O




OAKES, JONATHAN
MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Jonathan Oakes was born in 1751, a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 3 November 1776 to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hawke. On 4 April 1778 he was recommissioned to the Hawke. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Thomas on 22 April 1779, and, on 22 March 1780, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Favorite. On 28 December 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Patty. Oakes now listed his address as Malden, Massachusetts. He died in 1818. [NOAR, 224]


OATES, WILLIAM
PA

Midshipman, Continental Navy

William Oates was a Midshipman on the Continental Navy Sloop Independence (Captain JOHN YOUNG) on 18 September 1776. [NOAR, 224]


OBER, BENJAMIN
MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Ober was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. On 7 September 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Freedom. [NOAR, 224]


OBER, EZRA
MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Ezra Ober was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. On 16 October 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Starks. [NOAR, 224]


OBEY, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Obey was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Buckram on 19 September 1781. [Allen, MPR, 89]


O'BRIEN, JEREMIAH

MA

Captain, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Jeremiah O'Brien was the most famous of the O'Brien clan from Machias, Massachusetts (now Maine). He was the individual who led the famous Action at Machias in which HM Schooner Tender Margaretta was captured (June 1775) and more or less led the "Machias Navy" in late 1775 and early 1776. He was taken into the Massachusetts Navy as a Captain, where his experiences were unfortunate. Late in September 1777 Jeremiah commanded a Massachusetts privateer which took a British transport off Cape Negro, bound from Ireland to New York with pork. The transport had been taken by an American privateer, recaptured by HM Frigate Scarborough, before O'Brien got her. [Mclay, Privateers, 60] On 8 September 1782 Jeremiah was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Hannibal, a large vessel of 24 guns and 130 men. [NRAR, 325] Jeremiah's command was owned by a syndicate headed by his brother John and included other citizens of Newburyport (where Jeremiah listed his address). [NRAR, 325; Mclay, Privateers, 61] The ship was purpose built [Mclay, Privateers, 61] and Jeremiah took her to sea in [September] 1780, running down to Port au Prince, Haiti. [Mclay, Privateers, 61. My dates.] Brother John accompanied the Hannibal. After a brief stay in Port au Prince, the Hannibal sailed for Newburyport. Several prizes were taken en route. In [November] 1780 the Hannibal fell in with a British convoy steering for New York, escorted by two British frigates. After a hard chase of over forty-eight hours the frigates closed in and Jeremiah surrendered the Hannibal. The Americans were taken into New York, where the officers and crew were confined in the noxious prison ship Jersey, it being six months before they were exchanged. [Mclay, Privateers, 61] Jeremiah, singled out for harsher treatment, was shipped to England (probably arriving about February or March 1781) and confined in Mill Prison. Here he "was made the object of personal ill treatment." [Mclay, Privateers, 61] Jeremiah soon let himself go to pot: his beard and hair grew long and he declined to change clothes or keep clean. Late one afternoon, he washed, dressed in clean clothes, cut his hair, and shaved. He joined the prisoners in the yard, and concealed himself under a platform. He was missed during the evening round up and was not locked in the cells. He then simply walked out, passing through the keeper's house, but being unrecognized. Jeremiah made his way to France with a Captain Lyon [Mclay, Privateers, 61] and got home by [late April] 1781. [Mclay, Privateers, 62, says not until the war was nearly over.] On 28 May 1781 Jeremiah was commissioned as commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hibernia, 10-guns, owned by his brother John and others from Newburyport. [NRAR, 338] John had recently been exchanged from the Jersey. {Mclay, Privateers, 60] Jeremiah had left the Hibernia by December, for he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Tiger on 8 December 1781. Brother John served as a bondsman for the $20,000 bond. [NRAR, 475. Mclay, Privateers, 60, says this was a New Hampshire vessel.] O'Brien also commanded the armed vessel Little Vincent during the war. [Mclay, Privateers, 60. Mclay's statement that Jeremiah commanded the Cyrus is incorrect. See JOHN O’BRIEN]









O' BRIEN, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


John O'Brien was one of the famous O'Briens from Machias, Massachusetts (now Maine). He was a commander and owner of several privateers during the war. [Mclay, Privateers, 62] On 5 January 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Adventure. [NOAR, 225] In 1779 John purchased the fast brig Hibernia, armed with six 3-pounders. [Maclay, Privateers, 62] He received a commission to Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hibernia on 17 May 1779. [NOAR, 225] He sortied Newburyport in her on 9 June 1779. On 21 June a British brig was captured and sent off to port. About 1200 on 25 June John discovered a large ship and chased her, closing to gunshot about 1500. She was the General Pattison (Lieutenant Chiene), bound from New York to England with military passengers. General Pattison, armed with 6-pounders and 9-pounders was a formidable opponent. After a "desultory" fight, from 1500 to 1700, Hibernia quit the action with three killed and several wounded. Just then a British frigate hove up on the horizon and chased the Americans until midnight, when she broke off pursuit. On 7 July 1779 a schooner was captured and sent into Newburyport. Three days later Hibernia met the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Polly, out of Salem and under J. Leach. [Mclay, Privateers, 62, based on the log of the Hibernia.] Polly had been tracking a small convoy, which came in sight soon after the two privateers spoke each other. The two privateers pitched in and captured a ship (with thirteen 4-pounders), a brig, and a schooner with molasses. The next day Hibernia took a hermaphrodite brig in ballast, which O'Brien used to dispose of his prisoners. Another brig was chased and captured the same day. John felt that "Had not Captain Leach been parted from me in the fog we could have taken the whole fleet." [Mclay, Privateers, 63, quoting O'Brien's Journal.] Hibernia headed for port. [Mclay, Privateers, 62-63] Following the British occupation of Machias, John listed his residence as Newburyport. [NOAR, 225] In 1780, John headed the group which ordered the purpose built privateer ship Hannibal (built at Newburyport). [Mclay, Privateers, 61] Hannibal was commissioned on 22 April 1780 as New Hampshire Privateer Ship Hannibal, under John. [NOAR, 225] She was re-commissioned on 8 September 1781 under brother Jeremiah O’Brien. [NRAR, 325] John accompanied her on her first [?] voyage to Port au Prince. Hannibal was captured on her return and John spent about six months in the Jersey before being exchanged. [Mclay, Privateers, 61] John O'Brien was among the owners listed for the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hibernia, 10-guns, commissioned on 28 May 1781 under John's brother Jeremiah. John, listing his address as Newburyport, was the only owner signing the $20,000 bond. [NRAR, 338] He was still listed as an owner when his brother was replaced by Joseph Atkins on 16 July 1782. [NRAR, 338] John was listed as a co-owner of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner (or cutter) Salamander, to which he was commissioned as commander on 28 May 1781, the same day brother Jeremiah was appointed to the Hibernia. Salamander was armed with eight guns. John signed her bond as commander. [NRAR, 450] He was replaced in the Salamander on 29 March 1782 by Andrew Reed and is not listed among the owners. [NRAR, 450] John was among those who signed the $20,000 bond for his brother's commission to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Tiger on 8 December 1781. [NRAR, 475]  On 19 March 1782 John was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Cyrus, a 12-gun vessel owned by Joseph Marquand and John Coffin Jones of Boston. O'Brien was among those who bonded the ship for $20,000. [NRAR, 261]


OELLERS, JAMES

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Oellers was a merchant of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, involved in privateering. Oellers was also involved in the loss of a schooner, captured in September 1777 and later condemned in the Court of Admiralty, the Duck Creek Packet. He and co-owner Henry Horn of Philadelphia, petitioned the Continental Congress for compensation on 29 July 1778. [NRAR, 79] A committee reported on the petition on 1 September 1778. [NRAR, 81] Three days later Oellers again petitioned Congress, stating that he understood the committee had reported and asking definite action. [NRAR, 83] Oellers was associated with the following privateers:


(as owner):

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

4 September 1778

State

SloopMacaroni (6/20)

Daniel Reybold

 

William Sheaff

 

28 August 1779

Liberty

Brig/12/35

Charles Clunn

John Campbell (bonder, owner)

20 November 1779

Betsey

Sloop/10/25

Joshua Allen

 

11 December 1779

Liberty

Brig/12/35

 

John Imlay (bonder)

1 August 1780

Liberty

Brig/6/35

John Stillwell

 

12 December 1780

Liberty

Brigantine/6/16

Peter Briamant

 

27 April 1781

Charming Molly

Brigantine/6/20

John Stillwell

 

16 June 1781

Dolphin

Schooner/6/11

John Walsh

John Flahavan (bonder, owner)

9 January 1782

St. Helena

Ship/10/60

John Stillwell

 


(as bonder):

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12 July 1780

Catherina

Schooner/6/20

Adrian Lambert

Alexander Gerald (owner)

28 October 1780

Active

Brig/4/20

Philip Jacquelin Du Roy

Du Roy (owner)


(as witness):

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

28 September 1781

St. James

Ship/20/100

Thomas Truxtun

Andrew and James Caldwell (owners)


OGELBIE [OGELBE, OGELBY, OGILVIE, OGELVIE, OGELVE], NICHOLAS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

First Lieutenant, Continental Army Boston Squadron


Nicholas Ogelbie, a native of Marblehead, Massachusetts,  was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Continental Army Boston Squadron on 1 January 1776 and assigned to Continental Army Schooner Hancock. On 30 April 1777 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Warren. [NOAR, 226] Warren was cruising off Cape Finisterre by June 1777, for she took her first prize on 25 June. This was the brig Argo (Thomas Smith), from Lymington to New York with a cargo of salt. A few days later, on 2 July 1777, the brig or brigantine Principe Masserano (Thomas Wharton), from Bergen, Norway to Venice, Italy with a cargo of fish, was captured. On 4 July the brig Elizabeth (William Dowling), Cork to Oporto, Portugal with dry goods, fell victim to the Warren. The day he captured the Elizabeth, Ogelvie ran into Vigo, Spain and landed the three masters and ten of the sailors from the prizes. [NDAR, IX, 483] A few days later Warren put in to Bilbao, Spain, bringing in the Principe Masserano with her [a few days before 12 July, probably about 6 July]. [NDAR, IX, 494-495] The 130-ton Principe Masserano was taken off Cape Finisterre. [NDAR, IX, 548-549] On 14 August, the Warren and another privateer, Civil Usage, were refitting for a cruise. [NDAR, IX, 615 and note] Warren was part of a contingent of privateers that was patrolling off the Spanish and Portuguese coasts. The effect of their activities had been to frighten the resident British merchants into using foreign bottoms. In the month before 20 July 1777 only three British merchant vessels had entered the port of Lisbon. More foreign vessels were at Lisbon than during any Spanish or French war. Oporto was practically blockaded: according to reports from there dated 7 July the privateers had regular stations; one between Oporto and Viana, two between Viana and the Bayonne Islands, and a fourth which had recently been spoken off Cape Finisterre. Assistance had been requested from Admiral Man at Gibralter and from the Admiralty. Since then Warren has taken another vessel. Warren's crew had been particularly careful to get the Mediterranean passes of the captured ships. Orders had now been issued that these passes were to be sunk or destroyed in the future if capture appeared imminent. [NDAR, IX, 515-517] Warren may have made a short cruise out of Bilboa in early August 1777. There was a report that a privateer had chased a vessel into Noya near Cape Finisterre, firing on her even in the harbor. This was reported as happening a "few days ago" on 6 August. [NDAR, IX, 554] Warren was apparently still on the Spanish coast on 28 September 1777. [NDAR, IX, 666-667] She was back home before 8 November 1777, when Ogelbe was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Washington. On 1 January 1778 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Bellona. [NOAR, 226] Ogelbe was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Bunker Hill on 27 October 1778. This vessel was reported captured on 8 February 1779, but this may have been under another commander. [Allen, MPR, 90]


OLIVER, ANDREW

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Andrew Oliver was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He is described as a “hatter” in the bond for Cato. Oliver was associated in privateering with JAMES SWAN, SILAS ATKINS, and JONATHAN NUTTING. Vessels associated with Oliver were:

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/1/79

MA

Schooner Cato (2/20)

William Steward

Jonathan Nutting et al

William Steward, James Swan, Silas Atkins, Andrew Oliver, Jonathan Nutting

Robert Lash, Nathaniel Baker [Allen, MPR, 91]


OLMSTEAD, GIDEON

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Gideon Olmstead was born in East Haddam, Connecticut on 12 February 1748. He married Mabel, daughter of Captain Eliphalet Roberts of Hartford, Connecticut, and resided there. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 116] He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Seaflower on 4 September 1777. [NOAR, 227] The Seaflower was headed for Martinique, French West Indies, for, on 4 December 1777, the Connecticut Council of Safety granted Olmstead permission to export hogs to Martinique. Seaflower was captured by the British. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 116] Olmstead skippered a French privateer in the West Indies in 1778 and was captured again, by HM Sloop Ostrich. Olmstead was taken into Jamaica. He was placed on the sloop Active, but seized command and brought the sloop into Cape May, New Jersey in August 1778. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 117] He then commanded the Gamecock, and with Benjamin King, on 21 August 1779, captured the schooner Reward. [NOAR, 227] On 16 January 1780 Olmstead was driven ashore on the south side of Long Island by a British frigate. The crew got safely ashore and got to New London, Connecticut, but the sloop was lost. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 116. This probably refers to the Gamecock.] Olmstead was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner (or Sloop) Hawk on 22 March 1780. [NRAR, 329; Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 115-116. NRAR says she is a schooner; Middlebrook a sloop.] In the Hawk he captured and unknown sloop on 16 April 1780 and the brigantine St. Andrew on 22 April. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 116] Olmstead was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Raven on 16 September 1780 and to the Connecticut Privateer [unknown] General Green on 17 April 1782. In May 1782 he was captured (for the third time) by HM Frigate Virginia and again imprisoned. [NOAR, 227] He survived the war and died in East Haddam on 8 February 1845. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 116]


OLNEY, ISAAC

[RI] (P/A)

Second Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Isaac Olney entered aboard the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (HOYSTEED HACKER) at Providence, Rhode Island, on 1 March 1777, as Second Lieutenant of Marines. The other Marine officers were Captain JOSEPH HARDY and First Lieutenant EDWARD BURKE. Paullin and Allen list Olney as a Navy lieutenant.


OLNEY, JOSEPH

RI (P/A)

Captain, Continental Navy


Joseph Olney was a native of Rhode Island, and was commissioned by Congress on 22 December 1775 as the second ranking Second Lieutenant. He entered the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (ABRAHAM WHIPPLE) on 25 December. He participated in the New Providence Expedition and the Battle off Block Island. It is presumed that Olney was promoted to First Lieutenant on 1 June 1776 when RHODES ARNOLD was discharged at Providence. About 19 June 1776 Olney was recommended by Commodore ESEK HOPKINS for promotion to Captain. Olney was listed as First Lieutenant on 22 June 1776. He was assigned as prizemaster of the ship Royal Exchange (captured 29 August 1776) and brought her into Portsmouth, New Hampshire on 26 September 1776. He was commended for treating his prisoners with care, which helped him quell a mutiny aboard the prize. On 10 October 1776 he was promoted to Captain and assigned to Continental Navy Brig Cabot, being ranked twenty-first on the Captains' List. Olney was on gunner James Bryant's court-martial, held on Continental Navy Ship Alfred at Newport on 23 October 1776, as a Captain. He took command of the Columbus at Newport, on 26 October 1776, upon Whipple's leaving. He drew sums of money from Deputy Continental Agent John Manley, at Newport on 30 October (£15), on 9 November 1776 (£79.16) and on 27 November. Olney was reported to be in command of the Columbus by British intelligence on 11 December 1776, the ship being at Providence. On 5 January 1777 Olney was relieved of command by Captain HOYSTEED HACKER. On January 1777 he was ordered to Boston, Massachusetts to take command of the Continental Navy Brig Cabot, by virtue of his appointment of 10 October 1776 from Congress and by order of Commodore Hopkins. Olney probably traveled to Boston with Captain ELISHA HINMAN, who was going up to take command of the Continental Navy Ship Alfred. He probably arrived about 19 January 1777. Olney was in command of the Cabot by 29 January and was proceeding to get her manned. Olney traveled back to Providence, where he was on 1 February 1777. On 9 February Olney was issued sailing orders by Commodore Hopkins. Hopkins expected him to sail about 17 or 18 February. On 27 February Olney attended a convocation of Continental Navy captains held at Boston on the subject of uniforms. He signed the recommendations for himself and for Whipple. As he was preparing to sail the same day the brig received damage in a snow storm accompanied by gale force winds. [Morgan, 83] This delayed his sailing until after 9 March 1777. [Morgan, 84] Cabot encountered HM Frigate Milford (Captain John Ford) on 28 March, off Nova Scotia. After a two day chase the brig was driven ashore near the mouth of the Chebogue River. Olney and the crew escaped (he reputedly was the first to abandon ship) ashore, commandeered a small schooner, and returned to Boston. A court-of-inquiry cleared Olney of responsibility for the loss. [Morgan, 84] He made a widely-circulated wage comparison between Continental and Royal Navy ratings. [Jones' expedition], 1318, 1319, 1320--Olney had to wait until May 1778 for his next command, the Continental Navy Ship Queen of France. He took command of her at Boston and began looking for a crew. [Morgan, 142] By the end of 1778 he had a crew of 136 men aboard, and the ship was wooded, watered and provisioned. She dropped down to Nantasket Road to await last minute work. [Morgan, 152]


ORD, GEORGE

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


George Ord was a merchant and resident of Philiadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated in privateering with SAMUEL INGLIS, ROBERT LAWLER, ROBERT MORRIS, THOMAS WILLING and WILLIAM BINGHAM. Privateers associated with Ord were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/3/79

PA

Brig Retaliation (8/25)

Philipps Kollock

Robert Morris, William Bingham, George Ord

George Ord, Cadwalader Dickinson

James Trimble [NRAR, 438]

2/20/81

PA

Ship Delaware (8/30)

John Prole

Samuel Inglis, George Ord & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

James Trimble [NRAR, 265]

3/8/81

PA

Brig Ariel (14/110)

Peter Miller

Samuel Inglis, George Ord & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

James Trimble [NRAR, 230]

6/4/81

PA

Boat Dreadnought (2/40)

Henry Darnell

Samuel Inglis, George Ord & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

James Trimble, Henry Martin [NRAR, 277]

6/4/81

PA

Boat Hooker (2/35)

Henry Martin

Samuel Inglis, George Ord & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

Henry Martin, James Trimble [NRAR, 340]

6/18/81

PA

Brigantine Virginia (4/13)

Peter Hodgkinson

Robert Morris, Samuel Inglis, Thomas Willing, George Ord

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

James Stuart, William Young [NRAR, 488]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/25/79

PA

Ship Chevalier de La Luzerne (18/75)

Thomas Bell

Robert Morris, William Bingham & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

James Trimble [NRAR, 253]

3/23/80

PA

Brigantine Ariel (16/100)

Matthew Lawler

Robert Lawler, Samuel Inglis & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

James Trimble [NRAR, 230]

11/8/80

PA

Brigantine Gustavus (2/15)

George Fleming

Thomas Willing, Robert Morris, William Bingham & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

George Fleming, John Wilson [NRAR, 322]

11/8/80

PA

Brigantine Queen of Sweden (8/20)

John Wilson

Thomas Willing, Robert Morris & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

George Fleming, John Wilson [NRAR, 425]

6/20/81

PA

Cutter Maestrand (10/20)

Philipps Kollock

Robert Morris, William Bingham, Samuel Inglis & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord

Philipps Kollock [NRAR, 382]


ORNE, AZOR

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Azor Orne was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was associated with the following vessels:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/28/77

MA

Schooner Terrible (4/35)

John Conway

Thomas Gerry, Samuel Trevett

John Conway, Azor Orne, Samuel Trevett

John Roads, Charles Halloran [Allen, MPR, 296]


OSBORN, GEORGE JERRY

(P)

Captain, Continental Marines


OSBORN [OSBORNE], JOHN

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


John Osborn (or Osborne) was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Active in early 1777, owned by John Lewis Gervais of Charlestown, South Carolina. Active sailed from Charleston on 21 April 1777 with three brigs and a ship, bound for France, carrying a cargo of rice, tobacco, and indigo. She was manned with a scratch crew of fifteen men (including two Dutch, five Spaniards, and three English). In addition, the Second Mate, JOSEPH RING, was English. On 2 May 1777 Ring and the three English sailors, assisted by the two Dutchmen, rose and took control of the sloop. The mutineers headed for England, but stopped long enough to put Osborne and First Mate JOSEPH PRICE on a pilot boat at Kinsale, Ireland. [See Active]


OSBORNE, JOHN

See JOHN OSBORN


OSWALD, ELEAZER

Acting Captain of Marines, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Eleazer Oswald enlisted with Arnold's Massachusetts regiment about 3 May 1775, as a Captain. He was part of the small detachment of Arnold's men senmt to capture Skenesborough on 9 May. [Bird, Navies, 132] He was among those who commandeered Major Skene's schooner at Skenesborough on 11 May 1775, where she became Continental Army Schooner Liberty. [NDAR, "Journal kept by Eleazer Oswald on Lake Champlain," 1, 312 and note] Liberty arrived at Fort Ticonderoga on 14 May, with Captains JOHN PROUT SLOAN, JONATHAN BROWN, and fifty of Arnold's regiment. [NDAR, "Journal Kept by Eleazer Oswald on Lake Champlain," 1, 327 and 330; "Colonel Benedict Arnold to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety," 1, 330] Oswald acted as Liberty's Captain of Marines on the raid on Fort St. Johns, [NDAR, "Journal kept by Eleazer Oswald on Lake Champlain," 1, 340 and note] 14 May 1775-19 May 1775, when Quebec Provincial Marine Sloop George was captured, by a detachment led by Oswald. [Bird, Navies, 135-136] Oswald presumably transferred to the renamed George (now Continental Army Sloop Enterprise) on 20 May 1775, the sloop acting as Colonel Benedict Arnold's flagship, [NDAR, "Colonel Benedict Arnold to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety, Cambridge," 1, 512-513 and 513 note] and Oswald perhaps acting as his secretary. Oswald later and served as his military secretary. [Bird, Navies, 132]


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