R




RADDON, WILLIAM
PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Raddon, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Venus on 13 July 1776. Not long after Venus made a powder voyage to St. Eustatius, Netherlands West Indies, taking out a cargo of flour, bread, biscuit and staves, and returning with rum, dry goods, and munitions. This perhaps occurred between August 1776 and October 1776. Venus, judging from her disbursements, had an interesting time at St. Eustatius. Anchors were lost, and when a launch was borrowed to retrieve them, that too was lost. [NDAR, V, 1063 and 1064 note; VI, 945-946 and 946 note, 947 and note] Raddon commanded the schooner Dolphin in early 1777. She sailed from Philadelphia for St. Eustatius with flour, tar, tobacco, hoops and lumber but was captured by HM Frigate Roebuck on 5 April 1777 and sent into New York. [NDAR, VIII, 393-394, 1053-1063]


RADFORD, WILLIAM
(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


William Radford was a Lieutenant in the Continental Navy, according to NOAR, 250. A William Radford entered on board the Maryland Navy Ship Defence (Captain George Cook) on 19 September 1776, and ws still there on 4 November 1776, as Sergeant of Marines. [NDAR, VII, 39-40] He was on board HM Sloop Porcupine as a prisoner from Continental Navy Sloop Hornet from 27 April 1777 to 27 May 1777 when he was sent to HMS Antelope. [NDAR, VIII, 1039-1040]


RAFFERTY, JOHN
PA

Midshipman, Pennsylvania Navy


John Rafferty was a Midshipman aboard the Pennsylvania Navy Schooner Delaware (Captain RICHARD EYRES). He entered the Delaware on 9 October 1775 and was still aboard on 1 August 1777. [NDAR, IX, 686]


RAINEY, ARCHIBALD
MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Archibald Rainey was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Revenge on 21 November 1780. [NRAR, 440; Allen, MPR, 262]


RALLS, GEORGE
VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


George Ralls commanded the Virginia [NDAR, IX, 104, 192-195] Privateer Schooner Jenny, which sailed from Virginia to St. Eustatius, Netherlands West Indies, perhaps in April 1777, and probably arrived in May 1777. On 24 May she was laying in the road at St. Eustatius when a British sloop sailed from that island en route to Antigua with a cargo of cotton. ABRAHAM VAN BIBBER, for Maryland and Virginia at St. Eustatius, drafted men from other American vessels in the port, sent them aboard the Jenny, and sent Ralls out after the British sloop. [NDAR, IX, 102-103] This was done in full view of the local authorities. [NDAR, IX, 122-123] Van Bibber later claimed that Ralls had not consulted Van Bibber before sailing out and capturing “a vessel which had received a cargo” from St. Eustatius. [NDAR, X, 508-510]  After a three hour chase the sloop was captured. Soon after HM Frigate Seaford happened upon the scene, captured the Jenny and recaptured the sloop. [NDAR, IX, 102-103] When captured Ralls talked freely: “he was so imprudent as to make known, in the fullest manner, the services the petitioner had rendered . . .” [NDAR, X, 508-510] Vice Admiral James Young used this event to complain to the governor at St. Eustatius, Johannes De Graaf. [NDAR, IX, 122-123] Ralls and the pilot were ordered to be sent to England as prisoners, aboard HM Frigate Hind, on 12 June 1777. [NDAR, IX, 102-103] As a result, Van Bibber was arrested and confined in the fort at St. Eustatius, where he was kept for three or four weeks, in a “disagreeable & perplex’d situation.” Van Bibber escaped on the night of 7/8 July 1777 “by evading the Vigelance of his keepers” and got to St. Croix, Danish West Indies. A few days later he sailed for America. [NDAR, X, 812-813] Of course this ended the smuggling operations at St. Eustatius for a time.


RALPH, ROBERT
RI

First Mate, Continental Navy


Robert Ralph enlisted on 19 December 1775 and served on the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain ABRAHAM WHIPPLE) as Boatswain’s Mate. He deserted at Providence, Rhode Island before 14 November 1776. [NDAR, VII, 142-154] First Mate on 22 June 1776. [NOAR, 251]









RAND, SILAS
MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Silas Rand was a resident of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Hermione on 21 August 1781. [NRAR, 333; Allen, MPR, 174]


RANDALL, WILLIAM


William Randall commanded the Lucee [Lucy] and was captured by the York about September 1782. [NOAR, 251]


RANDOLPH, BENJAMIN

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


Benjamin Randolph was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/2/79

PA

Brigantine Argo (14/75)

Moses Griffing

Benjamin Randolph & Co.

Benjamin Randolph, Moses Griffing

James Trimble [NRAR, 229]

12/15/81

PA

Brigantine Juno (6/20)

Peter Day

Charles Miller, Benjamin Randolph

Peter Day, Charles Miller

James Trimble, Frederick Snider [NRAR, 364]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Bonder

Witness

8/2/79

PA

Schooner Humming Bird (6/16)

John Hennessy

Alexander Nelson, Edward Fox & Co.

Alexander Nelson, B. Randolph

James Trimble [NRAR, 346]


RANDOLPH, EATON

[See RUDOLPH, EATON]


RANKIN, WILLIAM

[See RANKING, WILLIAM]


RANKIN [RANKING], WILLIAM

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


William [Latham] Ranking [Rankin] was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Cotesworth-Pickney in April 1777. Ranking sailed on a largely unsuccessful patrol from 27 April to 17 June 1777. One prize, sloop Mary, was captured, but was retaken by the British. A second unsuccessful patrol followed, probably in July and August 1777. [see Cotesworth-Pickney] He later commanded the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Elbert. [Coker, 300] He is not the same person as the Lathan or Latham Rankin imprisoned on HMS Queen in 1777.


RANKING, WILLIAM

[See RANKIN, WILLIAM]


RANKING, WILLIAM

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Bonder

Witness

2/1/81

MA

Brigantine Flying Fish (6/15)

Anthony Divers

Thomas Lee et al

Anthony Divers, John Moriarty, William Ranking

[NRAR, 298; Allen, MPR, 132]

5/28/81

MA

Brigantine Flying Fish (12/50)

John Gavett

John Moriarty

John Gavett, William Ranking, John Davan

[NRAR, 298; Allen, MPR, 132]

6/3/81

MA

Schooner Languedoc (4/25)

John Augusta Dunn

John Moriarty et al

John Augusta Dunn, John Moriarty, William Ranking

[NRAR, 368; Allen, MPR, 201]


RAPALL, GEORGE

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


George Rapall was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. In July 1777 he commanded a small schooner, the Luddy. On 31 July the Luddy was captured by a boat from HM Frigate Amazon ans scuttled. [NDAR, IX, 355 and note] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship William on 16 September 1779, [Allen, MPR, 326] and, on 1 June 1781, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Port Packet. [NRAR, 420; Allen, MPR, 243] On 15 December 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Minerva. [NRAR, 394; Allen, MPR, 222]


RATHBUN [RATHBURN, RATHBOURNE], JOHN PECK

(P)

Captain, Continental Navy


Rathbun served as First Lieutenant on the Continental Navy Ship Alfred (Captain John Paul Jones) during the Cape Breton Expedition. [NDAR, VIII, 42-46, 46-48] He traveled from Providence, Rhode Island to Boston, Massachusetts on 4 March 1777, and delivered a letter to Jones on arrival. [NDAR, VIII, 29-30] Rathbun was back in Providence soon after. On 13 March he took another journey, bearing a letter to William Ellery, a member of the Continental Congress and the Marine Committee, from Commodore Esek Hopkins. A copy went to John Hancock. In the letter Hopkins recommends Rathbun for promotion: he had served with the fleet since 1776 and there was no vacancy to promote him “agreeable to his Merits — . . . I can recommend him as a man of Courage and I believe Conduct, and a man that is a Friend to his Country-and I believe the most of the Success Capt Jones has had is owing to his Valour and good Conduct,  he is likewise of a good Family in Boston . . .” [NDAR, VIII, 99-100] Rathbun arrived in Philadelphia and evidently impressed the Marine Committee. The Marine Committee recommended his promotion to Captain, and Congress approved, on 19 April 1777, assigning him to command the Continental Navy Sloop Providence. [NDAR, VIII, 379] On 23 April Rathbun was ordered to proceed to Providence and take command of the Providence. He was to fit her out for sea and sail on a two month cruise against enemy transport vessels [NDAR, VIII, 410-411] off New York. Rathbun took command at New Bedford, Massachusetts on 19 June 1777. [see Providence]


RATHEL, KIRBY

SC

First Lieutenant, South Carolina Navy


Kirby Rathel was commissioned as First Lieutenant aboard the South Carolina Navy Brig Defence (Captain THOMAS PICKERING) on 25 March 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 200] Rathel was captured with Defence on 2 April 1777 by HM Frigate Roebuck. [NOAR, 251]


RATI [NATI], JOSEPH

NH

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Joseph Rati [Nati] was a resident of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Ship Triton on 4 March 1779. [NOAR, 251] Triton [also Tryton or Trenton] was still under Rati’s command in 1781, being mentioned in the Boston Gazette of 25 June 1781. A prize captured by this vessel was advertised for sale in the Salem Gazette of 7 August 1781. [Allen, MPR, 305]


RATOONE, EUBANKS

GA

Commander, Georgia Privateers


Georgia Privateer Schooner George. Bonded and licensed for a trading voyage on 14 June 1776, but bond lists Ratoone as “Master & Commander,” possibly a letter-of-marque. Vessel was out of Sunbury. He sold George to Georgia Navy on 9 August 1776 for £256.


RAVEL [REVELL, RAVELL, RAVELS], JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Ravel was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Warren on 3 December 1777. Samuel Foote served as First Lieutenant. [Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 420; Allen, MPR, 321] Warren sailed on 27 December 1777 [Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 340, 420] from Beverly. On 28 December, at 48°48'N, 37°35'W she met the 200-ton British letter-of-marque ship Tom (John Lee). Overmatched, Warren fought for three hours (the British referred to it as a “short Engagement”) before surrendering with one dead and two-three wounded. Warren lost her foremast or mainmast. Lee “took the Guns and every other necessary out of the Privateer, and then left them to shift for themselves.” [Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 340, 420; NDAR, “The New-York Gazette: and the Weekly Mercury, Monday February 2, 1778, XI, 265-266] For nine days they worked on the wreck. On 6 February [6 January?] 1778 the British ship Fanny, bound from New York to Liverpool, happened by. Fanny took the Warren again and delivered the crew as prisoners in England. They were sent to Mill Prison. [Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 340, 420] Ravel was committed to Mill Prison on 4 June 1778. On 1 October 1778 Ravel escaped. On 4 September 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Monmouth, [Allen, MPR, 224] and, on 25 September 1780, to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Morning Star. Ravel now listed his address as Salem, Massachusetts. Morning Star was mentioned in the Boston Gazette of 13 November 1780 and the London Chronicle of 9 January 1781. [Allen, MPR, 226] Apparently this vessel was captured by the British, for, on 7 February 1782 Ravel was again committed to Mill Prison. [NOAR, 251-252] On 11 December 1782 Ravel was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Polly, [Allen, MPR, 242]


RAVENEAU, FRANCIS

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Francis Raveneau was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Polacre Peter on 5 August 1780. [NRAR, 414]


RAY, WILLIAM

MA

[Captain, Continental Navy]

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Ray was born about 1753. [NOAR, 251] He was commissioned to the Continental Navy Schooner (or Massachusetts Privateer Schooner) Marisheet on 23 November 1778. [Allen, MPR, 214] He died in 1826. [NOAR, 251]


RAYMOND, JOHN

CT

Master, Connecticut Privateers


John Raymond was listed as Master aboard the large Connecticut Privateer Ship Deane (Commander ELISHA HINMAN), commissioned on 6 June 1780. At least one prize was captured on the following cruise. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 66-67]


RAYWORTH, JOHN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Navy


John Rayworth was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Navy Ship Montgomery on 28 March 1776. [NOAR, 252]


READ, BENJAMIN

Third Lieutenant, Continental Navy


On 29 December 1777 the Navy Board of the Eastern Department appointed Benjamin Read as Third Lieutenant aboard the Continental Navy Ship Boston, and directed him to report aboard. [NDAR, X, 822]


READ, FRANCIS

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Francis Read was a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy. [NOAR, 252]


READ, JOSEPH

RI

Midshipman, Continental Navy


Joseph Read was a Midshipman in the Continental Navy at Newport. He boarded the Columbus in June 1776. [NOAR, 252]


READ, OLIVER


Listed as Lt and przemaster, on cartel to be exchanged at Newport on 7 April 1777. [ndar, viii, 286-287] listed as master of Thomas, taken by Unicorn on 14 feb 77 [ndar, viii, 1053-1063]


READ, THOMAS


PA/(P)

Acting Commodore, Pennsylvania Navy

Captain, Continental Navy


Thomas Read was born at Newcastle, Delaware about 1740. [NOAR, 252] He was recommended to the Pennsylvania Assembly for appointment as Commodore on 23 October 1775, by the Committee of Safety. The galley captains protested his appointment in a memorial to the Committee of Safety, stating they were seeking to advance their own claims for consideration, not seeking to cast aspersions or Read or question the Committee's motives. The captains pointed out seniority as a basis for advancement, especially since several were as qualified as Read. There had been harmony among the galley captains, but now several were discouraged that a "stranger" to the service had been appointed over them. [Jackson, 31] He was not appointed, and served only acting Commodore.[Jackson, 31] He was recommended [again?] by the Committee of Safety on 28 December 1775, not appointed officially because of opposition from the galley captains. Served as acting commodore until Caldwell's appointment on 13 January 1776. [Jackson, 334] Read was named as second-in-command and captain of the Montgomery when Caldwell was appointed. [Jackson, 31]  When Caldwell resigned on 25 May 1776 he served as acting Commodore again, (from 29 May 1776 [Jackson, 421n11] until 11 June 1776, [Jackson, 334] when he resigned, on 5 June 1776 [Jackson, 31] to enter the Continental service [Jackson, 61-62] He was commissioned as a Captain in the Continental Navy on 6 June and assigned to the new Continental Navy Ship Washington. His brother-in-law, George Read, was a delegate to the Continental Congress and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Read commanded the Washington until she was burned by the British early in 1778. He then commanded the brig Baltimore. On 12 October 1779 he was assigned to the new Continental Navy Ship Bourbon, then building at Middletown, Connecticut. On 22 July 1780 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Patty. After the war he commanded the Alliance on a voyage to China, from 1787-1788. He died at Fieldstone, New Jersey in 1788. [NOAR, 252]

Washington at Philadelphia and being fitted out “with all possible dispatch” on 11 April 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 321] In command of the Washington off White Hill, New Jersey on 3 October 1777. [NDAR, X, 25] Washington was still there on 26 October. [NDAR, X, 312] Read sat on court-martial of deserters from the Continental Navy, held aboard the Lion at Bordentown on 26 November 1777. [NDAR, X, 598-601]


READ, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Read was a resident of Freetown, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Boat Defiance on 12 October 1782. [NRAR, 265; Allen, MPR, 111]


REBBIE, GEORGE

PA

Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy


George Rebbie was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 4 October 1776, and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Bull Dog. [NOAR, 252]


REDFIELD, SAMUEL

CT

Second Mate, Connecticut Privateers


Samuel Redfield served on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hamlin (Commander TIMOTHY STARR), commissioned 4 May 1781, as Second Mate. [NOAR, 253]


REED, FRANKLIN

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


REED, JERRY

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


REED, PAUL

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Master, Massachusetts Navy


Paul Reed was a resident of Boothbay, Massachusetts [Maine]. On 6 December 1776 he sold his 170-ton brigantine to the Massachusetts Board of War for £1200. The Board of War took her up as Massachusetts Navy Trading Brigantine Warren, and appointed Reed as Master. [NDAR, VII, 382-383] He was ordered to load a cargo of lumber and sail for Cap Francois, Santo Domingue, and instructed to sell the cargo and brig there and purchase munitions. [NDAR, VII, 393-394] Reed sailed about mid-February 1776. Just five miles from Cap Francois, on 11 March 1777, Warren was captured by boats from HM Sloop Badger (Lieutenant), [NDAR, VIII, 89-90] within sight of a French Navy snow. Reed and his crew escaped ashore. To maintain himself and his crew Reed was forced to draw a bill on Samuel Phillips Savage, if favor of the resident South Carolina Agent, Isaac Caton, who advanced Reed $140. In his report to Savage, Reed bitterly noted that the reports of the French protecting inbound American vessels off their ports were false. [NDAR, VIII, 148] On 16 July 1777 a Paul Reed, Jr., of Boothbay, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Reprisal. [NOAR, 254. In this source this individual is listed seperately from Paul Reed, but they are likely the same.] Paul Reed, Jr. is again commissioned, on 5 February 1781, to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop General Washington. [NOAR, 254] Finally, on 18 April 1781, as Paul Reed, he is commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Spring Bird. [NOAR, 253-254]


REED, WILLIAM

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


William Reed was a resident of Norwich, Connecticut. [NRAR, 495] He served as Second Lieutenant on the Connecticut Navy Ship Recovery (Captain Samuel Smedley), commissioned 18 February 1780. The British sloop Hope was captured. Recovery was, in turn, captured by HM Frigate Galatea on 23 March 1780 and taken into New York, where the crew were sent to the prisoin ships. Reed was exchanged and, on 10 October 1780, he was aboard the Connecticut Navy Sloop Hibernia as First Lieutenant. On 25 October 1780 the Hibernia was captured by HMS Hussar and Reed was soon back in New York. He was again exchanged. [NOAR, 254] He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Young Cromwell on 5 June 1781. He was recommissioned to the same vessel on 16 July 1781. [NRAR, 495] Reed was described as age 43, a middling set man with dark hair tinged with grey, light complexion, six feet four inches tall. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 249] Young Cromwell returned from a short cruise on 31 July 1781, bringing in the British Privateer Schooner Surprise (David Ross). On 10 August 1781, Young Cromwell captured a sloop in ballast in Long Island Sound, and, the same day or the next day the British schooner Hazzard with the assistance of the Connecticut Privateer Sloops Randolph (Commander Augustus Peck) and Active (Commander Charles Bulkley). [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 48-49, 247] On 3 September 1781, Reed captured two Navy Victualler Transports, the Achilles and Williamson, with the help of Connecticut Privateer Sloop Randolph (Commander Augustus Peck) and Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Success (Commander John Burroughs Hopkins). [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 249-251] On 13 October 1781, Young Cromwell was near Fire Island Inlet, where she took the brig Peggy. A few days later, on 27 October, Young Cromwell fell in with the British Privateer Schooner Betsey off Sandy Hook and captured her. [Middlebrook, MCR, 248-249] On 26 April 1782 Reed was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Turn Of Times. In her he captured the British boat General Gates on 27 May 1782. He was later captured again, the third time, and was sent to Bermuda. [NOAR, 254]


RENAULT, JASPER AMAND

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


Jasper Amand Renault was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Intrepid in 1777. [Coker, 300]


REYBOLD [KEYBOLD], DANIEL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Daniel Reybold [NRAR, 381] (or Keybold) [Maclay, 106, 136] was residing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on 4 September 1778 when he was commissioned as Commander of the Pennsylviania Privateer Sloop [NRAR, 381] (Brig) [Maclay, 136] Macaroni. Reybold is credited with three prizes in July 1779, and another in August 1779 in the Macaroni. He also assisted the Continental Army Sloop Argo (Captain Silas Talbot) in the capture of the British Privateer Brig Hannah in August 1779, off New England. [Maclay, 106, 136]


RHODES, WILLIAM

RI

First Lieutenant, Rhode Island Navy


William Rhodes was appointed as First Lieutenant in the Rhode Island Navy on 12 June 1775 and assigned to the Rhode Island Navy Sloop Washington (Captain Christopher Whipple). [NDAR, I, 664-665]


RICE, [--]


(P)

Captain, Continental Marines


RICE, ALPHEUS

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


RICE, [BENJAMIN]

see RUE, BENJAMIN


RICE, JOSEPH

GA

Captain, Georgia Navy (Marine)


Went aboard initial Georgia Navy Schooner (under Captain JOHN STIRK) with his riflemen in January 1776. He was taken prisoner in the preliminaries to the Battle of Hutchinson’s Island, 3-4 March 1776, while rowing guard boat off Savannah Harbor. He was exchanged or released about 10-15 March 1776.


RICH, OBADIAH

MA

Prize Master, Massachusetts Privateers


Obadiah Rich was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Buckram (Commander JOHN CROSS) as Third Prize Master on 21 August 1777. [NRAR, 243; Allen, MPR, 89; NDAR, X, 347-349] Buckram sailed about mid-September. [Allen, MPR, 89] On 16 September 1777 she was captured by HM Frigate Diamond. [NDAR,  IX, 931 and note] She was sent to Halifax on 22 September 1777. [NDAR, IX, 950] Rich went to Halifax jail on 25 October 1777. [NDAR, X, 347-349]


RICHARDS, NATHANIEL

CT (P/A)

Second Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Nathaniel Richards was a native of Norwich, Connecticut [NOAR, 256] and brother to PETER RICHARDS. Nathaniel was born in 1756 to Guy and Elizabeth Richards. He was commissioned as Second Lieutenant of Marines aboard the Continental Navy Ship Alfred (Captain ELISHA HINMAN) in late January or early February 1777, replacing ALEXANDER NEILSON. Nathaniel's brother Peter served aboard the Alfred as Navy First Lieutenant. A boyhood friend of Nathaniel's, CHARLES BUCKLEY, was serving aboard the Alfred as Master, and may have recommended him. Richards sailed with the Alfred on her cruise to Europe with the Continental Navy Ship Raleigh (Captain THOMAS THOMPSON), participating in the capture of several prizes and the convoy Action of September 1777. The two ships made L'Orient, France in October 1777, and sailed for home on 29 December 1777. Alfred and Richards were captured on 9 March 1778 by HM Frigate Ariadne and HM Sloop Ceres, at least partly because Thompson and Raleigh ran away from the battle. The prisoners were taken to Barbadoes. Here the brothers were recognized by Captain Thompson of HMS Yarmouth, a former friend of the boys' father. By Thompson's intercession Nathaniel was paroled and sailed in a cartel vessel for Martinique. Captain Hinman charged him with laying the facts of the Alfred's capture before the Marine Committee. From Martinique Richards took passage in the brig Charming Sally for America. However Richards was captured again when the Charming Sally was captured by HMS Ambuscade. Richards was imprisoned in Halifax. On 7 July 1778 he was released and sailed in a cartel for New London, Connecticut, arriving 28 July. He was probably exchanged about 1 October 1778. Soon after he was appointed as Purser of the Continental Navy Ship Confederacy (Captain SETH HARDING), outfitting at New London. Confederacy sailed 1 May 1779, and, in company with Continental Navy Ship Boston, fought an action with the British Privateer Ship Pole on 6 June 1779, resulting in Pole's capture. Richards was probably aboard the Confederacy when she was captured by the British on 14 April 1781, and was probably paroled in New York with the remainder of the crew. [xx] Richards was in New London on 6 May 1782, when he acted as a bonder for the Connecticut Privateer Ship Cato (Commander DANIEL TAPPAN). [NRAR, 248] He was married to Elizabeth Coit of New London on 22 January 1784. After the war he engaged in the commercial mercantile business, not too successfully. On 23 March 1818 he applied for a pension from the government.


RICHARDS, PETER

CT (A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Peter Richards was a native of Norwich, Connecticut, [NOAR, 256] and brother to NATHANIEL RICHARDS. Peter was the son of Elizabeth and Guy Richards. He enlisted in the Continental Navy as a Midshipman in the group of men recruited for Captain DUDLEY SALTONSTALL in Connecticut and sailed from New London on 19 January 1776 in the Lizard. The recruits joined the fleet on 13 February 1776. Richards was assigned to the Continental Navy Brig Cabot (Captain JOHN BURROUGHS HOPKINS) and participated in the New Providence Expedition and the Battle off Block Island. Richards was on a list of officers recommended for promotion to either Second Lieutenant or Master, submitted by Commodore ESEK HOPKINS to the Marine Committee about 19 June 1776. He later served in the Cabot in the summer and fall cruises under Captain ELISHA HINMAN. About 30 September 1776 Richards was paid £21 for piloting Cabot's prize ship the Clarendon into New London, and a further £8.2.0 for his "bill" by Continental Agent NATHANIEL SHAW. Further payments of £12 (21 August 1776) and an "advance" on wages of £27.18.0 (November 1776) were paid by Shaw to Richards. He was commissioned as First Lieutenant of the Continental Navy Ship Alfred (Captain Elisha Hinman) in late January or early February 1777, replacing JONATHAN PITCHER, who probably left the ship about the end of December 1776. Richards sailed with Alfred on her cruise to Europe with Continental Navy Ship Raleigh (Captain THOMAS THOMPSON), participating in the capture of several prizes and the Convoy Action of September 1777. The two ships made L'Orient in October 1777 and sailed for home on 29 December 1777. The Alfred and Richards were captured on 9 March 1778, in a brief action with HM Frigate Ariadne and HM Sloop Ceres, in part because of Thompson's running off with Raleigh. The captured Americans were taken to Barbadoes, where the brothers Richards were recognized by Captain Thompson of HMS Yarmouth, who was a friend of their father. By Thompson's intercession Nathaniel was paroled, but Peter and the other officers were packed into the Yarmouth for delivery to England. [xx] Richards, Captain Hinman, and other officers were confined in Fortun Prison on 18 July 1778. Richards escaped. [xx] In June 1779 Richards was at sea as commander of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hancock. He captured, on 4 June, the British Privateer Sloop Ariel (Hagins). [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 107] Two days later he recaptured the sloop Eagle [numerous references, see Hancock]. The armed schooner Hawke was also captured in June. [Maclay, History of American Privateers, 135-136] Richards left the Hancock, but resumed command in May 1780. He captured the brig Friendship, and a schooner with a cargo of naval stores in May and June 1780. On 2 September 1780 British Privateer Hibernia was captured, as was British Privateer Sloop Venus on 5 September. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 107] On 7 February 1781 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marquis de La Fayette, with sixteen guns and a crew of 120 men, and owned by Andrew Perkins & Co. of Norwich. [NRAR, 384]. Richards captured two British vessels in the Marquis de La Fayette. [NOAR, 257] On 18 July 1782 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Hancock, of eighteen guns and a crew of 110 men, owned by Thomas Mumford, Joseph Packwood, and Howland & Coit of Norwich. [NRAR, 323; Middlebrook, MCR, 107-108] Richards was killed in action. [NOAR, 257]


RICHARDSON, ROBERT

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Robert Richardson was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. [Allen, MPR, 297] He was appointed as Master on 29 April 1777, aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Oliver Cromwell (Commander WILLIAM COLES). He was aboard during her cruise to Bilboa, Spain, from about 20 July 1777 to about 20 August 1777. During this cruise ten prizes were captured and there was a fight with two British brigs, the Sally and Rawlinson, on 6 August. He was aboard Oliver Cromwell when she sailed from Bilboa about 1 October 1777. At least four prizes were captured and there was a short fight with the British sloop Fly by about 25 October. [NDAR, see Oliver Cromwell] On 10 March 1778 he was commissioned as Commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Terrible Creature. [Allen, MPR, 297]


RICHMOND, WILLIAM

RI

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers


William Richmond was presumably a resident of Rhode Island. He was siad to have owned the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Security

Witness

9/3/79

RI

Barber

Michael Underwood

William Richmond

 

[Sheffield, 61]


RIDGE, JOHN

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Ridge was a resident of Philadelphia. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Argo on 18 March 1780. [NRAR, 229]


RILEY [RILY], ACKLEY [ACLEE]

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Ackley Riley was a resident of Wethersfield, Connecticut, the son of Jacob and Abigail Riley, and the brother of JACOB RILEY. He was in command of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Abigail on 29 August 1777, when a British sloop (Brown) was captured by Abigail. A second British sloop, the General Burgoyne (John Smith) was taken on 3 September 1777. [Middlebrook, II, 47-48] Riley was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Snake on 23 January 1778. [NRAR, 459] On 16 February 1779 he captured the sloop Macaroni and later the schooner Jenny. [NOAR, 258] On 23 June 1780, acting with the Connecticut Privateer Boat Betsey (Commander ABRAHAM WRIGHT), another vessel was captured, which was sent in and condemned. [Middlebrook, II, 61] Riley survived the war and died 23 February 1804. [NOAR, 258]


RILEY [RILY], JACOB

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Jacob Riley was a resident of Wethersfield, Connecticut, the son of Jacob and Abigail and the brother of ACKLEY RILEY. He may be the same Jacob “Rily” as the one who freighted spars for Nathaniel Shaw’s privateer ship General Putnam in June 1777. [NDAR, X, 222-223] Riley was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hero on 14 January 1778. [Middlebrook, II, 121] He was in command of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Abigail in 1778. On 24 November 1778 he captured a British 40-ton sloop. Libel and condemnation records exist for this capture. [Middlebrook, II, 47-48] Jacob Riley was later captured by the British, for he was exchanged and arrived at Stonington on 3 August 1782. [Middlebrook,  II, 121]


RILEY, JUSTUS

CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers


Wethersfield.

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

9/2/79

CT

Sloop Gates (8/40)

Timothy Sage

John Wright, Justus Riley

Timothy Sage, Justus Riley, John Wright

Garshom Walcott, Ezekiel Williams [NRAR, 308]

9/7/79

CT

Sloop Washington (8/40)

Israel Deming

John Wright, Justus Riley

Israel Deming, Barnabas Deane, John Wright

Thomas Newson, Ezekiel Williams [NRAR, 489]

7/18/80

CT

Sloop Right and Justice (8/30)

Dan Scovell

John Wright, Justus Riley

Dan Scovell, Justus Riley, John Wright

Samuel W. Williams, Ezekiel Williams [NRAR, 444]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

11/27/80

CT

Brigantine Jason (10/25)

Samuel Stillman

 

Samuel Stillman, Justus Riley, John Wright

Elisha Williams, Eliza Williams [NRAR, 357]

3/15/81

CT

Brigantine Deane (18/100)

Dan Scovell

Barnabas Deane & Co

Dan Scovell, Justus Riley, John Wright

Elisha Williams, Josiah Robbins [NRAR, 263]

5/22/81

CT

Sloop Active (10/60)

Charles Bulkley

John Wright & Co.

Charles Bulkley, John Wright, Justus Riley

Charles Caldwell, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. [NRAR, 219]

6/2/81

CT

Brigantine Jason (10/25)

Moses Tryon

 

Moses Tryon, Justus Riley, John Wright

Thomas Mumford, Charles Caldwell [NRAR, 357]


RILY, ACLEE

[See RILEY, ACKLEY]


RING, JOSEPH

Second Mate, South Carolina Privateers


Joseph Ring was an Englishman. In 1777 he took service as Second Mate on the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Active (Commander John Osborne). Active sailed from Charleston on 21 April 1777 with a cargo of rice, tobacco, and indigo. She was manned with a scratch crew of fifteen men (including two Dutch, five Spaniards, and three English). On 2 May 1777 Ring and the three English sailors, assisted by the two Dutchmen, rose and took control of the sloop. The mutineers headed for England, but stopped long enough to put Osborne and First Mate JOSEPH PRICE on a pilot boat at Kinsale, Ireland. The sloop was condemned in Admiralty Court and the six mutineers were paid two thirds of the King's share as a reward and encouragement. [See Active]


RINGGOLD, THOMAS

MD

Owner, Maryland Privateers


Thomas Ringgold was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. Associated with Ringgold in privateering were BENJAMIN and JOHN CROCKETT, ABRAHAM VAN BIBBER, JOHN STERETT, and ROBERT T. HOOE. Vessels associated with Ringgold were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Security

Witness

9/16/76

MD

Sloop Baltimore Hero (6/24)

Thomas Waters

Abraham Van Bibber, John Crockett, Thomas Ringgold, Robert T. Hooe

Thomas Waters, John Crockett, Thomas Ringgold, Robert T. Hooe

[NRAR, 391]


ROALE, JEREMIAH

[see ROLLS, JEREMIAH]


ROBERTS,

First Mate, Continental Navy


A man named Roberts was [First] Mate aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Surprize (Captain BENJAMIN DUNN) in late 1777. Roberts apparently served aboard during the defense of the Delaware River from October-November 1777. He helped intercept some deserters from Continental Navy Xebec Repulse on 20 November. [NDAR, X, 598-601] When Surprize was burned to prevent her capture, on 21 November, Roberts presumably went up to Bordentown, New Jersey.


ROBERTS, ELIPHALET

CT

Captain of Marines, Connecticut Marines


Eliphalet Roberts was a resident of Hartford in 1776 when he was appointed, on 31 July 1776, by the Governor and Council of Safety of Connecticut as Captain of Marines on the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell. [NDAR, 5, 1303-1304 and note] Roberts was sent to Lebanon (where the Council of Safety met) on 28 August 1776 to receive L100 for Captain Coit. He was there on 29 August and returned to the ship soon after. [NDAR, 6, 334-335 and 335 note] Roberts is shown as on furlough on 25 February 1777, in the ship's crew list. [NDAR, 7, 1287-1289] He traveled to Hartford and was there on 24 February, where he wrote a private history of the ship to Governor Trumbull. Roberts noted that Coit was capable "for a seaman," and that it was not Coit's fault that the ship was still in port. Roberts reported that the officers seemed unacquainted with handling the ship under sail, and that First Lieutenant MICHAEL MELALLY in particular, had an arrogant, obstinate attitude. On another ocassion during a sailing trial Coit and his lieutenants handled the ship "very porly indeede." Roberts would have spoken up to Coit, but if he had done so "I should offended." When the ship seemed about to sail Roberts had reported aboard but "was Leetle wanted." The Marine lieutenant and sergeant were "plenty for Comand as they nor my selfe have aney onboard." The officers from New London had done "nomor'd than just past time," the petty officers and crew doing the work. Roberts had heard "sum one gentleman has Drank no grog and Dun all the work...but this I am sure that sum one gentleman has Dun all the mischief." Roberts would have come to Lebanon, but the other officers would then have thought he was going to "informe." Roberts asked Trumbull to keep this information to himself, not even showing the Council of Safety the letter. He was going now to recruit Marines and send them down to the ship. [NDAR, 7, 1277-1279]  Roberts returned to New London from Lebanon on 17 March 1777, bringing news of Melally's dismissal by the Council of Safety. [NDAR, 8, 133-134]  On 10 April 1777 he was sent to Lebanon to present his accounts, along with Second Lieutenant JOHN CHAPMAN. [NDAR, 8, 310-311] He was dismissed with the entire crew and officers of the Oliver Cromwell on 11 April 1777 and reappointed as Captain of Marines on the same day. [NDAR, 8, 319] Roberts was in command of the Privateer Sloop Sally by 20 June 1777, when she was fitting out at New London. [NDAR, 9, 148]


ROBERTS, JOHN

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


John Roberts was in command of South Carolina Privateer Schooner May in 1777. [Coker, 300]


ROBERTS, PETER

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Peter Roberts was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He is referred to as “Roger Robbins” in at least one contemporary record. [NDAR, VII, 1023-1024] Roberts was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Gamecock on 11 December 1775. He was subsequently commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Ranger, on 25 September 1776. [Allen, MPR, 249] Roberts captured at least one prize, brigantine Billy, in the Ranger. [NDAR, VII, 637] On 20 November 1779 he was commissioned to the  Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Jupiter. [Allen, MPR, 197]


ROBERTSON [ROBINSON], JAMES

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Robertson (or Robinson) of Philadelphia was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Chance on 2 July 1776. Chance was armed with six guns and manned with thirty-four men. [NDAR, 5, 879-882, 1011-1015 and 1015 note]  Robinson however, was in charge of Chance by 27 June when he was recruiting a new crew in Philadelphia for the sloop, with a "rendezvous" at the widow Forrest's. Chance was fitting at Egg Harbor. Unfortunately for Robertson, among his enlistees were three deserters from the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Franklin (Captain Nathan Boyce). Boyce complained to the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety, which took steps to retrieve the sailors. [NDAR, 5, 773 and note] Very soon after her commissioning Chance sailed. She evidently sailed south for the West India traffic. On 24 August 1776, she was in chase of, or in sight of, the British Transport Sloop Betsey when this vessel was captured by Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain John Barry). The prize court awarded Chance a portion of the prize [see Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Chance for references] Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Congress and Chance sailed together in mid-October 1776. Soon after two sloops were captured, the Dragon and the Molly, both owned in New Providence [Nassau] in the Bahamas. Although Bahama property was specifically exempted by Congress from capture, the privateers sent in these prizes to Philadelphia. They were naturally released. On 21 October the pair captured the brig Britannia, which was recaptured. Congress ended this cruise by putting in to Charleston, South Carolina. Chance may have put in there too. Chance was probably sold soon after. [see Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Chance for references] Robertson was later commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Ferrit, on 26 August 1779, of eight guns and twenty-four men. [Claghorn, 260]


ROBINSON, DAVID

MD

Owner, Maryland Privateers


David Robinson was a resident Maryland. He was associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/20/77

MD

Schooner Adventure (0/7)

Thomas Robinson

James Williams, Joseph Williams, Richard Barnaby, David Robinson, William Avery

Thomas Robinson, James Williams

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 221]


ROBINSON, ISAIAH


(P)

Captain, Continental Navy


ROBINSON, JAMES


(P)

Captain, Continental Navy


ROBINSON, JAMES

[privateer commander: see JAMES ROBERTSON]


ROBINSON, JOSEPH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Robinson was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Pilgrim on 24 March 1780. [Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 414] Robinson was “a man of imposing presence, a good sailor and a good fighter.” [Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 350] Under Robinson Pilgrim made numerous prizes and engaged in a famous fight with the ship Mary. [see Pilgrim] Robinson was re-commissioned to the Pilgrim on 14 April 1781. [NRAR, 415; Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 414; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 237-238] and again on 8 November 1781. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 238] About 8 October 1782 the Pilgrim (“an excellent privateer ship, copper-bottomed”), outward bound from Beverly, was driven ashore on Cape Cod by HM Frigate Chatham. The men, guns, and stores were saved but the hull was lost. [Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 414; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 238]


ROBINSON, NATHAN

[CT]

First Mate, Connecticut Privateers


Nathan Robinson was aboard the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Nancy (Commander ROBERT PALMER) in June 1777 as First Mate. On 30 June Nancy was captured by HM Frigate Unicorn. Robinson was a prisoner at Newport in October 1777, but had been exchanged by 5 November 1777. [see Nancy]


ROBINSON, THOMAS

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Thomas Robinson was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was appointed to command the Maryland Privateer Schooner Adventure on 20 October 1777. [NRAR, 221; also NDAR, X, 703-704]


ROCHE, GILBERT DE LA

[See LA ROCHE, GILBERT DE]


ROCKE, PHILIP

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


Philip Rocke was a resident of Philadelphia, Maryland. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Security

Witness

7/15/80

PA

Brig Adventure (8/80)

John Leamy

Alexander Nelson and Philip Rocke & Co.

John Leamy, Alexander Nelson

[NRAR, 221]


ROGERS, GEORGE

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


George Rogers was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy on 30 July 1776 and assigned to the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty (Captain THOMAS LILLY). [NOAR, 262] He was later promoted to First Lieutenant, on 3 August 1776, and assigned to the Virginia Navy Brig Musquitto (Captain ISAAC YOUNGHUSBAND). [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 243] Apparently, however this transfer did not take place.

On 7 October 1776 First Lieutenant of Marines Thomas Meriwether presented a complaint to the Virginia Navy Board against Lieutenant Rogers stating “That the language of Lt. George Rogers to the Marines is Most Scurrilous Abusive & Profane; That he had at different times struck them Particularly John Reynolds with a peice of Iron when unwell and excused from Duty by the commanding officer.” [Stewart, 34] The Virginia Navy Board heard testimony on 9 October and concluded that Rogers was “guilty of the Faults wherewith he stands charged.” [Cross, 33] Rogers was ordered to apologize to Meriwether and return to duty. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 34, Cross, 33]

George Rogers commanded the schooner Greyhound in 1777. [Stewart, 49 note] However, there is a First Mate George Rogers aboard the trading vessel brigantine Greyhound on 22 February 1776. [Stewart, 243]

Near the end of 1778 Rogers was Captain of the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty. His bother, First Lieutenant John Rogers, was aboard. The brig was captured by a British vessel off Buckroe. [Stewart, 49] Although the Liberty was apparently sent to Halifax, [Stewart, 49 note] some of her officers and crew were taken to New York and imprisoned there. Rogers died while in prison.[Stewart, 49, 243]


ROGERS, JOHN

CT

Prize Master, Connecticut Privateers


John Rogers was a Prize Master on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Eagle (Commander WILLIAM LEEDS), commissioned 4 May 1782. One prize was captured on the following cruise. Eliza was sold at Havana, Cuba about August 1782. [Middlebrook, II, 80]


ROGERS [RODGERS], JOHN

VA

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


John Rogers [Stewart, 49, 243] or Rodgers. [Stewart, 243] was from Elizabeth City County, Virginia. He was aboard the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty (Captain THOMAS LILLY) as a Second Lieutenant, [Stewart, 49 note, 243] about November 1776. [Stewart, 49 and 49 note] Near the end of 1778 the Liberty was placed under the command of Captain GEORGE ROGERS,  [Stewart, 49] brother of John Rogers. [Stewart, 49, 243] Rogers was aboard as First Lieutenant. The brig was captured by a British vessel off Buckroe. [Stewart, 49] Although the Liberty was apparently sent to Halifax, [Stewart, 49 note] some of her officers and crew were taken to New York and imprisoned there, where Captain Rogers died. [Stewart, 49] John Rogers returned to Virginia in 1780 and was promoted to Captain. [Stewart, 243] The ship he commanded in the winter of 1780-1781 suffered greatly from the cold weather, while trying to enter Chesapeake Bay, losing many of the crew. His Lieutenant, THOMAS SNALE, was brought ashore with severe frostbite and soon died. [Stewart, 84] He was captured again and was imprisoned until 1783. He died on 1 January 1816. [Stewart, 243]


ROGERS, URIAH

CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers


Uriah Rogers is listed as the owner of the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Security

Witness

6/1/80

CT

Brigantine Van Tromp (12/55)

Sanford Thompson

Uriah Rogers & Co.

Sanford Thompson, Comfort Sage, James Church

[NRAR, 484]


ROGERS, WILLIAM

NY

Captain, New York Navy


William Rogers was a Captain in the New York Navy, appointed to command the New York Navy Sloop Montgomery. He was in command of her in early May 1776, and was at sea off Montauk Point on 5 May 1776. The next day a large ship was seen and chased, The weather was hazy and thick and the ship stood away from the Montgomery. Rogers pulled to within three miles before he realized he had tackled a frigate. Rogers barely escaped around Montauk Point. On 18 May Montgomery was off Sandy Hook, and on 21 May Rogers put into Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to water and wood. [NDAR, 5, 204-205] After a fruitless cruise off the New Jersey coast, the Montgomery headed north again, and arrived at Fire Island Inlet in early June 1776. Here she joined the Continental Army Sloop General Schuyler and the Continental Army Schooner General Mifflin. On 14 June, Montgomery again chased a frigate by mistake and barely escaped, crossing the Fire Island bar at 1200, with the enemy only a mile astern: "we saved ourselves and that was all." He heaved the sloop down on 18 June. While she was being cleaned the two Army sloops took the Crawford and another prize, much to Rogers' disgust: "we seem to be damned unlucky...That it is damned hard to think we have cruised so long and got nothing..." Six men also deserted in the night, [NDAR, 5, 661 and note] and Rogers offered a $2 reward per man for their return. [NDAR, 5, 790] On 27 June, with Army sloop General Schuyler, Rogers and the Montgomery recaptured four prizes: [NDAR, 5, 770] two whaling brigs belonging to Nantucket, [NDAR, 5, 662, 680-681, 770 and note, 790, 853-855] the Speedwell [NDAR, 5, 662; 7, 62-63 and 63 note] [NDAR, 5, 853-855]) and the Pembroke [NDAR, 5, 680-681; 7, 62-63 and 63 note]), a schooner bound to Massachusetts from the West Indies (the Hiram) [NDAR, 5, 626, 770 and note, 790, 853-855; 7, 62-63 and 63 note) and a sloop with lumber, outward bound from Rhode Island (Nonesuch) [NDAR, 5, 697 and note, 770 and note, 790, 853-855; 7, 62-63 and 63 note]. On 28 June Rogers was back out at sea, again with the General Schuyler in company. This time they fell in with British Army Transport Sloop Charlotte [NDAR, 5, 946-947 and 947 note, 947 and note]  The two Army sloops sailed from Fire Island Inlet on 11 August 1776, in company with the Montgomery. The two dogged the inbound British shipping near the south shore of Long Island, then pounced on a brig in the afternoon. After a fifteen minute fight the brig was captured and taken into Fire Island Inlet. The two sloops put out to sea again. [NDAR, 6, 155 and note] On 20 August the three cruisers caught another prize, whaling brigantine Temple. On 28 August Montgomery captured three small sloops: the Mary, Phoenix, and Sally. The General Schuyler, Montgomery, and General Mifflin now were forced to abandon Fire Island Inlet because the war situation had worsened. All prizes had been taken into the inlet, where the cargoes were unloaded and shipped to Huntingdon. When the Americans lost the battle for the island and evacuated to Manhattan, the little squadron sailed for New London, arriving there on 3 September. [NDAR, 6, 723 and note] Rogers was back at sea in late 1776, cruising south into the Atlantic. Two prizes were taken: schooner Hannah and brigantine Minerva. Montgomery took both prizes into Chesapeake Bay, arriving at Hampton, Virginia on 3 January 1777.[NDAR, 7, 857] Hannah was warped into Hampton River, while Rogers traveled up to Williamsburg. [NDAR, 8, 158-159] On 7 January 1777 the prizes sailed up to Baltimore, [NDAR, 7, 987] Rogers paying a hefty pilotage fee for the Hannah's pilot. [NDAR, 8, 158-159] Rogers was quite pleased with the Hannah [NDAR, 7, 987] The cargo of the Minerva, however, was immediately claimed by residents of Baltimore as their own property. Rogers was very unconvinced that she would be condemned. [NDAR, 7, 987, 1071-1072] The prospects were not good when Rogers wrote to the New York Convention on 17 January 1777, enclosing the brigantine's papers. Rogers suggested appointing a local agent to help, or sending TOM PIERSON, the agent in New York, down to expedite the trial. [NDAR, 7, 987] Meanwhile, New York Delegate to the Continental Congress and Marine Committeeman Francis Lewis interested himself in the case. By 31 January he had obtained and filed libels on the two vessels with trial set for 10 February 1777. [NDAR, 7, 1071-1072]. Part of the schooner's perishable cargo was to be sold under care of Maryland's Continental Agent, William Lux, and other parts reserved for the use of New York. [NDAR, 7, 1071-1072. The perishables were sold on 4 February 1777. NDAR, 7, 1106] As was surmised, brig Minerva was acquitted at her trial. On 7 April 1777 William Lux executed a bond in favor of John Winning for L250, so that Rogers could appeal the case. [NDAR, 8, 291-292] According to Rogers the Hannah sold for L11000 (Maryland). [NDAR, 8, 933-934] Meanwhile the master of the Hannah, "Wilkson," became ill, and died at Baltimore. Rogers paid for the funeral. The crew of three were paid their wages. On 20 March 1777, Rogers was reimbursed by agent William Lux for all the expenses relating to the Hannah. [NDAR, 8, 158-159] Lewis advised Rogers to fit out for sea again. Lewis also noted that the mouth of Chesapeake Bay was blockaded. [NDAR, 7, 1071-1072] Meanwhile a Tory uprising had occurred on Maryland's eastern shore. Continental troops were transported across the bay, and Montgomery was pressed into service as an escort for the convoy, receiving orders from John Hancock (as Marine Committee President) on 9 February 1777. Following the escort service, Montgomery was to patrol down the Bay and interdict boat traffic between the British warships and the shore, harass the British tenders, and protect incoming American vessels. [NDAR, 7, 1153 and note]  On 26 March 1777 Rogers and his crew received their pay for the expedition to the eastern shore, in Continental service. They had been paid at the Continental wages, and Rogers was reimbursed for provisions expended. Her time in service came to twenty-one days, from 9 February to 2 March 1777. [NDAR, 8, 207-208] In early April 1777, perhaps the 10th, Montgomery sailed from Baltimore. About 15 April she was off Sandy Hook and fell in with sloop Friendship [NDAR, 8, 1053-1063] Rogers removed the prize crew and put his own men aboard, [NDAR, 8, 1003] keeping the sloop with him as he steered for New London, Connecticut. As they approached the coast, Friendship parted company and was recaptured by HM Frigate Lark (Captain Richard Smith). [NDAR, 8, 426-427 and 427 note, 1053-1063] Emerald's prize crew were landed as prisoners at New London on 22 April, when Montgomery made port. [NDAR, 8, 1003] A few days later Montgomery moved to New Haven. Here Colonel John Broome, New York agent in Connecticut, thought she was exposed to the British raiders, and ordered her up the Connecticut River to Middletown. Broome recommended fitting and provisioning Montgomery for another cruise to the New York Convention on 5 May 1777, but Rogers and crew refused to sail until prize money was settled from the previous patrols. Rogers informed Broome that he had "engaged" on the same terms as the Continental service: wages plus half the prize money for the crew. Broome wanted to know if the New York Convention understood the terms in the same way. According to Rogers there would be no sailing until the accounts were settled. Broome requested L7000 be forwarded to clear up these affairs. [NDAR, 8, 933-934] Rogers and crew became so importunate to Broome about the wages and prize noney that he forwarded Rogers to the New York Convention on 20 May 1777. Broome wondered if he should retain Rogers, "on the terms he exacts." [NDAR, 8, 1003] When Rogers came to the Convention he was asked to present his thoughts on fitting the Montgomery for another cruise. After detailing the sloops' status Rogers stated that he would only cruise again in a larger vessel. If the Convention planned to fit out a larger one, then he would take a short patrol in the Montgomery. If otherwise, he chose not to sail. [NDAR, 9, 3] On 5 June 1777 the Council of Safety resolved to advance Rogers L1000 to pay the wages of the crew and reimburse him for his advances over the years. It ordered him to render his accounts for a final settlement. Finally, the Council ordered Lieutenant Colonel John Broome to discharge the officers and crew, and sell the sloop. [NDAR, 9, 23-24] Montgomery was sold at Middletown, Connecticut on 1 July 1777 at public auction. [NDAR, 9, 196 and note] Rogers left the New York service at the same time.


ROGERS, WILLIAM

PA

First Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy


William Rogers was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 1 December 1776 and assigned to Pennsylvania Navy Galley Warren. [NOAR, 264] On 5 April 1777 the Pennsylvania Navy Board recommended, and the Pennylvania Supreme Executive Council commissioned, William Rogers as First Lieutenant of the Vulcano (Captain JOHN BRICE). [NDAR, VIII, 277] Rogers had been promoted to the Vulcano on 14 March 1777. [NOAR, 264] On 9 April Captain John Hazelwood, commanding the Pennsylvania Navy light forces, was notified of these appointments. [NDAR, VIII, 307] On 4 August 1777 the Pennsylvania Navy Board ordered Vulcano down the Delaware River, to join the Continental Navy-Pennsylvania Navy fleet there. [NDAR, IX, 704 and note] On 5 August Captain Isaiah Robinson (Continental Navy Brig Andrew Doria) was ordered to take command of this expedition. [NDAR, IX, 711-712] Vulcano was down the river with the fleet on 24 August when it was seen by HM Frigate Liverpool (Captain Henry Bellew). [NDAR, IX, 793 and note; IX, 809-810 and 810 note; 807-808] On 19 September the fleet was off Marcus Hook. [NDAR, IX, 942; 942 and note] Following the fall of Philadelphia Vulcano stayed with the fleet and was either expended or destroyed to prevent capture in November 1777.


ROLLAND, EDWARD

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Edward Rolland was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Sturdy Beggar on 2 December 1776. [NOAR, 264] Rolland was in command of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Bunker Hill by 27 May 1778, when she is mentioned in a letter from William Pickman to Colonel Pickering. She was mentioned in the Boston Gazette of 14 September 1778. [Allen, MPR, 90]


ROLE, JEREMIAH

[see ROLLS, JEREMIAH]


ROLLS [ROLES, ROLE, ROALE], JEREMIAH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Jeremiah Rolls [Role, Roale] was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Tatnibush on 6 April 1778. [Allen, MPR, 296] Rolls may have had a small ownership interest in the following privateer, for which he was a security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

4/6/78

MA

Schooner Cutter (/20)

David Smith

Aaron Waitt et al

David Smith, Aaron Waitt, Jeremiah Roale

Fitch Pool [Allen, MPR, 107]


ROOT, JONATHAN

CT

[Owner], Connecticut Privateers


Jonathan Root was a resident of Southington, Connecticut. He was associated with the following privateers:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/1/81

CT

Galley Adventure (0/30)

Samuel Smith, Jr.

Asa Bray & Co.

Samuel Smith, Jr., Asa Bray, Jonathan Root

[NRAR, 222]


ROPES, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Ropes was presumably a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Young Richard on 4 September 1781. [Allen, MPR, 330]


ROSE, ALEXANDER

SC

Owner, South Carolina Privateers


Alexander Rose was a resident of Charleston, South Carolina. He was associated in privateering with THOMAS ALLON, said to be from North Carolina, but actually from Connecticut. Vessels associated with Rose were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Security

Witness

8/13/77

SC

Schooner Bachelor (4/14)

Nathaniel Bentley

Alexander Rose

Nathaniel Bentley, Alexander Rose, Thomas Allon

Nathaniel Peabody, Ebenezer Thompson [NRAR, 231]


ROSE, BRANSFORD

CT

Master, Connecticut Privateers


Bransford Rose was Master on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Eagle (Commander WILLIAM LEEDS), commissioned 4 May 1782. One prize was captured on the following cruise. Eliza was sold at Havana, Cuba about August 1782. [Middlebrook, II, 80]


ROSS, DAVID

VA

Owner, Virginia Privateers


David Ross was a merchant and resident of Richmond, Virginia, and apparently, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Bonder

Witness

3/23/82

VA

Ship Annett (12/45)

John Audubon

David Ross & Co.

John Audubon, George Nicolson

Charles Hay [NRAR, 227]

4/2/82

VA

Ship Nancy (14/30)

William H. Sargeant

David Ross & Co.

William H. Sargeant, David Ross

Archibald Blair [NRAR, 400]

4/20/82

VA

Brig Ross (12/25)

James Chambers

David Ross & Co.

James Chambers, George Nicolson

William Johnston [NRAR, 447]


ROSS, WILLIAM

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Ross was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 219] He first commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Wasp, in which he was captured by HM Frigate Hind on 22 December 1776. [NOAR, 265] Ross was exchanged later, and, on 26 December 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Snow Rival. [Allen, MPR, 265] Ross then was appointed to command the New Hampshire Privateer Ship Neptune, on 5 February 1780. [NOAR, 265] His final privateer command was the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Active, commissioned 21 May 1782. [NRAR, 219]


ROSS, WILLIAM

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


William Ross was commissioned as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy on 14 September 1777 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Dragon. [Jackson, 342] Ross may have received his actual commission on 1 November 1777. [NOAR, 265] Aboard the Dragon, Ross participated in the Delaware River campaign of September-November 1777. Dragon was among the craft that escaped up river on the morning of 20 November 1777. [xx] He was discharged on 17 August 1778. [Jackson, 342]


ROUSSEAUX [ROUSAUX, ROUSO], JOHN [JEAN]

MA

Midshipman, Continental Navy


John [Jean] Rousseaux [Rousaux,Rouso] was enlisted aboard the Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain HENRY JOHNSON) on 14 May 1777 at Bordeaux, or Rouen, France. [NDAR, IX, 502-507, 584-586. He was a "Massachusetts" man, born in France, according to NOAR, 266. He was certainly born in France.] Rousseaux received a month's advance wages. [NDAR, IX, 584-586] Rousseaux served aboard the Lexington during the epic cruise of Captain LAMBERT WICKES' squadron around Ireland, 28 May 1777-27 June 1777, in which some twenty prizes were taken or destroyed. He probably sailed with the Lexington in September 1777 for America. On 19 September 1777 Lexington was captured by HM Cutter Alert (Lieutenant John Bazely) after a long and hard battle. [NDAR, IX, 657]


ROWX, CASPAR

GA

Commander, Georgia Privateers


Caspar Rowx, perhaps of Georgia, was commissioned to the large Georgia Privateer Sloop General Gates, out of Sunbury, Georgia, about January 1778. He sailed her to Cap François, Sainte-Domingue. Rowx took the General Gates out to raid off Jamaica about the end of February 1778. About 8 March 1778 he met the British Privateer Ship Friendship (D. Fisher). In the following battle Rowx was killed and the General Gates lost. [NDAR, XI, 633-634 and note]


ROY, PHILIP JACQUELIN DU

[See DU ROY, PHILIP JACQUELIN]


RUDOLPH [RANDOLPH], EATON

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Eaton Rudolph [Randolph] was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Fly on 11 August 1779. [NRAR, 296]


RUE, BENJAMIN

PA

Captain, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


Benjamin Rue was a Captain in the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment. He was assigned command of the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Gondola Philadelphia and entered the vessel on 1 August 1776. [NDAR, VII, 1333-1335] Rue (as "Rice" is shown in command of the gondola, at Crown Point, on 18 August 1776. [NDAR, VI, 224] Rue participated in all the actions of the naval campaign of 1776 on the lakes until 16 October 1776. Shortly after the Battle of Valcour Island ended, the Philadelphia sank as a result of damage suffered in the battle. Rue was discharged back to his regiment on 16 October 1776. [NDAR, VII, 1333-1335] In most accounts of the Valcour actions he is mistakenly named "Rice." Following the campaign Rue returned to Philadelphia, where he became a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy, being commissioned to the Pennsylvania Navy Armed Boat Fire Brand on 8 February 1777. [Jackson, 342] He was in command of the Fire Brand on 1 April 1777 [NDAR, VIII, 244-245], and was still in command of her on 11 August 1777 [NDAR, IX, 735] The Fire Brand had been lost by 21 November 1777, probably sunk in action. [Jackson, 340] Rue resigned on 1 February 1778. [Jackson, 342]


RUST, HENRY

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Henry Rust was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with BARTHOLOMEW PUTNAM, JOSEPH SPRAGUE, JOSHUA WARD, Jr, ISRAEL HUTCHINSON, SAMUEL WARD, JOHN LEACH, GEORGE WILLIAMS, Jr., ROBERT LEACH, ANDREW CABOT, JOHN NORRIS, and JOHN FISK. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

12/15/75

MA

Schooner Dolphin

Richard Masury

Joseph Sprague, Henry Rust, Joshua Ward

Richard Masury, Bartholomew Putnam, Joseph Sprague, Joshua Ward, Jr.

Jonathan Webb, Jeremiah Shepard [Allen, MPR, 116]

4/14/78

MA

Schooner Viper (0/30)

Benjamin Chapman

Henry Rust, Israel Hutchinson

Benjamin Chapman, Henry Rust, Israel Hutchinson

Daniel Hopkins [Allen, MPR, 317]

6/23/78

MA

Sloop Gates (10/30)

Thomas Smith

Henry Rust et al

Thomas Smith, Henry Rust, Samuel Ward

Daniel Hopkins [Allen, MPR, 141]

8/28/78

MA

Schooner Dolphin (2/30)

John Carrick

Henry Rust, Joseph Sprague

John Carrick, Henry Rust, Joseph Sprague

Daniel Hopkins [Allen, MPR, 117]

9/30/78

MA

Schooner Viper (0/30)

Joseph Pitman

Henry Rust et al

Joseph Pitman, Henry Rust, John Leach

John Dutch, Robert Leech [Allen, MPR, 317]

12/14/78

MA

Schooner Tyger (4/10)

Nathaniel Brookhouse

Henry Rust and George Williams, Jr.

Nathaniel Brookhouse, Henry Rust, George Williams, Jr.

Benjamin Brown, Samuel Cheever [Allen, MPR, 302-303]

12/17/79

MA

Ship Two Brothers (10/15)

John Rust

Henry Rust

Henry Rust, Robert Leach

Samuel Ward, Zachariah Pool [Allen, MPR, 309]

5/23/80

MA

Ship Junius Brutus (20/120)

Johm Leach

Joshua Ward, Henry Rust et al

John Leach, Andrew Cabot, Henry Rust

Thomas Prince [Allen, MPR, 196]

3/14/81

MA

Ship Congress (20/130)

David Ropes

Henry Rust

David Ropes, Henry Rust, John Leach

[NRAR, 258]

3/14/81

MA

Ship Two Brothers (/25)

William Gray

Henry Rust et al

William Gray, Henry Rust, Robert Leach

[NRAR, 480]

9/6/81

MA

Ship Jack (14/60)

David Ropes

Henry Rust

David Ropes, Henry Rust, John Norris

[NRAR, 354]

8/13/82

MA

Schooner Dolphin (8/18)

Francis Benson

Henry Rust et al

Francis Benson, Samuel Ward, Henry Rust

[NRAR, 275]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

8/16/81

MA

Ship Hendrick (18/90)

Thomas Benson

John Fisk et al

Thomas Benson, John Fisk, Henry Rust

[NRAR, 364]


RUSSELL

MD

Owners, Maryland Privateers


[See GOODWIN & RUSSELL]


RUSSELL, JOSEPH

RI

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers


Joseph Russell seems to have been a native of Providence, Rhode Island. He was associated in privateering with NICHOLAS and JOHN BROWN, and WILLIAM RUSSELL of Providence. Vessels associated with Russell were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

11/21/76

RI

Ship Oliver Cromwell (20/)

Samuel Chace, Jr.

Nicholas Brown, William Russell

 

[Sheffield, 58]

8/4/77

RI

Ship Oliver Cromwell

Samuel Chace, Jr.

Nicholas Brown et al

 

[Sheffield, 60]


RUSSELL, THOMAS

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


Thomas Russell was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

8/15/80

MA

Brigantine Elizabeth (8/20)

Michael Hopkins

Thomas Russell

Michael Hopkins, Thomas Russell, Chambers Russell

Edward McLane, Thomas Greene [NRAR, 281]

8/15/80

MA

Ship Friendship (18/60)

Simon Mansir

Thomas Russell

Simon Mansir, Thomas Russell, Chambers Russell

Edward McLane, Thomas Greene [NRAR, 306]

8/15/80

MA

Brigantine Thomas (12/35)

Isaac Smith

Thomas Russell

Isaac Smith, Thomas Russell, Chambers Russell

Edward McLane, Thomas Greene [NRAR, 474]

1/30/81

MA

Ship Friendship (16/70)

Daniel Waters

Thomas Russell

Daniel Waters, Thomas Russell, Chambers Russell

James Yancey, William Burroughs [NRAR, 306]

7/5/81

MA

Ship Lively (14/30)

Nathaniel Goodwin

Thomas Russell

Nathaniel Goodwin, Thomas Russell, David Henley

William Burroughs, Isaac Smith [NRAR, 377]

8/23/81

PA

Ship Lively (14/30)

Nathaniel Goodwin

William Turnbull, Thomas Russell

Nathaniel Goodwin, William Turnbull

James Trimble [NRAR, 377]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

10/29/79

MA

Ship Thames (10/30)

Madett Engs

Madett Engs et al

Madett Engs, Thomas Russell, Samuel Conant, Jr.

Chambers Russell, John Cogswell [Allen, MPR, 297]

5/7/81

MA

Brigantine Kensington (14/60)

Samuel Smith

John Pringle & Co.

Samuel Smith, Thomas Russell, Andrew Black

Chambers Russell, William Burroughs [NRAR, 365]

5/17/81

MA

Brigantine Hope (8/30)

Phoenix Frazier

William Turnbull & Co.

Phoenix Frazier, Thomas Russell, Chambers Russell

John Leighton, William Burroughs [NRAR, 342]

10/24/81

PA

Brigantine Kensington (14/25)

James [Arthur] Degge

John Pringle & Co.

James [Arthur] Degge, Thomas Russell, Andrew Black

William Burroughs, Thomas Greene [NRAR, 365]

7/9/82

MA

Ship American (16/60)

Robert Caldwell

John Donaldson & Co.

Robert Caldwell, Thomas Russell, Cambers Russell

William Burroughs, Nathaniel Goodwin [NRAR, 224]

7/18/82

MA

Schooner Volunteer (8/20)

Litchfield Luce

Litchfield Luce et al

Litchfield Luce, Thomas Russell, Chambers Russell

William Burroughs, Charles Nicholes [NRAR, 488]

As witness:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

4/12/82

MA

Brigantine Fox (12/60)

John Donaldson

Samuel Williams et al

John Donaldson, Samuel Williams, Samuel Ward

Thomas Russell, Samuel Deming [NRAR, 302]


RUSSELL, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Russell was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 267] A William Russell, probably the same man, was First Lieutenant aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Oliver Cromwell (Commander WILLIAM COLES), from 29 April 1777, during her cruise to Bilboa, Spain, from about 20 July 1777 to about 20 August 1777. During this cruise ten prizes were captured and there was a fight with two British brigs, the Sally and Rawlinson, on 6 August. During this battle Russell was wounded in his thighs by a cannon ball. Russell presumably recovered and was aboard Oliver Cromwell when she sailed from Bilboa about 1 October 1777. At least four prizes were captured and there was a short fight with the British sloop Fly by about 25 October. [see Oliver Cromwell] Russell was commissioned as Commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Thorn on 7 December 1779. [NOAR, 267] On 31 January 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Beaver. Russell was re-commissioned to the Beaver on 5 February 1781. [NRAR, 233] He was again commissioned, on 22 December 1781, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Liberty. [NRAR, 373] He was re-commissioned to the Liberty on 23 May 1782. [NRAR, 374]


RUSSELL, WILLIAM

RI

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers


William Russell seems to have been a native of Providence, Rhode Island. He was associated in privateering with NICHOLAS and JOHN BROWN, and JOSEPH RUSSELL of Providence. Vessels associated with Russell were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

11/21/76

RI

Ship Oliver Cromwell (20/)

Samuel Chace, Jr.

Nicholas Brown, William Russell

 

[Sheffield, 58]

8/4/77

RI

Ship Oliver Cromwell

Samuel Chace, Jr.

Nicholas Brown et al

 

[Sheffield, 60]


RYAN, JOHN

MD

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Ryan [NDAR, XI, 120 and notes] [Rian] [Claghorn, Naval Officers, 267] was, apparently, a resident of Maryland. He was in command of what was later the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Mary and Elizabeth in January 1778. On 1 January 1778 he captured the sloop Little John and brought her into Baltimore, Maryland where she was condemned and sold. [NDAR, XI, 120 and notes]


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