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REFERENCES FOR AMERICAN MARINERS AND THEIR SUPPORTERS DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR (INCLUDING FRENCH AND SPANISH)


by Granville W. Hough



The most useful references are those shown with a beginning ++.


A#book:volume;pages.  Arthur, Stanley Clisby, Index to the Dispatches of the Spanish Governors of Louisiana: 1776-1792, New Orleans, LA, Polyanthos, 1975.  The names of vessels were given and the years when they were mentioned.  Copies of translations were said to be in the Louisiana State Museum Library in New Orleans.  Its condition after Hurricane Katrina has not been determined.


Ab:page.  Abbey, Kathryn, "Spanish Projects for the Reoccupation of the Floridas during the    American Revolution," The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol IX, August, 1929, #3, pp 265-285.


Abbey:page.  Abbey, Kathryn, "Efforts of Spain to Maintain Sources of Information in the British Colonies Before 1779," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol XV, pp 57-68.


AbbeyKT:page.  Abbey, Katheryn T., “La Influencia del Movimiento de Independencia Norteamericana Sobre la Politica Colonial Española,” Congreso Internacional de Historia de America, Vol 2, (1935), pp 7-17.


Abell:page.  Abell, Francis, Prisoners of War in Britain, 1756 to 1815 - A Record of Their Lives, Their Romance and Their Sufferings, Oxford University Press, 1914.  While the purpose of writing this book was to refute some of the charges that Britain treated prisoners inhumanely, its end result was to document that many of the charges were well-founded.  The period of the American Revolutionary War is hardly noted, partly because the American prisoners were at first treated as traitors, not as prisoners of war.  They received even less consideration that prisoners from nations with whom Britain had agreements for humane treatment.


Acomb:page.  Acomb, Evelyn M.  The Revolutionary Journal of Baron Ludwig Von Closen, 1780-  1783, translated and edited with an introduction by Evelyn M. Acomb, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1958.


++Adams, Charles Francis, ed.  Works of John Adams (10 vols).  Boston:Little, Brown, 1850-1856.  These volumes contain much information on the Dutch and the West Indies, esp Vol VII.


Alberts:page.  Alberts, Robert C., The Golden Voyage: The Life and Times of William Bingham, 1752-1804,  Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1969.


Alderman:page.  Alderman, Clifford Lindsey, The Privateersmen, Philadelphia and New York, Chilton Books, 1965.


++Allen:page. Allen, Gardner W., Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution.  Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol 77.  Boston, 1927.  (commanders, owners, bondsmen, but no crews.)


GWA:page.  Allen, Gardner W. A Naval History of the American Revolution, 2 vols.  First published in 1918, republished by Corner House Publications, Williamstown, MA, 1970.


An Authenticated Copy of the Proceedings on the Trial of Lt Col Cockburn (of the Thirty-Fifth Regiment) for the Loss of the Island of St. Eustatius, London, 1783.  This includes details of the recapture of St Eustatius by the French under Governor de Bouillé.


Andrews:page.  Andrews, Johnnie, Jr, and William David Higgins, “ Mobile Land Grants, 1710-1795,” Bienville Historical Society, Pritchard Museum, Pritchard, AL, 1973.


Annual Register Volume:page.  Annual Register, British publication which summarized events of the year, volume 21 for 1778 being quite helpful.


Appeals Case #.  Records Group M162, U. S. Archives, Revolutionary War Prize Cases.  


Archer(1971):page.  Archer Christon I. “The Key to the Kingdon: The Defense of Veracruz, 1780-1810,” The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, Vol XXVII (April 1971, #4)426-449, Academy of American Franciscan History, Washington, DC, 1971.


Archer:page.  Archer, Christon I.  The Army in Bourbon Mexico, 1760-1810, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1977.


Archer(1981):page.  Archer, Christon I.  “Bourbon Finances and Military Policy in New Spain,” The Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History, Vol XXXVII, (Jul 1980 - Apr 1981):315-350, Academy of American Franciscan History, Washington, DC, 1981.


Archives, U. S. Government, Records Group 45 has records for the Alliance, Ariel, Bon Homme Richard, Ranger, Serapis, Wasp, and for Nathaniel Shaw who was a New England port representative.  These are available at Washington, DC, but have not been indexed.


D’Auberteuil, Michel René Hilliard.  “List of French Officers Who Served in the American Armies        with Commissions from Congress Prior to the Treaties Made Between France and the Thirteen United States of America,” Magazine of American History, vol 3 (June 1879):364-369.  Names copied from Essais Historiques et Politiques Sur la Revolution de l’Amerique, 1782.


Augur, Helen.  The Secret War of Independence, 1955, reproduced, Westport, CT., 1965. (E208.A85)


Authentic Rebel Papers Seized at St. Eustatius, London, 1781, mentioned in footnote 5, p 680, J. F. Jameson, “St Eustatius in the American Revolution,” American Historical Association, Vol 8, (Jul 1903):683-708.


Baez:volume:page.  Baez, Vicente.  La Enciclopedia de Cuba, Historia, 4 vols, San Juan, 1971.  Library call number: F1754E52, vol.


B1:page, and B2:page.  Balch, Thomas Willing, The French in America during the War of Independence of the United States, 1777-1783, a translation of the work in French of Thomas Balch, Les Français in Amérique pendant la Guerre de L’Independence des États-Unis, Volumes 1 and 1, Philadelphia, Porter & Coates, 1891.


Bancroft, George.  History of the United States of America, 6 vols, New York: D. Appleton and Comp., 1883.  This outdated reference perhaps has some significance because of the  misconceptions it created about Spanish participation in the war.


Banks:page.  Banks, James Lenox, David Sproat and Naval Prisoners in the War of the Revolution, New York, the Knickerbocker Press, 1909.


Bannon, John F. Spanish Borderlands Frontier, 1513-1821, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974.


Barnes:page.  Barnes, John S.  The Logs of the Serapis, Alliance, Ariel, under the Command of John Paul Jones, 1779-1780.  NY: De Vinne Press, 1911 (Naval History Society Publications, Vol 1), includes crew lists for ships under Jones, specifically the Bon Homme Richard, Ariel, and a few from the Alliance.


Fanning:page.  Barnes, John S., ed.   Fanning’s Narrative: Being the Memoirs of Nathaniel Fanning, an Officer of the Revolutionary Navy, 1778-1783, New York, Naval Historical Society, 1912, reprinted Arno, 1969..


Barney:page.  Barney, Mrs. Mary, Biographical Memoir of the late Commodore Joshua Barney, Boston, Gray & Bowen, 1832.


Barrs, Burton.  East Florida in the American Revolution, Jacksonville, Guild Press, 1932.


___________.  "Arturo O'Neill: First Governor of West Florida during the Second Spanish Period," FHQ 60 (July 1981):29-41.


Barton:page.  Barton, H. Arnold.  “Sweden and the War of American Independence,” The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol 23 #3(1966):408-430.  OCLC ISS:0043-5597.


Benson:page.  Benson, Adolph B., Sweden and the American Revolution, New Haven, CT: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Company, 1925.  (contains 64 bios of Swedish officers in American or French service.)


Beerman:page.  Beerman, Eric.  España y La Independencia de Estados Unidos, Madrid, Editorial MAPFRE, 1992.


Berghman, Arvid, “Swedish Members of the Society of the Cincinnati,” The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Apr 1955, p 81.


Billias:page.  Billias:George Athan.  General John Glover and his Marblehead Mariners, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1960.  (No rosters of the Marblehead Mariners are included.)


Blanco, Richard L., and Paul J. Sanborn.  The American Revolution, 1775-1783, An Encyclopedia, in two volumes.  New York, Garland Publishing, Inc, 1993.  This is a good source for brief summaries of major events and people,  with references.  (E208.A43 1993)


Bland, Schuyler Otis.  The Yorktown sesquicentennial: Proceedings of the United States Yorktown Sesquicentennial Commission in connection with celebration of the siege of Yorktown, 1781, Washington, G. P. O., 1932.


Block, Covington.  Latin America and the Caribbean: A Critical Guide to Research Sources, New York, Greenwood Press, 1992.


Boatner, Mark Mayo III.  Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, New York, David McKay Comp., 1974.


Bobb, Bernard E., The Viceregency of Antonio María Bucareli in New Spain, 1771-1779, Austin, TX, 1962.


Bobrick, Benson.  Angel in the Whirlwind: The Triumph of the American Revolution, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1997.


Bockstruck, Lloyd de Witt.  Naval Pensioners of the United States, 1800-1851, Baltimore, MD, Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 2002.  While this is an excellent alphabetical list of pensioners, it identifies very few with service during the Revolutionary War.  Before 1800, states pensioned naval veterans and privateers, and the nation only pensioned invalids.  There were 22 invalids in 1802 and 93 in 1811; however, not all show service during the Revolutionary War.  Naval pensions were administered separately from those of land service.  To identify Revolutionary War naval pensions requires research into state records.


Bodinier:page.  Bodinier, Gilbert, Les Officer, l’Armée Royale: combattants de la Guerre d’independence des Etats-Unis, de Yorktown à lan II, Chateau de Vincennes, (France): Service historique de ll’Armée de terre, 1983.


On page 27-28, Bodinier lists the references in the French National Archives to the Expedition of Savannah under B-4 Marines as follows:

B-4-141, List of Officers of Regt Hainaut and Regt Foix which embarked from Toulon with the Squadron of Comte D’Estaing.

B-4-142, 160, 170, Lists of officers of several regiments which were part of the corps which left for Savannah.

B-4-172 List of French Volunteers wounded on le Bonhomme Richard on 23 Sep 1779.

B-4-311 List of officers of the Regiment from Guadeloupe who were at Savannah.

B-4-312, List of officers of Regt Cambrésis who were at Savannah.


Also at Savannah were troops from the colonies of the West Indies, under Colonies:

D-2c-114 Colonies, List of troops embarqued at Cap Haitien under Comte D’Estaing on 14 Aug 1779, in the Savannah Expedition.

Also, Bodinier listed the units which furnished detachments for the Savannah Expedition:

D-2c-41, Volontaires de Saint-Domingue.

D-2c-101, Regiments of Martinique, Guadeloupe, and Cape Haitien.

D-2c-95, Regiment of Port-au-Prince

Also, on p 33, Bodinier liste the work of Antoine-François O’Connor, “Journal du Siège de Savanna avec des observations de M. le comte d’Estaing,” Archives nationales, B-4-142, Marine folio 155-195.

Under service historique de l/Armée de Terre, in Travail de Roi, carton 344, list of gráces:

X-1 et 2, List of officers with right to prizes from Grenada and Savanna.

Y-a-514 Gratifications accorded officers who were in combat in America.


On p 28, Bodinier gives the references for registres matricules (?rosters) (Série Y), and administrative records (Série X) for each unit which furnished soldiers of the Savannah Expedition:  (X-b and Y-b refer to infantry units, X-c and Y-c refer to cavalry units, and X-d and Y-d refer to artillery units.  Once the records are found, all the campaigns for that regiment are included.)

Y-b-269, X-b-28, Regt Agenais.

Y-b-275, X-b-18, Regt Armagnac.

Y-b-280, X-b-24, Regt Auxerrois.

Y-b-297, X-b-32, Regt Cambrésis.

Y-b-298, X-b-19, Regt Champagne.

Y-b-305, X-b-94, Regt Dillon.

Y-b-308, X-b-92, Regt Foix.

Y-b-343, X-b-30, Regt Gâtinais.

Y-b-311, X-b-63, Regt Hainaut.

Y-b-361, X-b-99, Regt Walsh.

Y-b-643, X-c-57, Dragoons of Belsunce. (probably Y-c-643).

Y-b-626, X-c-60, Dragoons of Condé. (probably Y-c-626).


On page 30, Bodinier gives the references for the registres matricules and administrative records for the Siege of Pensacola from Travail du Roi, Carton 345:

Y-b-269, X-b-28, Regt Agenais.

Y-b-297, X-b-32, Regt Cambrésis.

Y-b-343, X-b-30, Regt Gâtinais.

Y-b-332, X-b-57, Regt Orléans.

Y-b-337, X-b-37, Regt Poitou.


On page 29, Bodinier gives the references for those from West Indies involved in the Siege of Yorktown in the division of Marquis de Saint-Simon:

In the  Archives Nationales, B-4-184 Marine, Some names of officers who were at Yorktown.


In the Service historique de l’Armée de Terre, Travail du Roi, 1781-1782:

Y-b-269, X-b-28, Regt Agenais.

Y-b-343, X-b-30, Regt Gâtinais.

Y-b-356, X-b-46, Regt Touraine.


On p 29, Bodinier shows the reference to the Légion de Lauzun in the Colonial Records as D-2c-15 Colonies.  It is known that many were not French, but it is not known if any were actually from the West Indies.  There is another remarkable entry on page 29, for B-4-185 Marine, “Tableau de l’embarquement en mai 1783 des troupes qui étaient restées en Amérique alors que la majeure partie du corps de Rochambear s’était embarquée en décembre 1782 pour le Venezuela,” indicating that most of Rochambeau’s army did serve in the West Indies.


Bonnel, Ulane.  “La marine française et l’indépendance des Etats-Unis,” Cols Bleus, No. 1400, 8 Nov 1775, pp 4-15; No. 1401, 15 Nov 1775, pp 4-11.


Bonsal:page.  Bonsal, Stephen, When the French Were Here: A Narrative of the Sojourn of the French Forces in America, and their Contribution to the Yorktown Cammpaign, Drawn from Unpublished Reports and Letters of Participants in the National Archives of france and the MS Division of the Library of Congress, Garden City, NY, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc, 1945, reprinted by Kennikat, 1968.  Bonsal covered mostly key persons in Rochambeau’s force, plus a few who were with Admiral de Grasse from the West Indies.


JAB:page.  Boromé, Joseph A. “Dominica during French Occupation, 1778-1784,” English Historical Review, vol 84 (Jan 1969):36-58.     


Bouvet:page.  Bouvet, Maurice, Le Service de Santé Français pendant la Guerre D’Indépendence des États-Unis (1777-1782), Paris, Hippocrate Press, 1934.  This is the only known study of the hospital service supporting the French Expeditionary Force.  The author does credit Warrington Dawson with stimulating interest by publishing his lists of those French soldiers who died in Williamsburg.


Boyd, Mark F., and José Navarro Latorre.  “Spanish Interest in British Florida, and in the Progress of the American Revolution,” Florida Historical Quarterly, vol 32 (Oct 1953): 92-130.


++GMB:page.  Brumbaugh, Gaius Marcus.  Revolutionary war records, Volume I, Virginia: Virginia Army and Navy Forces with bounty land warrants for Virginia Military District of Ohio, and Virginia Military Script; from Federal and State Archives, Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Company, 1967.


Bruyn, Fred de.  "Saint Eustatius: A Golden Link with the Independence of the United States," De Halve Maen, Quarterly Journal of the Holland Society of New York, Vol 58, #2, New York, 1984.


Bryant:page.  Bryant, Samuel Wood, The Sea and the States: A Maritime History of the American People, New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1947.  (E182.B92).  Limited value.


Buel:page.  Buel, Richard, Jr., In Irons: Britain’s Naval Supremacy and the American Revolutionary Economy, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1998.


Bulletin:page.  Bulletin of the Généalogie et Histoire de la Caraibe, ??? a current publication which sometimes includes articles from the Revolutionary War period.  It references Au Service Historique de l’Armée de Terre (Vincennes).


Bushnell:page.  Bushnell, Charles, The Narrative of John Blatchford, Detailing his Sufferings in the Revolutionary War, while a Prisoner with the British, as Related by Himself, privately printed, New York, 1865, reprinted, 1971, by Arno Press, Inc.  Blatchford may be the only survivor of those captured American sailors who were sent to the East Indies as slaves in the East India Company ship, Princess Royal.


Calef:page.  Calef, John, The Siege of Penobscot, The New York Times &Arno Press, 1971.  Few writers have ever described the total disaster.  It brought out the worst  in the Army and Navy commanders charged with conducting the operation, and seemed to set an example for faillure which has been followed in many amphibious operations Americans have attempted.


Candler:vol:page.  Candler, Allen D., The Revolutionary Records of the State of Georgia, Volume III, “Journal of the House of Assembly from August 17, 1781, to Feb 26, 1784,” Atlanta, GA, The Franklin-Turner Company, 1908.  E263.G3.C35,1972,v3.


++Capture:page.  American Vessels Captured by the British During the Revolution and the War of 1812: The Records of the Vice-Admiralty Court at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Salem, MA, The Essex Institute, 1911.  The Vice-Admiralty Court at Halifax is one of several such courts which operated during the Revolution, others being in Jamaica, England, and probably in Barbados.  The Halifax records are thus the least part of the story as it relates to the West Indies.


Carr, Peter E.  Guide to Cuban Genealogical Research Records and Sources, Chicago, IL, Adams Press, c 1991.


Carr:page.  Carr, Peter E. Censos, Padrones y Matrículas de la Población de Cuba, Siglos 16, 17 y 18, The Cuban Index, San Luis Obispo, CA, 1993.


Chapeaux:page.  Chapeaux, Pedro Deschamps.  Los Batallones de Pardos y Morenos Libres, Mención Investigaciones Históricas, Editorial ‘Arte y Literatura, Instituto Cubano del Libro, Havana, 1976.


Caughey:page.  Caughey, John Walton, Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana, 1776-1783, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1934, also carried as a publication of UCLA in Social Science, Vol 4, #2.  (F373.G252).  The author does not mention Francisco de Saavedra, the King’s Representative in the West Indies, and probably saw few references to him.  As a consequence, he ascribes to Bernardo de Gálvez acts and policies for which Saavedra alone had authority and responsibility.


Cayford:page.  Cayford, John E.  The Penobscot Expedition: being an account of the largest naval engagement of the Revolutionary War, C&H Publishing Company, P. O. Box 110, Orrington, ME 04474.


Chaplains:pages.  “Chaplains of the French Navy in American Waters,” The American Catholic Historical Researches: American Peridodical Series, 1850-1900; 201, 202, vol V, #7 (1911):250-257, includes 160 names.


Chevalier:page.  Louis Edouard Chevalier, Captaine de Vaisseau, Histoire de la Marine Française pendant la Guerre de L’independence Amêricaine, Paris, Librairie Hachette et C, 1877.  (Unindexed, but it does have listing of French ships, with their captains, for each major engagement with the British.)


Chotteau, Léon.  La guerre de l’indepéndance (1775-1783); les Françcais en Amérique, Paris, Charpentier, 1876.


C:page.  Claghorn, Charles E.  Naval Officers of the American Revolution: A Concise Biographical Dictionary, The Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, NJ & London, 1988.


Clark:page.  Clark, George P. “The Role of the Haitian Volunteers at Savannah in 1779: An Attempt at an Objective View,” Phylon, Vol 26 (Dec 1980):356-366.  Library call #HT1521.D732.1980.


ClarkWB:page.  Clark, William B., Ben Franklin’s Privateers: A Naval Epic of the American Revolution, New York Greenwood Press, 1956.


Chávez:page.  Chávez, Thomas E.  Spain and the Independence of the United States - An Intrinsic Gift, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 2002.


Chidsey, Donald Barr.  The American Privateers, (E182.C5), New York, Dodd, Mead, 1962.


Chidsey, Donald Barr.  Victory at Yorktown, New York, Crown Publishers, 1962.  (E237.C47).  This book was not generally helpful in developing names of individuals who participated in the battle.  It had little to say about the Spanish financing which made possible the French fleet contributions of Admiral de Grasse.  The text is not as much misleading as it is incomplete.


++C:page.  Claghorn, Charles E.  Naval Officers of the American Revolution: A Concise Biographical Dictionary, The Scarecrow Press, Inc, Metuchen, NJ & London, 1988. This is an excellent listing of officers only.  It unfortunately includes a few persons for whom the only source of information is NSDAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) applications.


CC:Records Group, Item Number.  Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774 - 1789, available in the U. S. Archives.  Group M0247 has the most important papers received or sent, including item #83, Roll 110, “Letters received from Arthur Lee, 1776-1780,” listing manifests for 12 shiploads of clandestine war materials from Cadiz, Spain.  Group M0332 has the Miscellaneous Papers.  These sometimes have partial lists of crew members of various vessels.


Clark:Volume:page.  Clark, Thomas, Naval History of the United States, from the Commencement of the Revolutionary War to the Present Time, 2d ed, Philadelphia, M. Carey, 1814.  


++ClarkWB:page.   Clark, William Bell, Ben Franklin’s Privateers: A Naval Epic of the American Revolution, (E302.6.F8C55), New York, Greenwood Press, 1956.


Clark, William B.  (See NDVolume:page).


Coggins:page.  Coggins, Jack, Ships and Seamen of the American Revolution, (E271.C:63), Harrisburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 1969.


Coker:page.  Coker, William S., and G. Douglas Inglis.  The Spanish Censuses of Pensacola, 1784-1820: A Genealogical Guide to Spanish Pensacola.   Pensacola, FL, The Perdedo Bay Press, 1980.  The 1784 census does not designate who is a soldier and who is not.  For this reason, all free males over 19 are listed, provided they are not living with their parents.  Wives are shown and children, if any, are indicated.  Other records would have to be studied to determine if any of the Pensacola males were Patriots during the 1779-1783 period.  (It is clear that a number of the families are those of Canary Islander soldier volunteers for Louisiana who had been stranded in Cuba during the hostilities.)


C&R:page.  Coker, William S., and Robert R. Rea, editors, Anglo-Spanish Confrontation on the Gulf Coast during the American Revolution, Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, 1982.  The book is the result of the Ninth Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, May 7-8, 1981, held in Pensacola, FL.


++M:page.  Coker, William S., and Hazel P. Coker, The Siege of Mobile, 1780, in Maps: with Data on Troop Strength, Military Units, Ships, Casualties, and Prisoners of War including a brief history of Fort Charlotte (Condé), Vol IX Spanish Borderlands Series, Pensacola, FL, The Perdido Bay Press, 1982.


C&C:page.  Coker, William S. and Hazel P. Coker, The Siege of Pensacola in 1781 in Maps, with data on Troop Strength, Military Units, Ships, Casualties and related Statistics, Pensacola, Perdido Bay Press, 1981, Call #  G1319P4 S3 C6 1981.


Coleman(1976):page.  Coleman, Kenneth, Colonial Georgia: A History, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976.  F289.C64.


Coleman(1958):page.  Coleman, Kenneth, The American Revolution in Georgia, 1763-1789, Athens, GA, University of Georgia Press, 1958.  F290.C55.


Colenbrander, H. T.  De Patriottentijd, vol I, discusses Dutch trade in the West Indies and how it doubled in the Rev. War.


Coletta, Paolo.  A Bibliography of American Naval History, Annapolis, MD, Naval Institute Press, 1981.


Collier, Thomas S.  Revolutionary Privateers of Connecticut, with Accounts of State Cruisers.  Records and Papers of the New London County Historical Society, Vol 1, part 4, New London, 1892.


Cohen:page.  Cohen, Sheldon S., Yankee Sailors in British Gaols: Prisoners of War at Forton and Mill, 1777-1783, Newark, University of Delaware Press, 1995.


Commager, Henry Steele, and Richard B. Morris, ed.  The Spirit of ‘Seventy-Six: The Story of the American Revolution as told by Participants, New York, Harper & Row, 1958.


Comm:page.  The Franco-American Commission partial listing of French Patriots, as published by Du Ministier des Affairs Étrangères, Les Combattants Francaise de la Guerre Américaine, 1778-1783, Washington Imprierie Nationale, 1905.  This is the basic listing ot the soldiers and sailors of the French Expeditionary Forces, prepared in the 1900 era by the French and American representatives of the Sons of the American Revolution.  It is incomplete, but there are no additional publications or revisions to it.


“Commissioned Officers of the Navy of the Revolution,” ACR, vol 3 (Apr 1907), pp 105-114.


++Connor:year:page.  Connor, Timothy, edited and footnoted by William Richard Cutter, “A Yankee Privateersman in Prison in England, 1777-1779,” The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol XXX (Apr 1876):174-177, (Jul 1876):343-352; Vol XXXI (Jan 1877):18-20, (Apr 1877):212-213, (Jul 1877):284-288: Vol XXXII (Jan 1878):70-73, (Apr 1878):165-168, (Jul 1878):280-286.


Conyngham:page.  Edited by Miss M. B. Clark, “Narrative of Capt Gustavus Conyngham, U. S. N., while in Command of the Surprise and Revenge, 1777-1779,” ??????????????, pp 479-488.


++Cook, Fred J.  Privateers of Seventy-Six, Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc, Indianapolis/New York, 1976.


Cooke, Nicholas.  “Revolutionary Correspondence of Governor Nicholas Cooke,” American Antiquarian Society Proceedings, vol or number 36, pp 299-300.


Conrotte, Manuel.  La intervención de España en la independencia de la América del Norte.  Madrid: Victoriano Suárez, 1920.


++CTMen:page.  Lists and Returns of CT Men in the Revolution, 1775-1783, Hartford, Connecticut Historical Society, 1909.


CTPR75/76:page.  Hoadley, Charles J., The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut from May 1775 to June 1776, inclusive, Hartford, Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1890, reprinted AMS Press, Inc, New York, NY, 1968.


++CTN:page.  Middlebrook, Louis F, History of Maritime Connecticut during the American Revolution, 1775-1783, Vol 1, Salem MA, The Essex Institute, 1925.  Volume I concentrates on the work done by the CT Navy and its captures.


++CTP:page.  Middlebrook, Louis F., History of Maritime Connecticut during the American Revolution, 1775-1783, Vol II, Salem, MA, The Essex Institute, 1925.  Volume II concentrates on the work done by CT privateers and their captures.  


CTRec:page.  Records of Service of Connecticut Men in the: I - War of the Revolution; II - War of 1812; III - Mexican War, pp 589 - 607, “Naval Record of Connecticut in the Revolution, 1775-1783,” Authority of the General Assembly, Hartford, 1889.


++Cuba:legajo number.  Hill, Roscoe R.  Descriptive Catalog of the Documents Relating to the History of the United States in the Papales Procendentes de Cuba deposited in the Archive General de Indias at Seville, Washington, DC, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1916, reprinted by Kraus Reprint Corporation New York, 1965.  There are 2375 legajos (bundles) of records, mostly relating to Louisiana, West Florida, and East Florida.  Each legajo contains from a few dozen to several hundred separate papers.


CubaP:legajo number.  Saturnino, Reyes Siles, Documentos Relativos a la Independencia de Noreeamérica Existentes in Archivos Españoles, II, Archivo General de Indias, Sección Papeles de Cuba: Correspondencia y Documentación oficial de los Gobernadores de Luisiana (Años 1777-1803), Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Dirección General de Relaciones Culturales, Madrid, 1980.   This listing includes those shown above plus others.


Cummins, Light Townsend.  "Spanish Administration in the Eastern Borderlands, 1763-1800, Proceedings of the Pacific Coast Council on Latin American Studies, 7 (1980-81):1-9.


++Cummins:page, _____________.  Spanish Observers and the American Revolution, 1775-1783, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, LA, 1991.  


______________.  "War Clouds on the Mississippi: Spain's 1785 Crisis in West Florida," FHQ 60 (July 1981):51-76.


++Cutler:page.  Cutler, Samuel, “Prison Ships, and the ’Old Mill Prison,’ Plymouth, England, 1777,” The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol XXXII (Jan 1878):42-44, (Apr 1878):184-188, (Jul 1878):305-308, (Oct 1878):395-398.


++Dandridge:page, and Jersey:page.  Dandridge, Danske, American Prisoners of the Revolution, Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Company, 1967, reprinted 2000.  In addition to listing prisoners not found anywhere else, Appendix A, pp 449-492 is a “List of 8000 Men Who Were Prisoners on Board the Old Jersey.”  These are alphabetically arranged, and it has been estimated that 7000 of these unfortunate men died on that prison ship.  There is no indication of which prison ship the person was on, (though the general suggestion is that all were on the Jersey), where the prisoner was from, when he arrived, or whether he survived, died, or escaped.  If two or more persons of the same name were listed, this is designated by (2), or (3), etc.  This list was originally published, not alphabetized, in 1888 by the Society of Old Brooklynites, Brooklyn, NY, “A Christmas Reminder, being the Names of about Eight Thousand Persons, a Small Portion of the Number Confined on Board the British Prison Ships during the War of the Revolution,” Brooklyn, Eagle Print, 1888, 61 pages.  The page listing shown is for the Appendix in Dandridge, as that reference is much easier to find.  The Old Jersey functioned as a prison ship from 1779 until 1783, then rotted and sank into the mud in Wallabout Bay where it was anchored.  The huge mound of skeletons and bones washed up by the tide were finally buried in a mausoleum and marked with a suitable monument in the 1840 era.


Dann:page.  Dann, John C.  The Nagle Journal: A Diary of the Life of Jacob Nagle, Sailor, from the Year 1775 to 1841, New York, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988.


DaviesVolume:page.  Davies, K. G., editor, Documents of the American Revolution, 1770-1783, Irish University Press, 1976.  These are the British records of the American Revolution, with years 1775 through 1783 in Volumes XI through XXI.  


Dawson:page.  Dawson, Francis Warrington, Les Français Morts pur l’indépendence américaine de Septembre 1781 à Août 1782 et la reconstrusction historique de Williamsburg, bas des armées de Rochambeau en Virginia, Paris: Editiones de l’Œuvre latine, 1931 (deaths, in alphabetical order, by regiment.


DeGrasse:page.  The Operations of the French Fleet under the Count De Grasse in 1781-1782, as Described in Two Contemporaneous Journals, New York, The Bradford Club, 1864.  (150 copies were made, and we were the first ever to read the copy we used.)


DeJonge, J. C.  Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Zeewezen,, vol 4, apparently includes journal of Count Lodewijk van Bylandt, who spent 13 months at St Eustatius and noted 3182 vessels sailing during that time.


DL:page.  Delaware Archives: Military and Naval Records, pp 917-954, “Papers Pertaining to Naval Affairs,” 2 Vols, Public Archives Commission of Delaware, Wilmington, DL, 1912.


Deprez, J. H. “La prise de l’ile de Sainte-Lucie par les Anglais en Ddécembre 1778: Victoire militarie certaine, erreur stratégique probable,” Revue Historique des Armeés, vol 6, #2, 1979, pp 19-33.


Din:page.  Din, Gilbert C.  “Arkansas Post in the American Revolution,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly, The Arkansas Historical Association, Fayetteville, AR, Vol 40 (1981):3-30.


Doniol, Henri.  Histoire de la participation de la France a l’etablissement des Etats-Unis d’Amerique, esp. Vol 4, page 649, Paris, 1884-92.  This is a basic reference set for students of French participation, but there is no known translation into English.


Dorson, Richard M., ed.  America Rebels: Narratives of the Patriots, New York, Pantheon Books, 1953.


Dull, Jonathan R.  The French Navy and American Independence: A Study of Arms and Diplomacy, 1774-1787,  Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1975.   This is a basic reference for Franco-philes, written just after the Spanish-American War.


Dupuy:page.  Dupuy, R. Ernest, Gay Hammerman, and Grace P. Hayes.  The American Revolution: A Global War, (E269.F67D86), New York, McKay, 1977.


++D&D:page.  Dupuy, R. Ernst, and Dupuy, Trevor N., An Outline History of the American Revolution, New York, Harper & Rowe, 1975.


D&H:page.  Dupuy, Trevor N. and Hayes, Grace P., Revolutionary War Naval Battles, New York, 1970.


Dutch:page.  Nordholt, Jan Willem Schulte, translated by Herbert H. Rowen, The Dutch Republic and American Independence, Chapel Hill, NC, Univ. of NC Press, 1979.


Dutch “blue book” of 1779, entitled: Missive van Repreaesentant en Bewindhebberen der westindische Campagnie, met eene Deductie en Bylaagen ven den Commandeur de Graff op St Eustatius tot sijne Verantwoording, etc, which contains the defense of de Graaff in the flag salute affair.


Eastman:page.  Eastman, Ralph Mason, Some Famous Privateers of New England, Boston, privately printed by the State Street Trust Company, 1928.


Edler, Friedrich.  The Dutch Republic and the American Revolution, Baltimore, The John Hopkins Press, 1911, (John Hopkins University studies in historical and political science, series 29, #2).  (E249.E23d, and H31.J62 ser.29#2)


Egle, William Henry.  Muster Rolls of Navy and Line, 1775-1783, ???????????, (F146.P32, serial 2:15).  No Naval rolls were identified, indeed what was found were muster rolls of militia and line for Pennsylvania.  


Eller:page.  Eller, Ernest McNeill, ed., Chesapeake Bay in the American Revolution, Centreville, MD, Tidewater Publishers, 1981.  This is an excellent study of VA and MD naval activities.  (E230.5.C42,C42).


Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1955, esp. readings “American Revolution, The (1775-1781)”, Vol 1:795-801); “Great Britain,” (Vol 10:679); “Defense:Army” (Vol 10:688); and “United States of America,” (Vol 22:786-787).

 

Emmons:page.  Emmons, George Foster.  The Navy of the United States, from the commencement, 1775 to 1783, with a brief history of each vessel’s services and its fate.   Washington, DC, (Microfilm from University of Rochester, NY.)  From studying the listing by Emmons, it is clear he did not have original documentation on many of the captures.  He probably had errors in names of both the captured vessels and of the capturing commanders and vessels.


Eyre, James K.  “The Naval History of Martinique,” U. S. Naval institute Proceedings, Vol 68, 1942, pp 1f115-1124.


Felknor:page.  Felknor, Bruce L.  The United States Merchant Marine at War, 1775-1945, Navy Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1998.


Fisher:page.  Fisher, Carleton E. and Sue G. Fisher, Soldiers, Sailors, and Patriots of the Revolutionary War: Maine, Louisville, KY, The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, 1982.

Floyd:page.  Floyd, Troy S.  The Anglo-Spanish Struggle for Mosquitia, Albuquerque: Univ of NM Press, 1967.  Library call F.1529.M9.F55.


++Foote:page.  Foote, Caleb, “Reminiscences of the Revolution.  Prison Letters and Sea Journal of Caleb Foot: Born, 1750; Died, 1787,” compiled and edited by his grandson, Caleb Foote, Essex Institute Historical Collections, Vol XXVI, Salem, MA (1889):90-120.


Forbes:page.  Forbes, Esther, Paul Revere, & the World He Lived in, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1942.

FordVolume#:page or FordYear:page.  Ford, Worthington Chauncey, ed.  Journals of the Continental Congress (34 vols), Washington, 1904-1944.  Vol 1 covered how states in 1775 could ship goods to the West Indies and trade for guns and ammunition.  Vol 10 covers 1 Jan 1778 to 1 May 1778, Vol 11 covers May 2 to Sep 1, Vol 12 covers the rest of 1778.  These records seldom show crew members, but do help with overall leadership and maritime problems.  These volumes may also be used with the index prepared by Kenneth E. Harris and Steven D. Tilley, Index: Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1779, National Archives, Washington, 1976, in which case the reference is to the year rather than the volume.


Force:series:volume:page.  Force, Peter, ed.  American Archives, 4th Series (6 vols), Vol I and Vol VI,  and 5th series (3 vols), Vol II and III, Washington, DC, 1833-1853.  These series apparently include the Virginia archives which document the trade with the Dutch in the West Indies.  This work was never finished as it was envisioned.  The fifth series, Vol III, contains a list of American vessels captured by the British squadron off America from 10 Mar to 31 Dec 1776, pages 1523 and 1527, and a list of British vessels captured by American privateers, pages 1727-1730.


Ford:page.  Ford, Worthington Chauncey.  Defences of Philadelphia in 1777, New York, De Capo Press, 1971.


Ford, ed.  Washington’s Writings, vol III.


++FordVolume#:page or FordYear:page.  Ford, Worthington Chauncey, ed.  Journals of the Continental Congress (34 vols), Washington, 1904-1944.  Vol 1 covered how states in 1775 could ship goods to the West Indies and trade for guns and ammunition.  Vol 10 covers 1 Jan 1778 to 1 May 1778, Vol 11 covers May 2 to Sep 1, Vol 12 covers the rest of 1778.  These records seldom show crew members, but do help with overall leadership and maritime problems.  These volumes may also be used with the index prepared by Kenneth E. Harris and Steven D. Tilley, Index: Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1779, National Archives, Washington, 1976, in which case the reference is to the year rather than the volume.  (As this index was used without the volumes, the matching by name is only about 50% accurate.)


Fowler:page.  Fowler, William M., Jr.  Rebels under Sail: The American Navy during the Revolution, (E271.F68), New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976.


Fraser, Walter J. Jr, Patriots, Pistols and Petticoats: “Poor Sinful Charles Town” during the American Revolution, Charleston, University of South Carolina Press, 1945, 2d Edition, 1993.  F279.C457.F7, 1993.


Gardiner, Asa B.  The Order of the Cincinnati in France; … Its origin and History:  With the Military or Naval Records of the French Members who became such by reason of Qualifying Service in the Army or Navy of France of of the United States in the War of the Revolution for American Independence.  Providence: Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati, 1905.  (250 bios, high-ranking officers only.)


GM:page, Garnier-Morrissey, Margaret.  “Les relations entre les Etats-Unis et les Antilles françaises pendant la Guerre of l’indépendance,” (unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Paris, 1954.


Gazette de Leyde, this was apparently a very active Dutch newspaper in reporting the events of the West Indies during the Rev. War.


General Sullivan.  Library of Congress Manuscript, MSS:17,743, Proprietors of the Privateer Brigantine General Sullivan, microfilmed 1979 by Library of Congress Photoduplication Service, no pages numbered.  Names listed are the suppliers, owners, and crewmen of the vessel.


Glascock, Melvin.  “New Spain and the War for American Independence, 1779-1783,” Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1969.


Gottschalk, Louis.  Lafayette and the Close of the American Revolution, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942.  Lafayette’s personal letters mention only highly placed individuals.


Grant:page.  Grant, Frederic, Jr, “The Court-Martial of Paul Revere,” Boston Bar Journal, May 1977, pp 5-13.  Paul Revere was court-martialed at his own request in order to clear his reputation for the unmitigated disaster at Penobscot; however, there were so many prominent politicians from MA far more responsible that no one else was ever tried.  Revere was likely the least inept commander at Penobscot, but the very fact that he was the only one tried suggests otherwise.


Greene:page.  Greene, Albert, Recollections of the Jersey Prison Ship from the Manuscript of Capt. Thomas Dring, Corinth Books, New York, 1961.  Only about 30 persons are named.


DelaI:page.  Governor’s Register, State of Delaware, Appointments and Other Transactions by Executives of the State, from 1674 to 1851, Volume 1, Public Archives Commission of Delaware, Wilmington Delaware, Press of the Star Publishing Company, 1926


Great Placcaet Boeck, vol IX.  (not found nor used.)


Greenwood:page.  Greenwood, Isaac J., Capt John Manley: Second in Rank in the United States Navy, 1776-1783, (E271.M27), Boston, Goodspeed & Co., 1915.


Greene:page.  Greene, Albert, Recollections of the Jersey Prison Ship from the manuscript of Capt Thomas Dring, 1829, republished 1864, and again in 1961, New York, Corinth Books.  Capt Dring states that in 1782 only mariners were in the Jersey prison.  It may have included some soldiers at other times.


Griffin:page.  Griffin, Martin I. J., Commodore John Barry “The Father of the American Navy”: The Record of His Services for Our Country, (E172.A60), Philadelphia, published by the author, 1903.


Griffis, W. E.  “Where our Flag was first Saluted,” New England Magazine, vol VIII, 576 (1893).


GWNavy:page.  Clark, William Bell, George Washington’s Navy: Being an Account of his Excellency’s Fleet in New England Waters, Baton Rouge, LA, Louisiana State University Press, 1960.


HamV:page.  Hamilton, Peter J.  Colonial Mobile: An Historical study, Largely from Original Sources, of the Alabama-Tombigbee Basin and the Old Southwest from the Discovery of the Spiritu Santo in 1519 until the Demolition of Fort Charlotte in 1821, Part V, "Spanish West Florida, 1780-1813," Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910, reprinted by Heritage Books, Inc, Bowie, MD, 1991.


Harrman:page.  Harrman, Albert W., “The Spanish Conquest of British West Florida, 1779-1781,”  Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol 39,(Oct 1960):107-134.


Hartog, J.   The Jews and St. Eustatius, the eighteenth century Jewish congregation Honen Dalim, The Windward Islands Bank Ltd., St Maarten, 1976


Hartog, J.  The forts of Sint Maarten and Saint Martins: the historical defences of a binationaal island, Zutphen, Walburg Pers, 1994.


Hartog, J.  Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Antillen, 5 vols, published by De Wit Stores, Aruba (in Dutch), year not determined.


Hartog, J.  History of St. Eustatius, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, The Central USA Bicentennial Committee of the Netherlands Antilles, 1976.


H:page.  Hawkins, Christopher, The Adventures of Christopher Hawkins, 1864, republished 1968, Arno Press, Inc.


Hearn:page.  Hearn, Chester G., George Washington’s Schooners: the First American Navy, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1995.


Heinl:page.  Heinl, Tobert Debs, Jr, Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitien People, 1492-1971, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978.


Herbert:page.  Herbert, Charles, A Relic of the Revolution, The New York Times & Arno Press, 1968.  Contains lists of Mill prisoners up to 7 Feb 1777.


Heredero Roura, Federico, and Vicente Cadenas y Vicent.  Archivo General Militar de Segovia: Indice de Expedientes, Personales, 9 vols, Madrid, Spain: Ediciones Hidalguía, 1959-63.  (Not used.)


++Hill:page.  Hill, Roscoe R.  Descriptive Catalogue of the Documents Relating to the History of the United States in the Papeles Procedentes de Cuba, deposited in the Archivo General de Indias at Seville, Washington, DC, Carnegie Institution, 1916, reprinted by Kraus Reprint Corporation, New York, 1965.  There are 2375 legajos (bundles of records) in these Cuban Papers, mostly relating to Louisiana, West Florida, and East Florida.  Each legajo contains from a few dozen to many hundreds of separate papers.


Hinman:page.  Hinman, Royal R.  Historical Collection of the Part Sustained by Connecticut during the War of the Revolution, Hartford, R. Gleason, 1842.


Historia:page.  Baez, Vicente, La Enciclopedia de Cuba: Historia, Enciclopedia y Clásicos Cubanos, Inc., 1974.


Historical Collections of the Essex Institute.  “Journal of a Cruise in 1777 in the Privateer Brig Oliver Cromwell (Jul-Nov, 1777), Vol 45 (909):245-55.


Holmes:page.  Holmes, Jack D. L.  “José de Evia and His Activities in Mobile, 1780-1784,” Alabama Historical Quarterly, vol 34 (Summer, 1972):105-112.                        


JDLH:page.  Holmes, Jack D. L., "Some Irish Officers in Spanish Louisiana," The Irish Sword: The Journal of the Military History of Ireland, Vol VI, #25, Winter, 1964, pp 234-247.


Holmes:page.  Holmes, Jack D. L.  Honor and Fidelity: The Louisiana Infantry Regiment and the Louisiana Militia Companies, 1766-1821, Birmingham, AL, 1965.


++Howard:page.  Howard, James L., Seth Harding, Mariner: A Naval Picture of the Revolution, London and New Haven, Yale University Press, 1930.


Howe:page.  Howe, Octavius T.  Beverly Privateers in the American Revolution, Cambridge, MA, J. Wilson & Son, The University Press, 1922.


Hough, Charles Merrill.  Reports on Cases of the Vice Admiralty of the Province of New York and in the Court of Admiralty of the State of New York: 1715-1788, New York, Yale University Press, 1925.  The title specifically excludes operation of the British Vice-Admiralty Court of New York, 1775-1783.  A footnote on page xii states: “Among the Prize Papers of the High Court of Admiralty, now in the Public Record Office, London, are many papers from the Court of the Vice Admiralty, New York, labelled “Sent from New York.”  They cover the years 1775-1783.  Other similar papers will be found in certain bundles of the series Admiralty Court, Prize Papers…  See Andrews, Guide to the Materials for American History to 1783 in the Public Record Office of Great Britain, II, 329-331.”  It appears there were no New York state Vice-Admiralty courts in operation during the Revolutionary War.  At least, this author reports no cases for that time period.  So the only court operating was the British one in New York City ruling on American ships as prizes.  Even so, no list has been found for such ships.


Hough, Franklin B.  The Siege of Savannah by the Combined Ameican and French Forces under the Command of Gen. Lincoln and the Count D’Estaing in the Autumn of 1779, Spartanburg, SC, The Reprint Company, 1975 (originally published by J. Munsell, Albany, 1866.  This book consists mostly of diary accounts by various participants, mostly British.  Few French names are given, but pages 95-96 and 144-145 do give listings of the ships used by Count D’Estaing, along with their armament.  Names of French units engaged are also listed.  (Micro 973.Am3, 366-6)


++Hough, Granville W. and N. C. Hough.  Spain’s Louisiana Patriots in its 1779-1783 War with England - During the American Revolution, Part Six, Spanish Borderland Studies, SHHAR Press, P. O. Box 490, Midway City, CA 92655-0490, 2000.  Other parts of this set of 8 studies are listed on the copyright page of this work.


Howard, James L.  Seth Harding, Mariner: A Naval Picture of the Revolution.  (E271.H72), New Haven, Yale University Press, 1930.


Hoyt:page.  Hoyt, William Henry.  The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, New York, De Capo Press, 1972.  There has been some belief that there was a Declaration of Independence by the citizens of Mecklenburg County, NC, on 20 May 1775; however, the best evidence indicates there may have been discussions on that date but that the actual resolves were dated 31 May 1775.  These resolves were not labeled as a declaration of independence, but their language indicate that was the trend of thinking which went into them.  Some of the most ardent supporters were persons from the ports of the colony.


Huston:page.  Huston, James A.  Logistics of Liberty: American Services of Supply in the Revolutionary and After, Newark, University of Delaware Press, 1991.  The author understood the importance of gunpowder, lead, and clothing; but he did not understand the importance of salt, either for preservation of meat and other food for the armies, or for curing fish used for trade in the West Indies for the other items.  His study concentrates on the land-based logistics of the armies, and the studies of logistics in getting overseas supplies to the shores of the colonies is left to others.


Index:Roll/Page.   Index to Revolutionary War Service Records, Records Group M860, microfilm, 58 Rolls, in U. S. Archives.  Under leadership of Virgil D. White, these have been transcribed into 4 written volumes, in the same alphabetical order, which were published in 1995 by the National Historical Publishing Company, Waynesboro, TN.   It is very hard to isolate naval service records from either of these indexes.  What is shown are Cont. Congress service records, or names of those who served on the few Cont. Navy vessels, about 1% of the total.  After five hours of effort, we identified one person not on other records.  If you know the name of the person who served on a Cont. Navy vessel, it is easy to look him up.


Ingliss:page.  Ingliss, G. Douglas.  “The Spanish Naval Shipyard at Havana in the Eighteenth Century,” pp 47-58, New Aspects of Naval History: Selected Papers from the 5th Naval History Symposium, edited by the Department of History, U. S. Naval Academy, Baltimore, MD, The Nautical and Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1985.


PANavy:page.  Jackson, John W., The Pennsylvania Navy, 1775-1781: The Defense of the Delaware, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1974.


James:page, James, James Alton, Oliver Pollock, The Life and Times of an Unknown Patriot, New York, Appleton-Century, 1937.


++Jameson:page.  Jameson, J. Franklin, “St. Eustatius in the American Revolution,” The American Historical Review, The American Historical Association, Vol 8 (Jul 1903):683-708.


JDLH:page, Holmes, Jack D. L.  “José de Evia and His Activities in Mobile, 1780-1784,” Alabama Historical Quarterly, vol 34 (Summer, 1972):105-112.


Johnson:volume:page.  Johnson, Amandus, Swedish Contributions to American Freedom, 1776-1783, Including a Sketch of the Background of the Revolution, Together with an account of the Engagements in which Swedish officers Participated, and the Biographical Sketches of Thes Men, two volumes, Philadelphia: Swedish Colonial Foundation, 1955-57.  (70 bios are included, most served with the French.)


Johnson, James M.  Militiamen, Rangers, and Redcoats: the Military in Georgia, 1754-1776, Macon, GA, Mercer University Press, 1992.  F289.J683,1992.


++Johnston:page.  Johnston, Ruth Y., “American Privateers in French Ports, 1776-1778,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History, Vol 53, (1929):352-374.


Jones, John Paul (1747 - 1792).  “Memoir of the American Revolution Presented to King Louis XV of France,” Washington, DC, American Memorial Bi-Centennial, 1979.  E207.J7A34.


++Kaminkow, Marion and Kaminkow, Jack.  Mariners of the American Revolution.  Baltimore, Magna Carta Book Company, 1967.  This is the best available collection of imprisoned Mariners of the American Revolution, listing about 3000 individuals, the ships on which they were captured, the dates of capture and imprisonment, etc.  Actually, no one knows how many mariners there were, but surely more than 80,000 persons served during the war at sea, so there is a long way to go in compiling a total list.  This book also includes an Appendix of the American ships captured by the British during the Revolutionary War.  The authors note that a more complete listing of ships may gradually evolve from the publications of the U. S. Naval History Division of the Naval Documents of the American Revolution.  


Keim:page.  Keim, Deb.Randolph, Rochambeau: A Commemoration by the Congress of the United States of America of the Services of the Grench Auxiliary Forces in the War of Independence, Washington, DC, Government Printing Office, 1907.


Kennett:page.  Kennett, Lee.  The French Forces in America, 1780-1783, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT and London, England, 1977.  Library call numbers E265.K37 and 973.3'47.


Kerr:page.  Kerr, Wilfred Brenton,  Bermuda and the American Revolution: 1760-1783, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1936.


King:page.  King, Irving H.  George Washington’s Coast Guard: Origins of the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service, 1789-1801, Annapolis, MD, Naval Institute Press, 1978.  The early commanders and officers generally had Revolutionary War service.


Kinnaird:page.  Kinnaird, Lawrence, ed.  Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the year 1945, Volume II, Spain in the Mississippi Valley, 1765-1794, (PT. I), The Revolutionary Period, 1765-1781, Washington, DC, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1949.  This book presents typical documents for the period, translated from French or Spanish into English, and represent the Louisiana papers of Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.  These papers were acquired in Havana in the 1880s by Bancroft from Alphonse Pinart.  Only those names of Spanish origin  are listed.


Kite, Elizabeth S.  Beaumarchais and the War of American Independence, 2 vols, Boston, 1918.


Klein:page.  Klein, Herbert S.  “The Colored Militia of Cuba: 1568-1868,” Caribbean Studies, Vol 6, #2, (Jul 1966):17-27.


Klotz:page.  Klotz, Edwin F.  Los Corsarios Americanos y España, 1776-1786), Seminario de Estudios Americanistas, Universidad de Madrid, 1959.  This study, in Spanish deals with several specific captures which caused diplomatic troubles between the Continental Congress and Spain.


Knight,  Russell W. General John Glover’s Letterbook, 1776-1777,  Salem, MA, Essex Institute, 1976.


Knox, Dudley W.  The Naval Genius of George Washington, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1932.  What any naval officer of the time would have said is that they knew of no such genius; but what we see in retrospect is that Washington had a great insight that the war would be brought to a climax at sea, not on land.  Events proved him correct.


K:page.  Kuenthe, Allan J., Cuba, 1753-1815, Crown, Military, and Society, Knoxville, TN, University of Tennessee Press, 1986  


LG:page.  Lacour-Gayet, G., La Marine Militaire de La France sous le Règne de Louis XVI, Paris, 1905.


Lambert, Andrew.  War at Sea in the age of sail, 1650-1850, Washington, DC, Smithsonian, 2005.


Larrabee, Harold Atkins.  Decision at the Chesapeake, New York, C. N. Potter, 1964.  (E271.L3).


++FD:volume:page.  Larrazabal Blanco, Carlos, Familias Dominicanas, 9 volumes, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, 1967.                     


Lasseray, Andre.  Les Francais Sous les Treize Etoiles (1775-1783)., Macon: Protat Freres, 1935, 2 volumes, 400 French officers listed.  E265.B67.1983b, oversize.


Lawrence:page.  Lawrence, Alexander A.   Storm over Savannah: The Story of Count D’Estaing and the Siege of the Town in 1779, (E241.S26L3), revised ed, Athens, University of Georgia Press, 1968.


Leamon:page.  Leamon, James S.  Revolution Downeast: The War for American Independence in Maine, Amberst, MA, 1993.


Letter:page.  Letter from the Secretary of War, Communicating a Transcript of the Pension List of the United States Shewing the Number of Pensioners in the Several Districts.  Also, the Amount Allowed to each Pensioner, June 1, 1813.  Referred to the Committee of Claims.  Washington: A. and G. Way, Printers, 1813.   All of these were invalids, and the only indication of service is the rank.  Only marines, midshipmen, or mariners were extracted.  Others with sea service may be among the privates, corporals, sergeants, ensigns, fifers,  drummers, etc.


Lewis:page.  Lewis, Charles Lee, Admiral de Grasse and American Independence, Annapolis, US Naval Institute, 1945.


Lewis(1975):page.  Lewis, James A., “New Spain and the American Revolution, 1779-1783: A Viceroyalty at War,” Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, 1975.


Lewis(1991):page.  Lewis, James A., The Final Campaign of the American Revolution: Rise and Fall of the Spanish Bahamas, Columbia, SC, University of South Carolina Press, 1991.


Lux:page.  Lewis, James A., Neptune’s Militia: the Frigate South Carolina during the American Revolution, Kent, OH, 1999.  The listing of Luxembourgers who served on the South Carolina is the best one found.


Lewisohn:page. Lewisohn, Florence, The American Revolution’s Second Front: Persons & Places Involved in the Danish West Indies and some other West Indian Islands, The Caribbean Research Institute, College of the Virgin Islands, Prestige Press, Inc., Christiansted, St. Croix, USVI, 1976.


LewisohnF:page.  Lewisohn, Florence, “What So Proudly We Hail” - The Dutch West Indies and the American Revolution, The American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of the Virgin Islands, 1975.  Pages 36-44 give a good account of the sacking of St. Eustatius by Admiral Rodney.  In the port he found some 130 privateers/merchantmen, five American naval vessels, and one Dutch warship, and 12 large British merchant ships.  He sailed to catch a Dutch convoy, just departed, and brought in 23 merchant ships (one Danish) and a Dutch frigate.  He continued to fly the Dutch flag for more than a month and captured 50 more American vessels.  He had as prisoners about 2000 American merchants and seaman.  The vessels and goods from the St. Eustatius warehouses were sold at auction for an immense sum.  Thirty-four unsold vessels were loaded with unsold loot and sent in convoy to Britain, but the French, under Admiral Lamothe Pique was able to take 22 vessels, giving the French goods worth 4,800,000 pounds sterling.   The Golden Rock of St Eustatius, though, was left bare, and has never recovered any significance.


LCP:page.  Library of Congress Manuscript Division, List of Privateers in the War of the Revolution, Shelf # 22618, LC Control # MM83083584, Call # MMC-2369, Manuscript Reading Room, (Madison, LM101).  The records are an alphabetical listing of privateers and commanders and other officers (all in one list), state of origin, date of bond for each officer listing, and a number of the basic record of the Continental Congress.  

 

++JAVolume:page.  Lint, Gregg L., Robert J. Taylor, Celeste Walker, Papers of John Adams, ten or more volumes, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983.  Volume 6 has listings of mariners who were given aid in Europe by John Adames or the Commissoners of Paris, and also includes the  listing of mariners who served on the Ranger under John Paul Jones.


Lloyd, Christopher.  Atlas of Maritime History, New York, Arco Publishing Company, Inc, 1975.  This gives brief summaries of the great sea battles during the American Revolution.


Loliannette, Spanish diplomatic policy and contribution to the United States independence, Unis, 1990.


Loménie:page.  Loménie, Louis de, translated by Henry S. Edwards.  Beaumarchais and His Times, New York, Harper and Brothers, 1857.


Lydon, James G., Pirates, Privateers, and Profits, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Gregg Press, 1970.  (F128.4.L93).  This has very limited coverage of crewmen in the West Indies or elsewhere.


Lynch, Barbara A., compiler.  The War at Sea: France and the American Revolution, A Bibliography, Washington: Department of the Navy, 1976.


Mackesy, Piers.  The War for America, 1775-1783, (E208.M14), Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1964.  Frequently quoted by those who wish to over-emphasise the French participation and under-rate what the Spanish did.  For example, to illustrate the relative contributions, he shows the European continental limits and populations of France and Spain and ignores the colonies in America, from which the Spanish made their contributions.


++Maclay:page.  Maclay, Edgar S.  A History of American Privateers, New York, 1899, New York


++Legajo:section:page.  Magdaleno, Ricardo, Catalogo XXII, del Archivo de Simancas, Secretaria de Guerra (Siglo XVIII): Hojas de Servicios de Américas, Valladolid, Spain, 1958.  This alphabetical listing of officers and key soldiers who served in America also shows the Legajo (bundle, or record), which was prepared for each person.  Each service record summarizes service to the year of record, usually in the 1790's.  Those who had achieved rank of Capt or higher by 1800, Lt or Sgt 1st Cl by 1795, Sgt or Sub-Lt by 1790, were probably in service by 1783.  Each individual service record must be studied to determine when each person entered service.  Among those not included above may be others who served during the war.  Legajo 7289 covers Puerto Rico and Legajo 7290 covers Santo Domingo, and most of the entries were checked.


Mahan, Alfred T.  The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence, (E271.M22), Boston: Little, Brown, 1913, reprinted by Greenwood, 1969.


_______.  The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, New York, Barns & Noble Books, 2004. (D215.M342 2004).


++Malo:page.  Malo, Henri, translated from the French by Stewart L. Mims, “American Privateers at Dunkerque,” Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, Vol 37, (1911):933-993.


Marley, David F.  Pirates and Privateers of the Americas, Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, c 1994.  (E18.M44, 1994).  Limited value.


Martens, Georg Friedrich von, An essay on Privateers, Captures, and particularly on Recaptures, London, for E. and R. Brooke, 1801.  Translated from the French, with notes, by Thomas Hartwell Horne.


Martin, Asa E., “American Privateers and the West India Trade, 1776-77,” The American Historical Review, Vol 39 (Jul 1934):100-106.


Marvin:page.  Marvin, Winthrop L.  The American Merchant Marine: Its History and Romance from 1620 to 1902, New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910.  When the Revolutionary War began in 1775, there were over 300 whalers (vessels) in action, with over 5000 experienced seamen.  For the village of Nantucket, of the 150 whalers (vessels) in 1775, 134 were captured by the British.  The British wanted both the whale oil and the experienced sailors whom they impressed into British service.  By the end of the war, most British whalers were impressed Americans.  The fishing industry was also hard hit by the war, because Americans traded fish in the West Indies for rum and sugar, then used the gain to purchase factory goods from Britain.


Marx, Jenifer.  Pirates and Privateers of the Caribbean, Malabar, FL, Krieger Publishing Comp., 1992.  (972.9 Mar). This has very limited coverage of privateering of the Revolutionary War, and even that is so general it did not contribute to this study.


Maryland Archives, vol XI and XII.  Marylanders out of Baltimore had a very active West Indies trade with the Dutch.


++MASvolume:page.  Massachusetts Revolutionary War Soldiers and Sailors, 17 volumes, 175,000 names of soldiers and sailors, giving, when recorded, name and age, home town, date and location of enlistment, length of service, and physical features.  It is not a complete listing, for when comparing this list with those later receiving pensions, only about half the pensioners could be identified.


++McClellan, Edwin North.  “Continental Marine Officers of the American Revolution,” DARM, vol 55, #6 (June 1921):303-312; Vol 56, #1 (Jan 1922):23-33; Vol 57, #7, (Jul 1932):409-417; vol 66:#9, (Sep 1932):560-568 (c 425 officers with ship served on.)  


+McCusker, John J.  “The American Invasion of Nassau in the Bahamas,” American Neptune, vol 25 (Jul 1965):189-217.


McCusker, John J.  Alfred: The First Continental Flagship, 1775-1778, Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973.


McGuffie:page.  McGuffie, T. H., The Siege of Gibraltar, 1779-1783, Philadelphia, Dufour Editions, 1965.  Although highly recommended as a glorification of the British defenders, this work is useless for finding names of Spanish units, ships, or individuals.


++M:page.  McManemin, John A., Captains of the State Navies during the Revolutionary War, Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing Company, Spring Lake, NJ 07762, 1984.


++Mc:page.  McManemin, John A., Captains of the Continental Navy, Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing Company, Ho-Ho-Kus, NJ 07453, 1982.


McCT:page and McPA:page.  McManemin, John A., Sea Raiders from Connecticut During the American Revolution and Sea Raiders from Pennsylvania During the American Revolution, two volumes in one, Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing Company, Spring Lake, NJ, 1995.


++McM:page.  McManemin, John A., Captains of the Privateers during the Revolutionary War, Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing Company, Spring Lake, NJ 07762, 1985.


McMA:page.  McManemin, John A., Revolution on the High Seas: A History of Maritime Massachusetts During the Revolutionary War, Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing Company, Spring Lake, NJ, 1988.  There is a good listing of vessels, but the list of men is limited to key officers of the ships and land support.


++Mob:page.  De Borja Medina Rojas, E., José de Espeleta: Governador de la Mobila, 1780-1781, Publicationes de la Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain), 1780.  (This work is in Spanish, but it contains some names and events not found in other books.)


Medina Rojas, Francisco de Borja.  Jose de Ezpeleta; Gobernador de la Mobila, 1780-1781, Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain, 1980.  


Merlant:page.  Merlant, Jochim, La France et la guerre de l’independence americaine (1776-1783), Paris, F. Alcan 1918, translated into English as Sailors and Soldiers of France in the American War for Independence (1776-1783, 1920.  


MarCT:page.  Middlebrook, Louis F.  History of Maritime Connecticut During the American Revolution, 1775-1783, 2 volumes, (F99.M63), Salem, MA, Essex Institute, 1925.


++Mill:page.  Colburn, Jeremiah, “A List of Americans committed to Old Mill Prison Since the American War: when taken; vessels taken in; when committed; place of abode; exchanged; ran away; and died in prison,” Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol XIX (Jan 1865):74-75; (April, 1865):136-142; (Jul 1865):208-213).


Miller, John Fitzhugh.  Building Early American Warships: the journal of the Rhode Island committee for constructing the Continental frigates Providence & Warren, 1775-1777,Williamsburg, VA, Thirteen Colonies Press, 1988. (E273.P75 B84 1988).


Miller, Nathan.  Sea of Glory: The Continental Navy Fights for Independence, 1775-1783, (E271.M52), New York, McKay, 1974.


Morales Lezcano, Victor.  “Diplomática y Política financiera de España durante la sublevación de las colonias ingleses en América, 1775-1783,” Anuario de estudios americanos, XXVI (1969):507-565.


++MP:page.  Morales Padron, Francisco, editor and translator.  Journal of Don Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis during the Commission which he had in his charge from 25 June 1780 until the 20th of the same month of 1783, Gainesville, FL, University of Florida Press, 1988.  This is a basic reference for understanding the maritime conflict over the West Indies.  As it was not translated until 1988, most American historians misunderstand the whole effort in the West Indies.  


Morales Padron, Francisco.  Participación de España en la independencia política de los Estados Unidos, Madrid: Publicaciónes Españolas, 1952, 2d ed, 1963.  


Morales Padron, Francisco.  Spanish Help in American Independence, Publicationes Españoles, Madrid, 1952.  This pamphlet, in English, gives specific listings of aid furnished to the American cause by Spain, both before Spain entered the war and afterwards.


Morgan, William James.  “American Privateering in America’s War for Independence, 1775-1783,” Neptune, Vol 36 (Apr 1976):79-87.


Morison:page.  Morison, Samuel Eliot, John Paul Jones: A Sailor’s Biography, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1959.  This is an excellent book for general reading about an authentic hero, but it listed only high level officials or officers.  It did list nearly all the vessels which Jones commanded, captured, or engaged.


Morris:page.  Morris, Richard B., Select Cases of the Mayor’s Court of New York City, 1674-1784, The American Historical Association, Washington, DC, 1935.


Murphy:page.  Murphy, W. S. "The Irish Brigade of Spain at the Capture of Pensacola, 1781," Florida Historical Quarterly,


M880:Roll.  M880, Records of Naval Personnel During the Revolutionary War, Naval Personnel, Rolls 3 and 4.  (This title is a misnomer.  What is found on these two rolls is an alphabetical listing of most members of the VA Navy, and miscellaneous crew records from about ten vessels from other states.  Included are names of some of the Chesapeake Bay vessels which moved supplies to Yorktown during and after the siege.  About one-third of the names found are not duplicated in other records.)


S….., W….., and R…..  National Genealogical Society, Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applications, Washington, DC, 1966.  The general way to designate those is as S…., for Survivor, or W…., for Widow, or R…., for Rejected.  (For VA state records, the R designation is not for rejection, but a regular alpha-numerical designation.) The most frequent cause for rejection for naval service was the difficulty of finding records to give the total of six months required to qualify.  Further, the law in 1818 would cause a rejection which was later acceptable.  Most privateer voyages were for a few weeks or months, and the records were only kept until all men were paid.  So applicants for pensions had a hard time proving maritime service.  The index of applications only showed type of service on a notation outside the packet, and it might be “Navy” or “Sea Service” or “Privateer.”   Relatively few applications with mariner service can be found from these notations.  Many of those who had records based on land service would mention their maritime service, but others did not; so a detailed study of entire pension applications would reveal other mariners but not all.  The best approach for a family historian is to get all the pension records for a person of his or her name and study them all.


Naval History Division, Department of the Navy, editors.  Maritime Dimensions of the American Revolution, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977.


++NDvol:page.  Clark, William B, et al.  Naval Documents of the American Revolution, 11 volumes in 2005, Washington, DC, 1964 - 2005.  E271.U583, vols 1 through 11, Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, Washington, dates of each volume separate, beginning in 1964, generally one for each president.  The names of French vessels and French or Spanish individuals in the first ten volumes were those who most likely participated in providing clandestine aid to the colonies.


Nemours:page.  Nemours, (General) Alfred.  Haiti et la Guerre de l’independence Américaine, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 1952.  Nemours gives (in French) the most complete account of the activities of the free blacks and mulattoes of the voluntary chasseurs, and of additional free black and mulatto volunteers.  He gave the total number from Haiti as 1550, of whom 800 were people of color.


NR:page.  Lincoln, Charles Henry, Naval Records of the American Revolution (Calendar), Washington, DC, 1906.


Neeser:page, Neeser, Robert Wilden, Letters and Papers Relating to the Cruises of Gustavus Conyngham, a Captain of the Continental Navy, 1777-1779, Port Washington, NY, Kennikat Press, 1915, republished 1970.


Nester:page.  Nestor, William R.  The Frontier War for American Independence, Mechanicsburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 2004.  This is an excellent book for dealing with the interior frontiers, but it speaks little of the maritime frontiers which were also very real and compelling.  Even so, the frontiers the author does discuss include some maritime operations.  The indexing is only to major personages or topics, of little value to this study.


Nieuwe Nederlandsche Jaerbaken, 1777, 1781.  (not found nor used.)


NLHS:Volume:Part:page.  Records and Papers of the New London County Historical Society (CT), 1890-1894, including Part I, Volume I, pages 110-127, “Memoir of Captain Richard Law;” Part II, Volume I, pages 47-51, “”Revolutionary Naval Officers from Connecticut;” Part IV, Volume I, pp 6-33, “The Work of the Privateers;” pp 34-45, “The State Vessels of Connecticut during the Revolution;”  pp 46-64, “The Story of the Vessels Built in Connecticut for the Continental Navy;” and pp 65-74, “Brief Biographies of the Connecticut Revolutionary Naval and Privateer Officers.”


Noailles:page.  Noailles, Amblard Marie Raymond Amedié, Marins et soldats français in Amérique pendant la guerre de l’Indépendence des États-Unis (1778-1783), Paris: Perrin & Company, 1903.


Nordholt:page.  Nordholt, Jan Willem Schulte, translated by Herbert H. Rowen, The Dutch Republic and American Independence, Chapel Hill, NC, The University of North Carolina Press, 1979.


Norris:page.  Norris, Walter B.  Annapolis, Its Colonial and Naval Story, New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Comp, 1925.  The book makes pleasant reading, but its cast of characters are very high level and do not add new names.


++OC:page.  “Journal of a Cruise in 1777 in the Privateer Brig Oliver Cromwell,” The Essex Institute of Historical Collections, Vol XLV (1909):245-255.


ORG:page.  O’Connor, Raymond G., Origins of the American Navy: Sea Power in the Colonies and the New Nation, New York, University Press of America, 1994.


Odelberg, Wilhelm.  Viceamiral Count Olof Crostedt, Helsingfors, 1954.  Swedes who served with the French, Dutch, and British fleets during the American Revolution are discussed, pages 18-48.  Most served to gain experience, earn money, or to leave unfavorable circumstances at home.  At least 50 served as officers in the British Royal Navy and over 370 seamen either enlisted or were impressed into the Royal Navy during the war.  Over 100 Swedes served in the Dutch Navy and somewhat fewer in the French Navy.  A few Swedes made their way into the American army.  Count Crostedt was Sweden’s Ambassador to France during the War, and it was his task to place the different Swedish applicants in the service of their preference.  Other Swedes who were involved in the War were those seamen who shipped onto American, French, or Dutch privateers and shared in the hazards or rewards of those vessels.


++Paine:page.  Paine, Ralph Delahaye, The Ships and Sailors of Old Salem: The Record of a Briliant Era of American Achievement, Boston, Charles E. Lauriat Comp., 1927.  Paine notes that there were 136 privateers at sea by the end of 1776, and 449 in commission in 1781.  He could account for their capture of 800 British vessels and 12,000 British seaman during the war.  More recent researchers give higher figures.  Though he mixes some Beverly vessels with those of Salem, he shows a total of 196 vessels, 1965 guns, 7631 men.


Paine, Ralph Delahaye.  The Old Merchant Marine: a Chronicle of American Ships and Sailors, New Haven, Yale University Press, c 1919.  (HE745.P3, 1921).  A general discussion of limited value to this study.


Paine, Ralph Delahaye.  Privateers of 76.  (PS3531.A275P75), Philadelphia, Penn Publishers, 1923.


Patterson, Alfred Temple.  The Other Armada: the Franco-Spanish attempt to invade Britain in 1779, Manchester, England, Manchester University Press, c 1960.  (D295.P37).  The fact there was such an armada is not generally known to Americans, and this study is a good read on some of its aspects; however, the epidemic which swept through the Spanish and French fleets is not even mentioned as a factor in the outcome.  (The epidemic was probably smallpox.)


Paullin, Charles O.  The Navy of the American Revolution: Its Administration, Its Policy and Its Achievements.  (E271.P298), Chicago: Burrows Brothers, 1906, New York, Haskell House, 1971.


PCO:Vol:page.  Paullin, Charles O. Outletters of the Continental Marine Committee and Board of Admiralty, Aug 1776-Sep 1780, Vol I and II, New York, De Vinne Press for the Naval History Society, 1914.  These are generally higher level letters which seldom name sailors or ordinary seamen.


Peabody:page.  Peabody, Robert E., The Log of the Grand Turk, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1926.


Peden, Henry C., Revolutionary Patriots of Delaware, 1775-1783, Family Line Publications, Westminster, MD, 1996.  This excellent listing of DL Patriots includes the sailors listed in Delaware Archives, Military and Naval Records, Vol II, Wilmington, DL.  In scanning the lists of Patriots, very few were identified as mariners.  It is probable that the members of the militia or Continental Army who participated in the capture of stranded British or Tory vessels are included.


Peden, Henry C.,  Colonial Delaware Soldiers and Sailors, 1638-1776, Willow Bend Books, Westminster, MD, 2000.  This listing used Delaware Archives, Military and Naval Records, Vol I, Wilmington, Merchantile Printing Company, 1911.  Very few were listed as mariners.


Peña y Camara, José María de la.  Catalogo de documentos de Archivo General de Indias: Sobre la Epoca Espanola de Luisiana. New Orleans, Loyola University, 1968.


Pennell, Donald J.  "King (Juan) Carlos I of Spain Now a Compatriot," The SAR Magazine, XCIV (Spring, 2000), #4:4-6.


Penobscot:page.  Fowler, William, “Disaster in Penobscot Bay,” Naval War College Review, Vol 31 (Winter 1978):75-80.


Pérez-Alonzo, Manuel Ignacio, S. J.  “War Mission in the Caribbean: The Diary of Don Francisco de Saavedra (1780-1783).”

 

Pérez Hervas, José.  España & los Estados Unidos, Nuestra participación en la independencia de aquel país. Barcelona, La Publicidad, 1918.


Perkins, James Breck.  France in the American Revolution, New York, 1911, reprinted, 1970.  Perkins was a pro-French historian who knew little or nothing about the Spanish participation with France in providing aid to America, nor did he know about the de Grasse-Saavedra Convention which governed French and Spanish operations in the Western Hemisphere.  His concept of the Spanish Empire was perhaps molded during the Spanish-American War, 125 years out of date.  His book does not accurately portray history of the Revolutionary War and its participants, but it may be of more interest in showing how his 1911 prejudices molded his perception of 1775-1783 facts.  (E265.P44 1970)


Perry, James M., “Disaster on the Delaware,” Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute, Vol 88 (Jan 1962):84-91.


Petrie:page.  Petrie, Sir Charles, King Charles III of Spain: An Enlightened Despot, The John Day Company, New York, 1791.


Prescott, B. F. The Stars and Stripes: The Flag of the United States of America: When, Where and by Whom was it first Saluted, pamphlet  of the Secretary of State of New Hampshire, Concord, 1876.


Proprietors of the Privateer Brigantine General Sullivan, 1777-1781,  manuscript and microfilm reel of records of the owners of the privateer in Archival Manuscript Material in the Library of Congress, 58 pages.


Purcell, L. Edward.  Who Was Who in the American Revolution, New York, Facts on File, 1993.  Summaries of recognized names and leaders.


RQ:page.  Quatrefages, René, “La Participación de Francia en la Toma de Pensacola,” Revista de Historia Militar, Vol XXI, #2, 1977, pp 7-30.


Rand:page.  Rand, Edwin Holmes, “Maine Privateers in the Revolution,” The New England Quarterly, pp 826-834.


R(year):part:page.  Remembrancer, or impartial repository of Public Events, London, J. Almon, vol II, 1776.  Page ??? shows the ship losses to British and American forces for that year.  It is probable that Vol 75), Vol III (1777), Vol IV (1778), Vol V (1779), Vol VI (1780), Vol VII (1781), Vol VIII (1782), and Vol IX (1783) carry similar summaries for each year.  This is one of the best sources for listing ships and captains of the Revolutionary War, of course from the British viewpoint.


Remond, André, John Holker, manufacturier et grand fonctionnaire in France au XVIIIme siècle, 1719-1786, Paris, M. Rivière, 1946.


Renaut, Francis P.  Corsaires, croisières et contrebande au temps de la guerre d’Amérique, 1776-1783, Sur les flots d’oubli, Paris, Editions du Graouli, 1928.


Rice:volume:page.  Rice, Howard C. Jr, and Anne S. K. Brown, The American Campaigns of Rochambeau’s Army, 1780, 1781, 1782, 1783, volume I consisting of the journals of Clermont-Crèvecoeur, Verger, and Berthier, and volume II consisting of the itineraries, maps, and views, jointly published by Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, and Brown University Press, Providence, RI, 1972.


Rider:page.  Rider, Hope S., Valour Fore & Aft: Being the Adventures of the Continental Sloop Providence, 1775-1779, Formerly Flagship Katy of Rhode Islands Navy, Annapolis, MD, Naval Institute Press, 1977.


RMVolume#:page.  E. James Ferguson, John Catanzariti, and others, ed.  The Papers of Robert Morris, 1781-1784, Vol 1: Feb 7 - July 31, 1781 (1773), Vol 2: Aug-Sep 1781 (1975), Vol 5, April 16-July 20, 1982 (1980), Vol 6: July 22-Oct 31, 1782 (1984), University of Pittsburgh Press.  This work was helpful in identifying persons who worked with or for Robert Morris.


Roberts:page.  Roberts, James A., New York in the Revolution: Colony and State, 2d ed, Albany, NY, Press of Brandow Printing Company, 1898.  


Robertson:page.  Robertson, E. Arnot, “The Spanish Town Papers: Some Sidelights on West Indian Privateering,” in Charles W. Toth, The American Revolution and the West Indies, Port Washington, NY Kennikat Press, 1975.  The records for the Vice-Admiralty Court of the West Indies, located at Port Royal, Kingston, Jamaica, handled the condemnation and sale of almost 1000 ships captured in the West Indies.  Most of these ships were American, though some were French, Spanish, and Dutch who were trading with Americans.  (See next entry.)


Robertson(1959):page.  Robertson, E. Arnot, The Spanish Town Papers,  Cresset Press, 1959.  This is the study of the records of the Vice-Admiralty Court of the West Indies, during the Revolutionary War.  Unfortunately, most of them were destroyed or so disintegrated they could not be read.


Robertson, James A. trans. and ed.  “Spanish Correspondence Concerning the American Revolution, 1779-1783,” Hispanic American Historical Review, I, (1918):299-316.


Robertson, William Spence.   Life of Miranda, Chapel Hill, The University of North Carolina Press, 2 vol, 1929.  Miranda was an aide to General Bernardo Galvez at Pensacola, but his main usefulness was his fluency in English.  He actually contributed little and soon got into trouble for giving British officer prisoners a tour of the defenses of Havana.  He later traveled in the United States, where he took credit for more than he actually did.


Rodriquez, Antonio Acosta.  La Población de Luisiana Española (1763-1803), Madrid, Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, 1979.


Rubio Arguelles, Angeles.  Un Ministro de Carlos III, D. José de Gálvez y Gallardo, Marqués de Sonora, Málaga, Spain, 1949.


Rubio Mañé, Jorge Inacio.  “Las Tropas de Campecha en la toma de Penzacola,” Revista de Historia Yucateca, vol 13 (1973):156-159.  (This sounds like a useful reference, but it has not yet been obtained, not even located in any U. S. library.)


Saffell:page.  Saffell, W. T. R., Records of the Revolutionary War, reprint of the Third Edition of 1894, Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Company, 1969.  The title is a misnomer, as the records of almost entirely limited to records of soldiers.  The “Index to Saffell’s List of Virginia Soldiers in the Revolution,” by J. T. McAllister, 1913, at the end of the book, may include names of some sailors.


Salley:page.  Salley, A. S. Jr, Journal of the Commissioners of the Navy of South Carolina, Oct 9, 1776 - Mar 1, 1779, Historical Commission of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 1912.


VANavy:page.  Sanchez-Saavedra, E. M., A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution, 1774-1787, Virginia State Library, 1978.


ScharfI:page.  Scharf, J. Thomas, History of Delaware, 1609, 1888, Philadelphia, L. J. Richards & Company, 1888, 1990.


NJNavy:page.  Scheina, Robert L.  “A Matter of Definition: A New Jersey, Navy, 1777-1783,” The American Neptune, Vol XXXIX (Jul 1979), pp 209-217.  This contains a good listing of the armed boats and other small vessels used against the British in New York.


Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, (HF3025.S3), New York: The Facsimile Library, 1939.

“Saint Lucia, 1778,” Macmillan’s Magazine, Apr 1902.


Savannah:  Charles C. Jones, Jr, translator or director of translation.  The Siege of Savannah, in 1779, as Described in Two Contemporaneous Journals of Franch Officers in the Fleet of Count d’Estaing, Albany, NY, (1874):57-70.  This was part of a journal written by an anonymous French officer and published as Extrait du Journal d’un officier de la marine de l’Escadre de M. le comte d’Estaing, Paris, 1782.


SchV:page.  Schomberg, Isaac, Esq, Captain in the Royal Navy,  Naval Chronology; or, an Historical Summary of Naval & Maritime Events, from the time of the Romans, to the Treaty of Peace, 1802, With an Appendix in Five Volumes, Vol V, Ch 1, “Losses Sustained by the Several Beligerent Powers,” London, 1802.  All page numbers are from Volume IV, or from Volume V, Appendix, part 9, dealing with the Revolutionary War.


Scott:page.  Scott, James Brown, De Grasse At Yorktown, Institut Français de Washington, The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1931.  Scott drew heavily from Doniol on the French participation and mentions only key personnel.


Selby, John E.  The Revolution in Virginia:1775-1783, Williamsburg, VA, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1988.  E263.v8.S45, 1988.


Sellers:document number.  Sellers, John R, Gerald W. Cawalt, Paul H. Smith, and Patricia Mole van Ee (American Revolution Bicentennial Office, Library of Congress), Manuscript Sources in the Library of Congress for Research on the American Revolution, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 1975, for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, stock number 8003-0011.  Library call #, Z1238.U57, 1975, or E208.  Some of the significant items for the West Indies include:

Item #231, Journals and Diaries, Domestic Collections, “Dag Register,” Dutch records of their warships, and the Anglo-Dutch War, which arose because of clandestine Dutch support to the Americans.

Item *379, Journals and Diaries, Domestic Collections, “Anonymous, Journal of French Naval Operations, 1778-1782.”

Item *416, Domestic Collections, “Benjamin Lincoln,” diary on the Siege of Savannah, Oct 1779.

Item *449, Journals and Diaries, Domestic Collections, “Christopher Vail,” 1775-Aug 1782 experiences on Antigua and Martinique and as a privateer.

Item *1005, Domestic Collections, “Comte de Rochambeau Papers,” 16 vols, 1 folio, 1763-1794, letters for 1782-83 include French efforts to withdraw from North America to the West Indies.

Item *1148, Foreign Reproductions from France, Archives du Port de Lorient, “Lettres Du Ministère,” instruction on privateers and their prizes.

Item *1154, Foreign Reproductions from France, Archives Des Colonies, “Sub-Series 29A, Saint-Domingue, I (vols 124-162,” includes French trade and naval warfare.

Item *1159, Foreign Reproductions from France, Archives Des Colonies, “Sub-Series F2B, Commerce Aux Colonies,” detailed account of French commerce with the U. S. , 1780-84.

Item *1164, Foreign Reproductions from France, Archives de la Marine, “Sub-Series B4, Campagnes,” includes reports on naval operations in the West Indies.

Item #1070, Domestic Collections, “Barthélemy Terrasson Papers,” commercial correspondence including West Indies.

Item *1175, Foreign Reproductions from France, Bibliothèque Nationale, Départment of Manuscripts, several folios on the West Indies.

Item *1176, Foreign Reproductions from France, Biblio. Nationale, Dep. of Manuscripts, several folios on the West Indies.

Item *1182, Foreign Reproductions from France, “Corps des Troupes,” select muster rolls and other military records for the French Army, 1762-1792, divided into infantry, artillery, and cavalry.  Those complete or partial infantry regiments in the U. S., or the West Indies included: d’Agénois, West Indies; d’Armagnac, West Indies; de Royal Auvergne, after 1781 in West Indies; de Berwick, West Indies; de Bourbonnais, U. S.; Cambrésis, West Indies; de Dillon, West Indies and U. S.; d’Enghien, West Indies and the U. S.; de Foix, West Indies and the U. S.; de Gâtinais, renamed Royal Auvergne after Yorktown, West Indies and U. S.; de Hainault, West Indies and U. S.; de Royal Deux-Ponts, U. S.; de Saintonge, U. S.; de Soissonnais, U. S.; de Touraine, West Indies and U. S.; de Viennois, West Indies; de Walsh-Serrant, West Indies and the U. S.  Those partial artillery regiments included Artillerie, Colonies, West Indies; de Metz, West Indies and U. S.;  and d’Auxonne, U. S.  Those partial cavalry regiments included Hussards, Lauzun, U. S.; and de Belzunce, West Indies and U. S.  Among the above units listed West Indies and the U. S. are those which fought at Savannah, Yorktown, and Pensacola.  

Item *1183, Foreign Reproductions from France, Mémoires Historiques, reports on campaigns in the West Indies, 1777-80.

Item *1188, Foreign Reproductions from France, Archives Administratives, “Travail du Roi,”  includes citations, awards of pensions, promotions, and related documents for the war period, 1778-1782.

Item *1194, Foreign Reproductions from France, Correspondance Politique, includes military and finance operations while at war as an ally to the U. S.

Item *1201, Foreign Reproductions from France, Bibliothéque du Service Central Hydrographique de la Marine, “Service Hydrographique Archives,” including a 1777-1778 list of French ships stationed in America, and a report on the Hudson Bay Expedition of 1782.

Item #1270, Foreign Reproductions from Mexico, Archivo General de la Nación, “Marina,” 44 boxes including some documents on ships and troops during the Rev. War.

Item #1279, Foreign Reproductions from Spain, Seville, Archivo General de Indias, “Audiencias, Santo Domingo,” mostly deals with internal affairs in Florida and Louisiana.

Item #1282,  Foreign Reproductions from Spain, Seville, Archivo General de Indias, “Papeles Procedentes de Cuba,” deals mostly with relationships among the Spanish officials of Louisiana, Florida, Cuba, and other West Indies entities.

Item #1286, Foreign Reproductions from Spain, Seville, Archivo General de Simancas, Secretaría de Guerra, “Las Floridas y Louisiana, 1781-1801,” covers activities of the period.

Item #1287,  Foreign Reproductions from Spain, Seville, Archivo General de Simancas, Secretaría de Marina, “Las Indias (Occidentales), 1780-1783,” Spanish, French, and British naval operations.


Shaw, Henry I., Jr, “Penobscot Assault - 1779,” Military Affairs: Journal of the American Military Institute, Vol 17 #2 (Summer, 1953):83-94, Washington, DC.

 

Sheffield, William Payne.   Privateers and Privateersmen of Newport,” Contributions to the newspaper, The Newport Mercury, Newport, RI, 1880.  This covers a few of the leaders and captures.  It claims that 180 commissions were issued for privateer cruises by RI vessels; and it notes that the damage by US privateer vessels to the British vessels between May 1776 and Feb 1778 was 733 captures, 13,000 seaman taken prisoner, and cargoes worth more than 5 million pounds taken.


Sheppard:page.  Sheppard, John H., The Life of Samuel Tucker: Commodore in the American Revolution, Boston, 1868.


Sherman, Andrew M., Life of Captain Jeremiah O’Brien, Machias, Maine: Commander of the First American Naval Flying Squadron of the War of the Revolution, Morristown, NJ, G. W. Sherman, 1902.


++Smith:page.  Smith, Charles R.  Marines in the Revolution: A History of the Continental Marines in the American Revolution, 1775-1783, Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, Washington, DC 20380, 1975.


SmithSS:page.  Smith, Samuel Stelle, Fight for the Delaware, 1777, Philip Freneau Press, Monmouth Beach, NJ, 1970.


Smithsonian4651:page.  Smithsonian Publication 4651, A View of the New England Arm’d Vessels on Valcure Bay on Lake Champlain, 11 Oct 1776, designed and illustrated by Frank Dobias, Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution, 1966.


SoC:page.  Society of theCincinnati.  Roster of the Society of the Cincinnati, published by the Society, 2001.  The original qualifying members from France served in every part of France’s conflict with Britain, and were thus more inclusive than later organizations such as the Sons of the American Revolution.  A French descendant can today be a member of the Society of the Cincinnati, but not be eligible for membership in the Sons of the American Revolution because the qualifying ancestor did not serve in the 13 American states or in their adjacent waters.  


Starr:page.  Starr, J. Barton.  Tories, Dons, and Rebels: The American Revolution in British West Florida, Gainesville, FL, The University Presses of Florida, 1976.


Stevens, Benjamin Franklin, ed.  Facsimiles of Manuscripts in European Archives Relating to America, 1773-1783, 25 vols, London, 1889-1895, contains much of the same information as Doniol’s six volumes.  E203.S843, in microfilm.


Stevens:page.  Stevens, John Austin.  “The Return of the French,” (to France), Magazine of American History, Vol VII, #1, (Jul 1881):1-35.  The previous four articles in this series were: “The French in Rhode Island, 1780-81,” (Jul 1879); “Operations of the Allied Armies before New York, 1781,” (Jan 1780); “Route of the Allies from Kings Ferry to the Head of Elk,” (Jul 1780); “The Allies at Yorktown,” (Jan 1881).


Steward:page.  Steward, Theophilus Gould (1843-1924), How the Black St Domingo Legion Saved the Patriot Army in the Siege of Savannah, 1779, Washington, DC, The Academy, 1899, E185.5.A51, #5, Microfilm 22537 E.


S:page.  Stewart, Robert Armistead, The History of Virginia’s Navy of the Revolution, Baltimore, MD, Genealogy Publishing Comp., 1934, reprinted 1993.


Still:page.  Still, William N.  North Carolina’s Revolutionary War Navy, (E271.S76), NC Dept of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History, 1976.  This is really a pamphlet prepared for the 1976 North Carolina Bicentennial.  It is a good discussion of the vessels and activities of the NC Navy, but it includes no crews.  The author’s focus simply did not encompass the crews who manned the ships.  That information must be obtained elsewhere.


Stinchcombe, William C.  The American Revolution and the French Alliance, Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Press, 1969.  This is a high level approach with few names of soldiers and sailors.


Syrett, David. “D’Estaing’s Decision to Steer for Antigua 28 Nov 1778,” Mariner’s Mirror, vol 61 (May 1975):155-162.   Ordered


Tejera, Eduardo J.  La Ayuda Cubana en la Lucha por la Independencia Norteamericana, Miami, FL, Ediciones Universal, 1972.


++Appeals:microcopy162:roll(case).  The Revolutionary War Prize Cases: Records of the (Continental Congress) Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture, 1776-1787, 15 rolls of file microcopies of records in the National Archives: No. 162, for 115 cases, each case having been decided in a state court but appealed to the Continental Congress.  (The Committee members from the Continental Congress are considered to be the predecessors of the U. S. Supreme Court.)  Persons listed included those claimants involved in the appeal, members of the court, and witnesses for both sides.  It is not always clear which are Patriots and which are Tories or British.  It does not appear that names of the persons involved have ever been directly indexed.


TAR:issue:page.  The Annual Register, 1775-1783.   The issue used most was 21, and it was referenced as Annual Register:21:page.


Thomson, B. P.  La Ayuda Española en la Guerra de la Independencia Norteamericano, Madrid, 1967.


Thomson:page.  Thomson, Buchanan Parker, Spain: Forgotten Ally of the American Revolution, North Quincy, Quincy, MA, The Christopher Publishing House, 1976.


Thonhoff:page.  Thonhoff, Robert H.  The Texas Connection with the American Revolution, Austin, TX Eakin Press, 1981.


Tornero:page.  Tornero Tinajero, Pablo.  “Canarian Immigration to America: The Civil-Military Espedition to Louisiana of 1777-1779,” Lousiana History, Louisiana Historical Association, Vol XXI (1980):377-386.


Tornero Tinajero, Pablo.  “Estudio de la Población de Pensacola, 1784-1820,” Anuario de Estidios Americanas, tomo XXXIV, pp 537-561.  This is a study of the ages, races, sexes, and marital status of the population, with no names mentioned.  The most significant item mentioned is that in 1784, there were in Pensacola 593 inhabitants, but the number had decreased to 572 by 1791.  It increased to 1398 by 1805, then dropped to 992 after it was clear Americans would take over.


Tornquist:page.  Tornquist, Karl Gustaf,  The Naval Campaigns of Count de Grass During the American Revolution, (1781-1783), translated by Amandus Johnson, Swedish Colonial Society, International Printing Company, Philadelphia, PA, 1942.


++Toth:page.  Toth, Charles W., ed.  The American Revolution and the West Indies, (E263.W5A53), Port Washington, NY, Kennekat Printing, 1975.


++Tuchman:page.  Tuchman, Barbara W., The First Salute, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1988.


VirginI:page.  Tyson, George F., Jr.  Powder, Profits, and Privateers: A Documentary History of the Virgin Islands During the Era of the American Revolution, Virgin Islands Bureau of Libraries, Museums & Archaeological Services, Department of Conservation and Cultural Affairs, 1977.


Tyson, George F., Jr.  A Guide to Manuscript Sources in United States and West Indian depositories relating to the British West Indies during the era of the American Revolution, Wilmington, DL, Scholarly Resources, 1978.  (Z1238.T954)


U:page.  Ubbelohde, Carl.  The Vice-Admiralty Courts and the American Revolution, (E216.U22), Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA, by the University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1960.   This is a general discussion of how the courts functioned.


Upton:page.  Upton, Richard Francis.  Revolutionary New Hampshire: An Account of the Social and Political Forces Underlying the Transition from Royal Province to American Commonwealth, Kennikat Press, Port Washington, NY, , 1936, reissued 1970.  The book is easy to read, but it only mentions key persons.


U. S. Navy Department.  Navy and Privateer Pension Fund… Washington, DC: Blair & Rives, 1836.  (House Doc 85, 24th Cong., 1st Sess., SS 288).  400 names of privateers, widows, etc.


Utrillo, Juan Francisco Yela.  España ante la independencia de los Estados Unidos, Lérida, 1925.  Vol 2:9-10 discusses the alliance and trade agreements between the English Colonies and France, disclosed to England 13 Mar 1778 and ratified by the Continental Congress on 4 May 1778.


Van Tyne:page.  Van Tyne, Claude H., “French Aid Before the Alliance of 1778,” American Historical Review, Vol 31, 1925, pp 20-40.


Vaudreuil, Louis de rigaud, Comte de.  “Notes de campagne du comte de Vaudreuil (1781-1783,,” Trois âges de la marine à voile de Louis XVI à Louis-Philippe, pp 9-74, Paris, L’Association des Amis des Musées de la Marine, 1957.


Vaca de Osma, José Antonio.  Intervención de España en la guerra de la indepencencia de los Estados Unidos, Madrid:Aldus, S. A., 1952.  


Van Doren, Carl.  Secret History of the American Revolution, New York: The Viking Press, 1941.


++Vazquez de Espinosa, Antonio.  Compendium and Description of the West Indies, Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968.


Villiers:page.  Villiers, Patrick, Le commerce colonial Atlantique et la guerre D’independence des Etats Unis D’Amerique, 1778-1783, originally presented as the author’s thesis for a Phd in 1975, then published in 1977 by Arno Press, Inc.  Shipowners and Merchants and others who took the risks of the North Atlantic trade to the West Indies and to America are extracted as patriots worthy of recognition.  Most of those studied were from Nants and la Rochelle, with a few from Bordeau.


Weber:page.  Weber, Michael, Battlefields Across America: Yorktown, New York, Henry Holt, 1997.  This summary gives the Chesapeake Bay/Yorktown Campaign from the American point of View.


Weddle:page.  Weddle, Robert S., Changing Tides: Twilight and Dawn in the Spanish Sea, 1763-1803, College Station, TX, Texas A&M University Press, 1995.


Wilbur:page.  Wilbur, C. Keith.  Picture Book of the Revolution's Privateers, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA, 1973.


FWVol:page.  Wharton, Francis, ed.  Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, (6 vols), Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889.  Vol III, IV cover much information on the West Indies and the Dutch trade.  The reference FWVol:page refers to the six volumes.  


WPA, Workers of the Writers Program of the Works Progress Administration for the City of New York, A Maritime History of New York, Garden City, NY, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc, 1941.  This is an interesting general discussion of the growth of New York as a great port and commercial center.


Williamson:page.  Williamson, Gene.  Guns on the Chesapeake: The Winning of America’s Independence, Baltimore, Heritage Books, 1998.


Worcester:page.  Worcester, Donald E.  "Miranda’s Diary of the Siege of Pensacola, 1781," The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol 29 (1951), pp 163-196.  (By being one of the best Spanish-English translaters, Miranda made himself very useful in the final negotiations for surrender.  He gained a great deal of inside knowledge of what had gone on during the Siege and later used this knowledge to enhance his own minor role as a staff officer in the fighting.)


Wright:page.  Wright, James Leitch, Florida in the American Revolution, Board of Regents of the State of Florida, 1975.


York:page.  York, Neil L.  “Clandestine Aid and the American Revolutionary War Effort: A Re-Examination,” Military Affairs, Feb 1979, pp 26-30.


ZapateroPC:page.  Zapetero, Juan Manuel.  Historia de las Fortificaciones de Puerto Cabello, Banco Central de Venezuela, Caracas, 1977.


Zforts:page.  Zapetero, Juan Manuel.  Dos Ejemplos de Fortificaciones Españolas en la Exposicion de Puertos & Fortificaciones en America y Filipinas, Biblioteca C. E. HOPU, 1985.


ZOmoa:page.  Zapetero, Juan Manuel.  El Fuerte San Fernando y las Fortificaciones de Omoa, Organización de Estados Americanos, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 1997.


ZPanama:page.   Zapetero, Juan Manuel.  Historia del Castillo San Lorenzo El Real de Chagre, Madrid, 1985.


ZPR:page.  Zapatera, Juan Manuel.  La Guerra del Caribe en el Siglio XVIII, Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, San Juan de Puerto Rico, 1964.


WIRefs1, 25 Oct 2007.


Revised 6 August 2014 © awiatsea.com