker, 47

99 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, November 22, 1780

100 Clark, Holker, 47

101 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, November 22, 1780

102 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, November 1, 1780

103 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, November 22, 1780

104 Clark, Holker, 47

105 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, November 22, 1780

106 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, November 1, 1780

107 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, December 4, 1780

108 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, November 1, 1780

109 Clark, Holker, 47

110 The Freeman's Journal: or, The North-American Intelligencer, Wednesday, May 9, 1781

111 Clark, Holker, 47

112 The New-York Gazette; and The Weekly Mercury, Monday, December 4, 1780; Clark, Holker, 47-48

113 The Freeman's Journal: or, The North-American Intelligencer, Wednesday, May 9, 1781

114 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, November 1, 1780

115 McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 306

116 The Norwich Packet and the Weekly Advertiser, November 21, 1780, datelined Philadelphia, November 4

117 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, November 11, 1780

118 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, November 18, 1780

119 NRAR, 286

120 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, January 23, 1781

121 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, January 17, 1781

122 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, January 23, 1781

123 Hardy, Joseph, “Journal of Joseph Hardy, Captain of Marines,” in Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 359-376, p. 375

124 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, January 17, 1781

125 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], Wednesday, January 24, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, January 16

126 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, January 23, 1781

127 Hardy, Joseph, “Journal of Joseph Hardy, Captain of Marines,” in Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 359-376, p. 375

128 Hardy, Joseph, “Journal of Joseph Hardy, Captain of Marines,” in Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 359-376, pp. 375-376

129 The New-Hampshire Gazette; or State Journal, and General Advertiser [Portsmouth], Saturday, April 30, 1781, datelined New London, April 20

130 McManemin, Captains of the Continental Navy, 140

131 “Abstract of Wills Book R,” at  http://files.usgwarchives.org/pa/philadelphia/wills/willabstrbkr.txt

132 Clark, The First Saratoga, 136

133 McManemin, Captains of the Continental Navy, 140

134 Clark, The First Saratoga, 136

135 Clark, The First Saratoga, 138

136 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, April 21, 1781

137 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, April 24, 1781

138 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, May 1, 1781

139 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, May 12, 1781

140 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, April 25, 1781

141 NRAR, 286

142 The New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, Monday, July 2, 1781, datelined New London, June 15, 1781

143 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, June 13, 1781

144 The Freeman's Journal: or, The North-American Intelligencer [Philadelphia], Wednesday, July 11, 1781. Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut, II, 191, gives the date of capture as 5 May, which cannot be correct.

145 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, Wednesday, July 4, 1781, datelined New York, June 25, 1781

146 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], July 4, 1781, deadlined Philadelphia, June 28, 1781

147 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, July 14, 1781

148 The New Jersey Gazette [Burlington], July 4, 1781, deadlined Philadelphia, June 28, 1781

149 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, July 14, 1781

150 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, July 26, 1781

151 Clark, Holker, 51

152 Clark, Holker, 51-52

153 Clark, Holker, 52 and note 155, quoting from “Extracts from the Journal of the Spanish snow St. Joseph . . . ,” Public Advertiser, September 11, 1781

154 Clark, Holker, 52 and note 155, quoting from “Extracts from the Journal of the Spanish snow St. Joseph . . . ,” Public Advertiser, September 11, 1781

155 Clark, Holker, 52 and note 155, quoting from “Extracts from the Journal of the Spanish snow St. Joseph . . . ,” Public Advertiser, September 11, 1781

156 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, August 8, 1781, datelined New York, July 30, 1781

157 Clark, Holker, 52 and note 155, quoting from “Extracts from the Journal of the Spanish snow St. Joseph . . . ,” Public Advertiser, September 11, 1781

158 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, August 16, 1781, datelined New London, August 3

159 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser, August 8, 1781, datelined New York, July 30, 1781

160 Clark, William Bell, “That Mischievous Holker: The Story of a Privateer,” in The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 79, No. 1 (Jan., 1955), 54

161 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, September 13, 1781

162 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, September 27, 1781

163 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, September 11, 1781

164 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, September 12, 1781; The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, September 13, 1781

165 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, September 18, 1781

166 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, September 27, 1781

167 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 16, 1781

168 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

169 NRAR, 428

170 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Thursday, October 4, 1781

171 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 9, 1781

172 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

173 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 16, 1781

174 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

175 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 23, 1781

176 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 16, 1781

177 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

178 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

179 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

180 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, October 17, 1781

181 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

182 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, October 17, 1781

183 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

184 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, October 17, 1781

185 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

186 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, October 17, 1781

187 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

188 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, October 17, 1781

189 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

190 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 16, 1781

191 The Connecticut Journal [New Haven], Thursday, November 1, 1781, datelined Philadelphia, October 17, 1781

192 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 16, 1781

193 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 23, 1781

194 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, November 7, 1781

195 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, November 20, 1781

196 The Pennsylvania Gazette and Weekly Advertiser [Philadelphia], Wednesday, October 17, 1781

197 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, October 23, 1781

198 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Tuesday, January 15, 1782

199 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, October 20, 1781

200  “Extract of a letter from an officer on board his majesty’s ship Garland, C. Chamberlayne, esquire commander,” in The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, January 19, 1782

201 The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, January 19, 1782, datelined New York, January 7

202  “Extract of a letter from an officer on board his majesty’s ship Garland, C. Chamberlayne, esquire commander,” in The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, January 19, 1782

203  HCA 32/328/6/1-14

204  The Royal Gazette, Wednesday, 23 April 1783


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