L




LABARTEAUX [LABOYTEAUX], JOHN
NY

[Captain of Marines], Pennsylvania Privateers

John Labarteaux [Laboyteaux] was a tailor in New York City. He became a refugee from there and went aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Aurora (Commander WOOLMAN SUTTON) as Captain of Marines. [New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, Monday, June 5, 1780] Aurora sailed from Philadelphia about 24 May 1780 and engaged HM Frigate Iris on 26 May. Labarteaux is identified in two pieces by Philip Frenau. In The British Prison-Ship he says:
“A bullet struck our captain of marines;
Fierce, though he bid defiance to the foe
He felt his death and ruin in the blow,
Headlong he fell, distracted with the wound,
The deck distain'd, and heart blood streaming round.”
In the prose account, Some Account of the Capture of the Ship “Aurora,” Freneau says “At last a twelve-pound shot came from the frigate and, striking a parcel of oars lashed upon the starboard quarter, broke them all in two, and continuing its destructive course struck Captain Laboyteaux in the right thigh, which it smashed to atoms, tearing part of his belly open at the same time with the splinters from the oars; he fell from the quarter deck close by me and for some time seemed very busily engaged in setting his leg to rights.” Nothing else is known of Labarteaux.


LACAZE, JAMES
PA

Owner Maryland Privateers

Owner, Pennsylvania

James Lacaze was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with MICHAEL MALLET, his business partner, in privateering. Lacaze was associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/9/80

MD

Schooner Young Neptune (16/30)

Gilbert de La Roche

Lacaze and Mallet

G. de La Roche, John Muir

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 495]

1/16/81

PA

Schooner Neptune (10/21)

Gabriel Lallement

James Lacaze, Michael Mallet

Gabriel Lallement, Michael Mallet

James Trimble [NRAR, 403]

3/8/81

PA

Brigantine Impromptu (4/14)

Jeremie Peaud

James Lacaze, Michael Mallet

Michael Mallet, Jeremie Peaud

D. Woelpper, James Trimble [NRAR, 349]

6/19/81

PA

Brigantine Nympha (6/20)

Peter Briamant

James Lacaze, Michael Mallet

Peter Briamant, Michael Mallet

James Trimble [NRAR, 407]

9/25/81

PA

Sloop Polly (4/4)

Joseph Buisson

James Lacaze, Michael Mallet

Joseph Buisson, Lacaze & Mallet

Lacoste, James Murphy [NRAR, 418]

3/30/82

PA

Brigantine L’Antoinette (6/21)

William Smith

James Lacaze, Michael Mallet

Lacaze & Mallet, William Smith

James Trimble [NRAR, 228]


LADD, WILLIAM
RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


William Ladd, presumptively of Rhode Island, was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Batchelor (Bacheller) on 27 August 1776. She was at sea in September 1776. [see Batchelor]


LAMBERT, JOSEPH
MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privatters


Joseph Lambert was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was presumptively one of the owners of a privateer, the Beaver, when he petitioned for a commission on 3 June 1779, with ROBERT STONE. (See JONATHAN LAMBERT)
Vessels associated with Lambert were:
As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/3/79

MA

Schooner Beaver (2/30)

William Bootman

[Joseph Lambert, Robert Stone]

 

[Allen, MPR, 78]


LAMBERT, JONATHAN
MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privatters


Jonathan Lambert was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He is not specifically listed as a privateer owner, but served as a bonder for two privateers with no listed owner. In both cases he was associated with JACOB ASHTON. [NRAR, 219, 291] He was associated with the following privateers:
As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/21/82

MA

Brigantine Favourite (11/50)

William Patterson

 

Jonathan Lambert, Jacob Ashton

Samuel M. West, John Peters [NRAR, 291]

5/21/82

MA

Brigantine Active (11/50)

William Ross

 

Jonathan Lambert, Jacob Ashton

Samuel M. West, John Peters [NRAR, 219]









LANDA, JOSEPH DE

[See DE LANDA, JOSEPH]


LANDAIS, PETER

(P)

Captain, Continental Navy


LANE, EBENEZER

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Ebenezer Lane headed an ownership group in Boston. Other members of the group were SAMUEL SMITH of Boston, EDMUND HOWES of Barnstable County, and DANIEL SARGENT of Boston. The following vessels can be associated with this group:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/11/80

MA

Brigantine Zephyr (4/15)

George Lane

Ebenezer Lane

George Lane, Ebenezer Lane, Nehemiah Somes

William W. Parsons, Gilbert Parsons, Moses Greenleaf  [NRAR, 495]

10/18/81

MA

Brigantine Hunter (6/15)

David Lawrence

Ebenezer Lane et al

David Lawrence, Ebenezer Lane, Edmund Howes

Benjamin Gorham, Elisha Thatcher [NRAR, 347]

7/31/82

MA

Brig Panther (6/15)

George Lane

Ebenezer Lane, Daniel Sargent et al

George Lane, Daniel sargent, Ebenezer Lane

Jonathan Oakes, Thomas Perkins [NRAR, 409]

10/15/82

MA

Brig Adventure (12/20)

Joseph Chase

Ebenezer Lane et al

Joseph Chase, Ebenezer Lane, Samuel Smith

John Oakes, Thomas Perkins [NRAR, 222]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/8/80

MA

Brigantine Venus (6/15)

Michael Leslie

Daniel and Robert McNeil

Michael Leslie, Robert McNeil, Ebenezer Lane

John Winthrop, Samuel Perkins [NRAR, 485]

4/9/81

MA

Brigantine Ruby (4/15)

Benjamin Webber

John Babson, Daniel Rogers et al

Benjamin Webber, Daniel Sargent, Ebenezer Lane

Lewis Carnes, Thomas Carnes [NRAR, 449]

5/29/81

MA

Brigantine Race Horse (6/15)

Nathaniel Thayer

Daniel Sargent et al

Nathaniel Thayer, Daniel Sargent, Ebenezer Lane

Tristram Coffin, Samuel Daggett [NRAR, 425]

8/9/81

MA

Brig Ruby (6/20)

Solomon Babson

John Babson et al

Solomon Babson, John Babson, Ebenezer Lane

Job Prince, James Stinson [NRAR, 449]

As witness:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

3/21/81

MA

Schooner Medium (4/25)

Benjamin Withem

William Pierce et al

Benjamin Withem, William Gee, William Pierce

Ebenezer Lane, Nehemiah Somes  [NRAR, 389]

3/21/81

MA

Schooner Union (4/20)

Daniel Parsons

William Gee et al

Daniel Parsons, William Pierce, William Gee

Ebenezer Lane, Nehemiah Somes [NRAR, 482]


LANE, GEORGE

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


George Lane's first privateer commission was to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Zephyr on 8 November 1780. [NRAR, 495] His next commission was on 31 July 1782, to Massachusetts Privateer Brig Panther. [NRAR, 409]


LANGDON, JOHN

NH

Delegate, Continental Congress

[Member, Naval Committee]

Continental Agent for New Hampshire

Naval Constructor

Owner, New Hampshire Privateers


John Langdon was a lifelong resident of Portsmouth, New Hampshire.


John Langdon and Nicholas Gilman; “financial”, Langdon paid Gilman’s expenses at the Continental Convention as Hew Hampshire was unable or unwilling to pay. “Bradford, ME, 1982, Founding Fathers. Brief Lives of the Framers of the Constitution, University of Kansas Press”, also “Center of Military History, United States Army. www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/revwar/ss/langdon.htm” and “www.seacoastnh.com/framers/jlangdon.html”).No evidence of ties before the Constitutional Convention; they served in the Continental Congress at different times. Both had ties to John Sullivan and they were dispatched by the NH Assembly to attend the Constitutional Convention. They both were well known persons in New Hampshire and both were involved in the revolution and in politics. The United States Army website reports that Langdon and Gilman’s father fought together in the New Hampshire company of volunteers sometimes in 1777 before the battle of Saratoga.


John Langdon to Robert Morris: “correspondence” regarding the contracts to build frigates for the US Navy. (Letters of delegates, Vol. VII, letters 200, 294, 386). Robert Morris was member of the Marine Committee and the Secret Committee (William Whipple from NH and friend of Langdon was also in these two committees. The correspondence between Whipple and Langdon is very frequent). In Langdon’s biography the author casually makes a statement on Langon’s and Morris ‘friendship’, but I found no other evidence and their letters do not seem to convey feelings of friendship. Langdon expressed sympathy to Morris when Morris was under investigation in 1779, but this was probably due to Langdon having suffered similar allegations with respect with his public office and private wealth. (Lawrence Shaw Mayo, “John Langdon of New Hamshire”, The Rumford Press, Concord, N. H., 1937, pp. 175-176).


Friendship/animosity:
William Whipple “friendship”. Letters of delegates.
John Sullivan “friendship”. This will turn into animosity in 1786 after John Langdon’s push for the election of his brother Woodbury as Justice of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire to which Sullivan was opposed.
Josiah Bartlett, “friendship”. Letters of delegates;
Thomas Jefferson, “friendship”, the two were together in the Second Continental Congress and were in contact while Jefferson was in Paris as Foreign Minister. In 1785 Langdon asked Jefferson’s help in obtaining favorable terms of trade from France. Jefferson sent a long letter and a doll for Langdon’s daughter as present through an intermediary.
Captn. Paul Jones, “animosity” over the building of the frigate America, the two had different plans on how to build the ship (letter from Samuel Livermore02-12-1782 and NH seacost website); Jones was well regarded by John Hancock who was in the Marine and Secret Committees, but the contracts of Langdon predate the animosity with Jones.

Financial/business:
Nicholas Gilman, “financial” Langdon paid for Gilman’s expenses at the Constitutional Convention. Some report that Gilman was more of a Federalist, but under the obligation with Langdon always voted for a more moderate version of the Constitution. (Bradford, ME, 1982, Founding Fathers. Brief Lives of the Framers of the Constitution, University of Kansas Press).
John Stark “financial”, he financed the expedition against Gen. Burgoyne (battle of Saratoga) John Stark was the commander of the expedition (Center of Military History, United States Army. www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/revwar/ss/langdon.htm).
James Lowell, “financial’ request for supply of shoes and stockings in excess to be delivered to the Middle Army in case of surplus (letter 109, Vol. VIII, 10-14-1777).
Secret Committee (Robert Morris, William Whipple, Richard Henry Lee, Phil. Livingston), Langdon had two contracts with the Secret Committee for building frigades 11-08-1785 and 02-20-1776. Letters of Delegates Vol. III, letter 459 and Vol. VI letters 27and 503.

Correspondence:
Robert Morris (business, trust, political issues). Letters of delegates, Vol. VII, letters 200, 294, 386
John Hancock (news about the Continental Army, and decisions by the Secret and Maritime committee); Letters of delegates, Vol. V, letter 367 and Vol. VI letter 493.
Ammi Ruhamah Cutter (landowner and doctor in NH); news about the war and the militia, general talk about the situation. He signs as “friend”, 11-6-1775. Letters of delegates Vol. II, letter 311.
Joshua Brackett, information about reaching the Convention 08-01-1787, Letters of Delegates, Vol. 24 letter 342.
John Taylor Gilmam 09-11-1782 news about war movement. Letters of Delegates, Vol. IXX, letter 103.
Samuel Adams (defeat at Ticonderoga, general situation of the army); letter 08-1777. Letters of Delegates, Vol. VII letter 393.
George Washington. Langdon corresponded with Washington with regards to the distribution of war supplies that had come from France. The ships had arrived in Portsmouth, where Langdon was Agent of Prize and therefore in charge of the distribution.

Institutional ties (war):
William Whipple.
John Stark.
John Sullivan.
Langdon was himself involved in the revolutionary war and even though his real fighting was probably marginal he organized and financed a few expeditions where Whipple, Stark and Sullivan were involved.

Institutional ties (administrative):
Robert Morris (business, trust, political issues) Letters of delegates, Vol. VII, letters 200, 294, 386.
William Whipple “institutional” relations (through Continental Congress);
Abiel Foster. Forwarding letters from Foreign Ministers, 10-2-1783. Letters of Delegates Vol. XXI letter 7.
Pierse Long and Abiel Foster as delegates of New Hampshire (delegate to the Continental Congress while Langdon was President of New Hampshire, 1785). News about Congress matters. Letters from Delegates, Vol. XXII, Letters 461, 494, 500 and 191 in Vol. XXV.
Marine Committee (John Hancock, Robert Morris, Geo Walton, Fras. Hopkinson, William Ellery, Samuel Huntington, Richard Henry Lee, Will Hooper, William Whpple); news and decisions with regard to Langdon’s position as Agent of Prize and his supervision of the construction of warships. Letters of Delegates, Vol. V, letters 181,267,280, 292 and 531; Vol. IX letters 296 and 667; Vol. XIII, letter 506.
Secret Committee (Robert Morris, William Whipple, Richard Henry Lee, Phil. Livingston), Langdon had two contracts with the Secret Committee for building frigades 11-08-1785 and 02-20-1776. Letters of Delegates Vol. III, letter 459 and Vol. VI letters 27and 503.
Samuel Livermore (delegate to Continental Congress in 1785) he tries to mediate the dispute with Jones and avoid tension between Secret Committee and Langdon. News. Letters of Delegates, Vol. XVIII letter 345.
John Wentworth 06-10-1778 news, arrival of British Peace Commissioner. Letters of Delegates Vol. X letter 61.
John Sullivan “institutional” ties (both were appointed to the Continental Congress in 1774; Sullivan left in 1775 to become brigadier of the Army); Letters of Delegates Vol. I letter 132, Vol. XVI letters 158 and 342, Vol. XVII letters 28 and 377.
Josiah Bartlett, “institutional” ties, both were appointed as delegates to the Continental Congress with William Whipple. Letters of Delegates.
John Adams (Massachusetts)  and Silas Deane (Connecticut) were part of Langdons’ same committee in the Continental Congress of 1775.
Robert Treat Paine and Robert Livingston were in a committee with Langdon in the Continental Congress of 1775.

Marriage and kin relations;
Langdon married to Elizabeth Sherburne (1777).
Woodbury Langdon (brother). Woodbury spent time in Europe where supposedly also took care of some of John’s business; later John tried to promote Woodbury’s career in politics. Woodbury later was in Congress.

He was associated in privateering with the firm of MOORE & Co. [PHILIP MOORE]. Vessels associated with Langdon were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/6/76

NH

Ship Portsmouth (20/100)

Robert Parker

John Langdon (Moore & Co.) et al

Robert Parker, John Langdon, Joshua Brackett

[NRAR, 420]

6/7/77

NH

Ship Portsmouth (20/100)

John Hart

John Langdon (Moore & Co.) et al

John Hart, John Langdon, George Wentworth

[NRAR, 420]

5/22/80

NH

Brigantine Swan (4/12)

Richard Salter

John Langdon

Richard Salter, John Langdon, John Parker

[NRAR, 470]

9/1/81

NH

Brigantine Fair American (8/35)

Hugh Chichester

John Langdon et al

Hugh Chichester, John Langdon, Robert Shaplay

[NRAR, 287]

5/31/82

NH

Sloop Blossom (8/15)

Thomas Manning

John Langdon

Thomas Manning, John Langdon, Richard Salter

[NRAR, 241]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/19/77

CT

Ship Mercury (10/45)

Jean Heraud

Silas Deane

Jean Heraud, John Langdon, George Wentworth

[NRAR, 390]

12/28/80

NH

Ship Hector (/90)

Thomas Manning

Woodbury Langdon et al

Thomas Manning, Woodbury Langdon, John Langdon

[NRAR, 332]

1/5/81

MA

Ship Alexander (20/150)

Thomas Simpson

Henry Mitchell et al

Thomas Simpson, John Langdon, Jacob Trealwell

[NRAR, 223]

5/19/81

NH

Sloop Fox (4/30)

Thomas Manning

Woodbury Langdon et al

Thomas Manning, Woodbury Langdon, John Langdon

[NRAR, 300]

9/25/81

NH

Sloop Fox (4/30)

Robert Fisher

Woodbury Langdon et al

Robert Fisher, Briard, John Langdon

[NRAR, 301]


LANIFEAR, JAMES

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Privateers


Connecticut Privateer Sloop American Revenue was commissioned on 15 June 1776 under Commander STEPHEN TINKER. Aboard the sloop as First Lieutenant was James Lanifear. [NRAR, 225; NDAR, V, 547-548] Lanifear was apparently still aboard when WILLIAM PACKWOOD took command and made a fruitless cruise. [See American Revenue] On 9 October 1776 SAMUEL CHAMPLIN took command. During the following cruise several prizes were captured. After calling at Charleston, South Carolina, American Revenue returned to Bedford in Dartmouth by 10 April 1777. [see American Revenue] Lanifear apparently left the sloop at this time. He appears as James Lanphier, acting as Second Mate on the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Delight on 14 April 1781, under Commander NATHAN POST. Delight made a voyage to the West Indies and return. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 70] [LAMPHIER]


LA ROCHE, GILBERT DE

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Gilbert de La Roche was supposed to be from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Young Neptune on 9 September 1780. [NRAR, 495] In late 1780 Young Neptune was part of a “wolfpack” of eight privateers working together. [Wilbur, Picture Book, 57]


LARCHAR, JOHN, JR.

[See JOHN ZARCHAR, JR.]


LASKEY, JAMES

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


James Laskey was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He served as a bonder for the following privateer: As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/12/79

MA

Brigantine Terrible (12/70)

John Conway

Samuel Pote et al

John Conway, Samuel Pote, James Laskey

Henry Sibley, Jonathan Dall [Allen, MPR, 296-297]


LATHAM, EDWARD

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Edward Latham was a resident of Groton, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Dolphin on 2 December 1779. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 72] On 27 March 1781 Latham was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Lively. He captured the schooner Seaflower on 15 April 1781 and the brig Bermuda on 23 April. The brig Admiral Rodney was also captured by Latham. Lively was captured by the British on 8 July 1781 and the crew imprisoned. [NOAR, 180]


LAWLER, MATTHEW

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Matthew Lawler was born about 1756 [NOAR, 181] and was a resident of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 230] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker on 15 November 1779. [NRAR, 339] He next commanded the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Ariel, commissioned on 28 August 1780. [NRAR, 230] His last privateer was the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Philadelphia, commissioned 18 June 1781. [NRAR, 414]


LAWLER, ROBERT

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


Robert Lawler was a resident and merchant of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (See SAMUEL INGLIS). He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/28/80

PA

Brigantine Ariel (16/100)

Matthew Lawler

Robert Lawler, Samuel Inglis & Co.

Samuel Inglis, George Ord, Matthew Lawler

James Trimble, Matthew Winderson [NRAR, 230]


LAWRENCE, AUGUSTIN

NY

Superintendent of Construction, Continental Navy (New York)


Augustin Lawrence was one of two Superintendents (see SAMUEL TUDER) supervising the construction of the Continental Navy Ships Congress and Montgomery at the newly established yard at Poughkeepsie, New York.. As such he labored through continual diversions of materials and men to the northern front on Lake Champlain and to the southern front in New York City. The frigates were both launched in November 1776, and completed in June 1777. Lawrence would seem to be one source of the labor problems at Poughkeepsie. [Numerous entries in NDAR, III-IX]


LAWS, TIMOTHY

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Timothy Laws was aboard the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty (Captain THOMAS LILLY) as a Midshipman in late 1776. [Stewart, 45 note] His two brothers JOHN LAWS and WILLIAM LAWS also served in the Navy. Timothy later was the Gunner or Gunner’s Mate on the Mosquito and Tempest (on 7 October 1779). [Stewart, 214]


LEACH, JOHN, JR.

[MA]

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Leach, Jr. was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 182] This may be the same man who was a ship master sailing out of London in 1777. He discovered that American skippers were not trusted by the English shipowners, and made his way to Spain. Here he apparently entered the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Oliver Cromwell (Commander WILLIAM COLES) at Bilboa, Spain. He brought a prize of Oliver Cromwell’s, possibly the brig Endeavour, into Salem, Massachusetts before 15 December 1777. [NDAR, X, 738-739 and 739 note] John Leach was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Franklin on 14 October 1778. On 7 November he captured a snow with a cargo of fish; on 22 November a British brig with a cargo of dry goods; and on 25 November a brig with butter. On 7 August 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship St. Mary's Packet. [NRAR, 464. NOAR, 182, lists her name as Mary’s Packet.]


LEACH, JOSIAH

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Josiah Leach served on Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Vagrant (Commander JOHN CONWAY) as First Lieutenant. Vagrant was commissioned on 14 October 1778. [see Vagrant]


LEACRAFT, BENJAMIN

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Benjamin Leacraft [NRAR, 219] or Leecraft [NOAR, 183] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania when he was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Active (Commander Charles Biddle), commissioned 29 September 1781. [NRAR, 219] Leacraft was discharged at St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, about December 1781. [see Active]


LEAMY, JOHN

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Leamy was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania when he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Adventure on 15 July 1780. [NRAR, 221]


LEARY, DENNIS

(P)

Captain, Continental Marines


LEAYCRAFT, JOHN

NY

Second Lieutenant, New York Navy


John Leaycraft was Second Lieutenant aboard the New York Navy Sloop Montgomery (Captain WILLIAM ROGERS) from May 1776 to June 1777, participating in all her cruises between those dates, including the action of 11 August 1776. He was aboard the sloop during her brief career in Continental service, from 9 February-2 Narch 1777, at a salary of $20 per month. [NDAR, 8, 207-208] He was presumably paid off with the vessel, between 5 June and 1 July 1777. [NDAR, 9, 23-24]


LECRAW [LUCRAN], WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Massachusetts Privateer Brig Black Snake was at sea in early 1777 under Commander William Lecraw [Allen, MPR, 84] [Lucran] [Kaminkow, 221] of Marblehead, Massachusetts. [Allen, MPR, 84] This is probably the same privateer schooner that encountered two sloop tenders fitted out by the British from HMS Portland and commanded by petty officers on 24 August 1777 in the West Indies. [NDAR, IX, 800-802. Kaminkow, 221, notes the actual  date of Lecraw’s capture as August 1777.] After an eight hour chase one of the sloops got alongside the Black Snake and she promptly surrendered, offering no resistance. The prize was taken into Barbados. [NDAR, IX, 800-802] She arrived at English Harbor, Antigua on 16 October 1777, escorted by the tenders. [NDAR, X, 189] Lecraw was sent to Mill Prison, near Plymouth, England. [Kaminkow, 221] Lecraw apparently escaped and was re-captured, for he was committed to Mill Prison again on 12 March 1778. He was pardoned for exchange on 11 December 1779, but escaped in 1780. [NOAR, 183]


LEE, JOHN

VA

Captain, Virginia Marines


John Lee was commissioned on 18 June 1776 as a Captain of Marines in the Potomac Department. [NOAR, 184] According to Stewart, 214, he was a Lieutenant Captain on 20 June 1776.


LEEDS, JONATHAN

CT



A merchant master sailing for Nathaniel Shaw before the war. He was in command of the schooner Defiance on a powder voyage to the West Indies in 1775. [NDAR, I, 908-909; II, 135-136] He was in New London by 19 September 1775 when he signed a protest sent to the Rhode Island General Assembly. [NDAR, II, 156-158] Leeds sailed in sloop Polly for West Indies by 13 December 1775. [NDAR, III, 86-87] He next appears as a Lieutenant on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop American Revenue (Commander SAMUEL CHAMPLIN). [NDAR, VI, 1399] He was appointed as a Lieutenant in the Connecticut Navy on 15 February 1777 and served aboard Connecticut Navy Brig Defence (Captain SAMUEL SMEDLEY) until 15 June 1777. [NDAR, VII, 376-377 and 377 note; IX, 116-118] Leeds rejoined the American Revenue in June 1777 and sailed with her on the ensuing cruise. [See American Revenue] Leeds is said to have died in May 1778, [NOAR, 184] but his widow Anna Leeds, was paid £150 in prize money by Nathaniel Shaw on 11 August 1777. It thus appears he returned to the American Revenue and died on the cruise. [NDAR, IX, 734]


LEEDS, WILLIAM

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


William Leeds was a resident of Groton [Middlebrook, II, 80] He was a merchant master sailing for Nathaniel Shaw before the war. Leeds was in command of the schooner Pompey on a powder voyage to the West Indies in 1775. [NDAR, II, 135-136] Leeds arrived back at New London in January 1776. [NDAR, III, 817-818] He was Second Lieutenant on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop American Revenue on 9 October 1776. He was on the ensuing cruise under SAMUEL CHAMPLIN, and was the prize master of the schooner Two Brothers in January 1777. On 3 February 1777 the Two Brothers was approaching the coast, having closed on Gardiner’s Island, when she was sighted and chased by a patrolling British warship, HM Frigate Niger. Leeds ran her ashore near Westerly, Rhode Island. There followed a long fight between American troops and Niger, before the schooner was brought up to Westerly.  Following this exploit Leeds left the American Revenue. On 31 August 1777 he was aboard the Continental Navy Brigantine Resistance (Captain Samuel Chew) as First Lieutenant. [see American Revenue; NDAR, VIII, 101] Leeds was appointed to command the Connecticut Privateer Sloop American Revenue on 21 July 1778. [NRAR, 225] In the American Revenue, Leeds took four prizes, the schooners Juno, Sally, Polly and Proteus. [see American Revenue] He was then commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Nancy on 27 July 1779. [NRAR, 399] Nancy was presumably captured by HM Frigate Greyhound on 31 July 1779, when Leeds was reported captured. He was taken to New York. [NOAR, 184] Later exchanged, Leeds was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Eliza on 4 May 1782. [NRAR, 280] On 29 May 1782 he captured an unnamed brig, with the Connecticut Privateer Brig Hancock and the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Randolph. Leeds sold the Eliza in Havana, Cuba and returned home to New London, Connecticut on 25 October 1782. [Middlebrook, II, 80] Leeds died in 1806. [NOAR, 184]


LEFFINGWELL, CHRISTOPHER

CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers


Christopher Leffingwell was a resident of Norwich, Connecticut. As “Christopher Leffingwell & Co.” he owned several privateers. Privateers associated with Leffingwell were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/25/77

CT

Brigantine General Washington (18/130)

William Rogers

Isaac Sears, Samuel Broome, Christopher Leffingwell, Jeremiah Platt, John Broome

William Rogers, Jeremiah Platt, John Broome

Samuel Talcott, Jr., Ebenezer Platt [NRAR, 314]

8/11/77

CT

Schooner Tartar (4/20)

Theophilus Fitch

Christopher Leffingwell & Co.

Theophilus Fitch, William Loring, Thomas Fanning

Solomon Williams, John Trumbull [NRAR, 391]

4/6/78

CT

Ship General McDougall (10/30)

Joseph Jauncey

Paschal Nelson Smith, Isaac Sears, Benedict Arnold, Christopher Leffingwell, Samuel and John Broome, Jeremiah Platt

Joseph Jauncey, Jeremiah Platt, John Broome

Margaret V. Vanderspiegel, Ebenezer Platt [NRAR, 311]

12/10/78

CT

Sloop Fly (6/5)

Zephaniah Jennings

Christopher Leffingwell & Co.

Zephaniah Jennings, William Coit & Co.

Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., John Porter [NRAR, 295]

11/1/81

CT

Brigantine Samuel (4/14)

Elisha Lathrop

Christopher Leffingwell & Co.

Elisha Lathrop, John Alden, Carey Leeds

John Porter, Stephen Brown [NRAR, 454]


LEMMOUNT, BENJAMIN

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Lemmount a resident of George Town, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 185] He was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner America (Commander ISAAC SNOW), commissioned 13 September 1776, as First Lieutenant. [see America]


LEWIS, ABRAHAM

NY

Second Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Abraham Lewis, presumably a New Yorker, was Master of the Continental Navy Ship Montgomery (Captain JOHN HODGE) when he was appointed to command the Continental Army Galley [NDAR, IX, 232] Lady Washington, [NDAR, IX, 281 and note] on 7 July 1777. [NDAR, IX, 232] He was appointed by Hodge as Second Lieutenant on the Montgomery. [NDAR, IX, 281 and note] Lewis presumably commanded the Lady Washington until 7 October 1777. During the action at Fort Montgomery, New York, the American fleet was trapped in the Hudson River, unable to sail upstream. The Montgomery and the Lady Washington were destroyed to prevent capture.[Note: there is a JOHN LEWIS listed in Allen, ii, 709 as a Navy Lieutenant.]


LEWIS, JOHN

MA

Prize Master, Massachusetts Privateers


John Lewis was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Buckram (Commander JOHN CROSS) as First Prize Master on 21 August 1777. [NRAR, 243; Allen, MPR, 89; NDAR, X, 347-349] Buckram sailed about mid-September. [Allen, MPR, 89] On 16 September 1777 she was captured by HM Frigate Diamond. [NDAR,  IX, 931 and note] She was sent to Halifax on 22 September 1777. [NDAR, IX, 950] Lewis was sent to HM Frigate Scarborough on 21 September. [NDAR, X, 347-349]


LEWIS, MOSES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Moses Lewis was a resident of Well Fleet, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Bunker Hill on 12 August 1777. [Allen, MPR, 89] In September-October 1777 Lewis captured the sloop Polly and schooner Hope. [NDAR, X, 89-90 and 90 note, 181 and note] On 20 April 1778 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Rambler. [NOAR, 186]


LEWIS, SHERMAN

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


Sherman Lewis was aboard the Connecticut Navy Brig Defence on 13 March 1776 as First Quartermaster and remained until 30 July. [NDAR, 7, 170-177] [879]


LEWIS, WILLIAM

Master, Continental Army Naval Forces


William Lewis was First Lieutenant aboard the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Galley Gates, at Fort Ticonderoga on 26 June 1776. [NDAR, 9, 174] When the British attack began on Fort Ticonderoga, Gates escorted the fleeing convoy to Skenesborough, where Gates was burned and blown up to prevent capture on 6 July 1776.[NDAR, 9, 225]


LIGHTBOURN, JOHN

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Lightbourn NRAR, 224] or Lightbourne [NOAR, 186] of Philadelphia, was a co-owner of Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop America. He was commissioned as her commander on 27 November 1778. [NRAR, 224]


LIGHTBOURNE, HENRY

VA

Second Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


On 17 June 1776 Henry Lightbourne was appointed as second mate on the galley Page. [NDAR, “Minutes of the Virginia Committee of Safety,” V, 593-594 and 594 note]. He was commissioned on 20 July 1776 by the Virginia Council of Safety, as Second Lieutenant. [NDAR, “Journal of the Virginia Council of Safety,” V, 1164 and notes] He resigned on 12 May 1778. [Stewart, 215]


LIGHTBOURNE, RICHARD

VA

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Richard Lightbourne was appointed as “Mate” on the Virginia Navy Schooner Adventure (Captain WILLIAM SAUNDERS) on 17 June 1776. [NDAR, V, 593-594 and 594 note] Both Saunders and Lightbourne were issued commissions on 20 July 1776, as Captain and Lieutenant, respectively, by the Virginia Council of Safety. [NDAR, V, 1164] Lightbourne presumably served aboard until 18 April 1777, when Saunders was ordered to take command of the galley Manley. [NDAR, VIII, 369] Stewart, 215: Lightburn, Lightburne. Lt. On 9 July 1776 on Adventure. Lt. On Hero until 3 July 1779 when he resigned.


LIGHTBOURNE, STAFFORD

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


On 17 June 1776 Stafford Lightbourne was appointed as First Mate [Lieutenant] on the Virginia Navy Galley Lewis (Captain CELEY SAUNDERS). [NDAR, “Minutes of the Virginia Committee of Safety,” V, 593-594 and 594 note] He was commissioned on 20 July 1776. [NDAR, “Journal of the Virginia Council of Safety,” V, 1164 and notes] According to Stewart this was on 2 August 1776. [Stewart, 215-216] He later commanded the Lewis and resigned his commission on 12 May 1778. [ibid]


LITTLE, GEORGE

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


George Little was appointed as Second Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Active (Commander JOHN FOSTER WILLIAMS on 13 October 1777. Active was captured on 18 November 1777. Little was released on a cartel ship and arrived at Bristol, Rhode Island on 7 March 1778 in the cartel Lord Sandwich. [see Active]. Little was associated with one privateer as, possibly, an investor:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Bonder

Witness

9/19/80

MA

Brigantine Adventure (14/70)

James Morris

Henry Mitchell

James Morris, Elisha Sigourney, George Little

[NRAR, 221]


LITTLE, MOSES

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Moses Little was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with RALPH CROSS, Ralph Cross, Jr. and JOSEPH MOULTON, Jr. Vessels associated with Cross were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/7/79

MA

Ship Behmus (8/20)

Samuel Bayley

Ralph Cross et al

Samuel Bayley, Moses Little, Joseph Moulton, Jr.

[Allen, MPR, 79]


LITTLE, [SAMUEL]

CT

Lieutenant, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Samuel Little was enlisted by Captain FREDERICK CHAPPEL on 18 August 1776 for service on the lakes as a Seaman. [NDAR, 6, 985-986] He, perhaps, was promoted when First Lieutenant EPHRAIM GOLDSMITH was killed on 11 October 1776 in the Battle of Valcour Island. When Captain Chappel was ordered to raise a new company of sailors for the lakes, on 15 January 1777, he was instructed to offer one of the lieutenancies to Little. [NDAR, 7, 961-962]


LIVINGSTON, JOHN B.

NY

Owner, New York Privateers


John B. Livingston of New York was associated in privateering with JOHN A. STEWART. Vessels associated with Livingston were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/29/76

NY

Sloop Beaver (6/20)

Stewart Deane

John B. Livingston, John A. Stewart

  


LOCKWOOD, SAMUEL

CT

Captain, Continental Army St. Lawrence River Squadron


Samuel Lockwood of Greenwich, Connecticut [Claghorn, 187] was a Captain in the 5th Connecticut in November 1775 when a small British fleet was captured off Sorel following an action there. [NDAR, 6, 1224] Lockwood took command of the former HM Brig Gaspee, now the Continental Army Brig Gaspee. He sailed her to Montreal on 22 November 1775. [NDAR, 2, 1104-1105] On 28 November the Gaspee and other vessels embarked troops and sailed downriver (Brigadier General Richard Montgomery embarked on the Gaspee) [NDAR, 2, 1151, 1168]. The fleet stopped at Sorel on the 28th, embarked artillery and stores, and sailed again on 30 November. [NDAR, 2, 1387-1400] Between 30 November and 3 December 1775 the fleet arrived at Pointe aux Tremble [NDAR, 2, 1276-1278, 1278, 1387-1400] where Lockwood left the Gaspee. Lockwood later commanded an armed boat on Long Island Sound. On 10 November 1779, while in command of an armed sloop of four guns, he cooperated with a Captain Johnson (who commanded an identical vessel) in the surprise and capture of an eight gun British brig and four other vessels at Oyster Bay, New York. The four small vessels were gotten into Norwalk, Connecticut, but the brig hit a rock and was recaptured. In 1781 Lockwood captured a 38 ton British cartel vessel [why?] with British officer prisoners en route to Newport, Rhode Island. [Claghorn, 187]


LONGSTREET, DANIEL

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


LORING, WILLIAM

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers

[Owner], Connecticut Privateers


William Loring was born in 1750 [NOAR, 188] and was a resident of Norwich, Connecticut. On 11 August 1777 he served as a bonder for the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Tartar (Commander THEOPHILUS FITCH). [NRAR, 472] In 1780 or 1781 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Olive. [NRAR, 407] Loring later commanded the Nabby. Loring died in 1788. [NOAR, 188]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/11/77

CT

Schooner Tartar (4/20)

Theophilus Fitch

Christopher Leffingwell & Co.

Theophilus Fitch, William Loring, Thomas Fanning

Solomon Williams, John Trumbull [NRAR, 391]


LORD, JABEZ

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Jabez Lord, a resident of Norwich, Connecticut, [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 121] was in command of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Lydia on 13 August 1778 when he captured a British sloop with the assistance of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Polly (Commander ELIPHALET ROBERTS). On 5 October 1778 Lord captured the sloop York. [NOAR, 188] On 12 June 1779 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer [NRAR, 382]Sloop [NOAR, 188] or Ship Maria, [NRAR, 382]sailing for the West Indies. Maria was captured in the West Indies and Lord was exchanged in August 1779. [NOAR, 188] Lord was in command of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Harmony by May 1781. He sailed out of New London in the Harmony in May, and was captured by a British privateer from Halifax on 8 June 1781. Lord, or the Harmony, or both, were re-captured and taken into Casco Bay, Massachusetts [Maine]. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 121]


LOTHROP, BARNABAS [BARNABUS]

NH

Second Lieutenant, Continental Marines


The Rhode Island Frigate Committee appointed Barnabas [Barnabus] Lothrop as Second Lieutenant of Marines aboard the Continental Navy Ship Warren (Captain JOHN BURROUGHS HOPKINS) on 14 June 1776. [NDAR, V, 526-527, 856 and note; VI, 651-652] Lothrop was a resident of New Hampshire. [NOAR, 180, where his is listed as Lathrop.] Warren was not a happy ship. On 11 February 1776, a group of officers from the Warren approached attorney Robert Treat Paine. They had drawn up a paper containing charges against Commodore ESEK HOPKINS and his son, Captain John Burroughs Hopkins. Prominent among the ten signers were Captain of Marines JOHN GRANNIS and his two lieutenants, GEORGE STILLMAN and Lothrop. Paine advised them to go to the Marine Committee. [NDAR, VII, 1166-1168 and 1168 note] The officers agreed that they would draw up statements and Grannis would take them to Philadelphia, to the Marine Committee, thus absenting himself without permission of his commanding officer. The officers drew up their statements on 23 and 24 February. A cover letter, dated 19 February, was drawn up. [NDAR,VII, 1234-1235 and 1235 note; 1265 and note, 1275-1276, 1276-1277] Grannis was in Philadelphia in March. About 24 March 1776 he was examined by a subcommittee of the Marine Committee, in relation to the charges he had brought against Hopkins. [NDAR, VIII, 189-192] Two days later Congress suspended Hopkins from command.


LOVE, DAVID

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


LOW, NICHOLAS

PA

Owner, Virginia Privateers


William Low was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with JOHN WILCOCKS as Wilcocks, Low & Co. and with other Philadelphia merchants in business and many privateering enterprises. Low sent a memorial to the Continental Congress on 9 August 1779, in behalf of the owners of the Sally. [NRAR, 112] Low was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/9/81

MD

Sloop Alphen (14/20)

Samuel Davis

Nicholas Low

Samuel Davis, John Davidson

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 224]

11/28/81

PA

Ship Hyder Ally (12/40)

Henry Hawkins

John Wright Stanly, John Wilcocks, Nicholas Low

William Allibone, Henry Hawkins

James Trimble [NRAR, 348]

6/20/82

VA

Schooner Tamany (12/20)

Thomas Hooke

Wilcox, Low & Co.

Thomas Hooke, James Heron

Archibald Blair [NRAR, 472]

6/20/82

VA

Schooner Richmond (12/20)

Job Pray

Low and Pray

Job Pray, James Heron

Archibald Blair [NRAR, 444]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/6/80

PA

Brigantine Friendship (12/40)

John Ball

John Wilcocks, George Meade & Co., Richard Low, John and Robert Harper

Nicholas Low, John Ball

James Trimble [NRAR, 306]

4/30/81

PA

Brigantine Johanna Maria (6/16)

Thomas Periam

Richard Curson & Co.

Nicholas Low, Thomas Periam

James Trimble [NRAR, 359]

9/8/81

PA

Sloop Alphen (10/30)

Job Pray

Job Pray, Henry Hill

Nicholas Low, Job Pray

James Trimble [NRAR, 224]

10/12/81

PA

Brigantine Two Friends (10/25)

Robert Conn

De Vries and Hanse

Robert Conn, Nicholas Low

James Trimble, Joseph Rush [NRAR, 480]


LOWELL, JOHN

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


John Lowell was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. Lowell was associated in privateering with SILAS ATKINS, SILAS ATKINS, JR., and JAMES SWAN. Vessels associated with Lowell were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/4/78

MA

Schooner Bunker Hill (7/35)

Isaac Cobb

John Lowell, Silas Atkins, Silas Atkins, Jr., James Swan et al

Isaac Cobb, John Lowell, Silas Atkins, Jr.

[Allen, MPR, 89]


LUCE, LITCHFIELD

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Litchfield Luce was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 488] On 25 June 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Nancy. [NOAR, 190] On 18 July 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Volunteer, of which he was at least a part-owner, with Walter and Chambers Russell. [NRAR, 488]


LUCRAN, WILLIAM

[see LECRAW, WILLIAM]


LUNT, JOSEPH

MA

[Second] Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Lunt was a native of Massachusetts. In September and October 1776 he was employed by the owners of Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Rising States to convert her from a transport to a privateer. She received new sails, yards and rigging, eight carriage guns, twelve swivels and four cohorns, and two new boats. [NDAR, IX, 523-525] She was commissioned on 18 October 1776 under Commander James Thompson.  Lunt joined the crew as Second Lieutenant. Rising States sailed for Europe on 29 January 1777. Three prizes were captured. On 1 April 1777 Lunt participated in a farcical battle with a British ship. He was captured, with the Rising States, by HMS Terrible on 15 April 1777. [See Rising States]


LURTY, JOHN

VA

Captain of Marines, Virginia Marines


John Lurty was a native of England, born there in 1750. He was a resident of King George County, Virginia in 1775. [Stewart, 217-218] Lurty was commissioned as First Lieutenant of the galley Page on 20 July 1776. [NOAR, 190] He was still on the Page on 2 August 1776. [Stewart, 217-218] On 17 April 1777 he was appointed First Lieutenant of the Dragon (Callender). [NOAR, 190] On 17 April 1777 he was appointed to command the galley then under construction at Fredericksburg. He later commanded the Marines on the Northampton. After the war he commanded a revenue cutter and died in that service in 1795 at Hampton. [Stewart, 217-218]


LYELL, WILLIAM

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Lyell was commissioned as Second Lieutenant aboard the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Bull Dog on 6 November 1775. He was promoted to First Lieutenant and transferred to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Dickinson on 1 October 1776. Lyell was promoted to Captain on 7 April 1777 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Resolution. [Jackson, 343] He served aboard the Resolution in the Delaware River campaign of September-November 1777. On 12 November either the Resolution or the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Tormentor deserted to the British. In any case, Resolution was lost by 21 November. [Jackson, 340, 242, 454n23] On 27 July 1781 Lyell was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine General Galvez (Commander John Vicary). [NRAR, 308] He then served as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Brigantine Olive Branch (Commander George Catton), commissioned 16 November 1781. [NRAR, 408]


LYON, HUMPHREY

CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers


Humphrey Lyon was a resident of East Haddam, Connecticut. He was associated in privateers with a group headed by SILVANUS TINKER. Privateers associated with Lyon were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/25/82

CT

Brigantine Marshall (14/80)

Charles Bulkley

Silvanus Tinker & Co.

Charles Bulkley, Jabez West, David Trumbull

[NRAR, 387]

3/6/83

CT

Brigantine Marshall (14/65)

Noah Scovell

Humphrey Lyon & Co.

 

[Claghorn, 273]


Revised 23 August 2014 © awiatsea.com