G




GALLAGHER, BERNARD
PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers

Bernard Gallagher was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Batchelor on 5 October 1780. [see Batchelor]


GALT, NATHANIEL
PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy

Nathaniel Galt was commissioned on 7 April 1777 as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Argus. [Jackson, 341] Argus’s crew had deserted, been taken prisoner in Philadelphia, or were sick in September 1777, and the boat had been lost by 21 November 1777. [Jackson, 340] He was taken prisoner in January 1778. [Jackson, 341] Galt was imprisoned in New York. On 20 November 1779 the Continental Congress wrote to its agent at West Point concerning the exchange of Galt. [NRAR, 124] Galt was discharged from the Pennsylvania Navy on 8 May 1780. [Jackson, 341]


GALVAR [GALVAN], WILLIAM
SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


William Galvar [Galvan] was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Ship Liberty in 1776. [Coker, 300]


GAMAGE, SAMUEL
(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


GAMBLE, WILLIAM
(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


GANDAL, WILLIAM
 

[see GRANDALL, WILLIAM]


GARDNER, ANDREW
MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Andrew Gardner was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Active about 1 October 1776. [NOAR, 118] She was fitting out at Boston by 11 October 1776 [NDAR, VI, 1213 and note] She sailed with Commodore John Manley's fleet [NDAR, VIII, 375-376, 434-436, 1006-1007] on 21 May 1777. Soon after Active parted from Manley's squadron, sailing in company with Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Speedwell (Commander JONATHAN GREELY). [NDAR, IX, 298] On 25 July 1777 the two schooners fell in with and captured the brig Three Brothers, later recaptured. [NDAR, IX, 722 and note] On 19 August 1777 [Allen, Naval History of the American Revolution, i, 237] the two privateers encountered the British Privateer Ship Johnson (Richard Jones) and engaged her before she was captured with the assistance of Massachusetts Navy Brig Massachusetts (Captain John Fiske). [NDAR, IX, 862 and note, 867 and note]


GARDNER, J.

[MA]

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Massachusetts Privateer Brig Adventure was mentioned as being under Commander J. Gardner of Salem, Massachusetts, about the year 1781. [ Allen, MPR, 68]


GARDNER, NICHOLAS EASTON

RI (A)

Third Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Nicholas Easton Gardner was a Midshipman in the Continental Navy, assigned to the Continental Navy Sloop Providence on 8 July 1776. [NOAR, 118] He served on the courts-martial of Captain Pierre Landais and Lieutenant James Arthur Degge, held aboard the Alliance at Boston, from 20 November 1780 to 25 January 1781. [NRAR, 170, 171] He then served aboard the Continental Navy Ship Alliance (Captain JOHN BARRY). Gardner was aboard the Alliance when she sailed from New London on 4 August 1782 and captured nine prizes, including four rich ones, during her cruise. She put into L'Orient, France on 18 October 1782. A dispute over prize money arose there, during which six or eight officers refused to do duty and were arrested, including Fletcher. He was left in France until he could be tried in the United States. [Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 286-287, 339] Captain of Marines Matthew Parke was tried on these charges on 16 May 1783 at Philadelphia on the Continental Navy Ship George Washington. He was charged with disobedience of orders and with "detaining the Ship in Port causing an additional Expence." He was convicted only of the first charge and sentenced to "forfeit his Commission Provided however that this sentence shall not affect any wages or Monies due" before 24 November 1782. It may be presumed that Fletcher was tried about the same time with a similar result. [Smith, Marines, 463] His trial may have been on 12 May. [Gurn, Commodore John Barry, 186]









GARDNER, WILLIAM

NH

Owner, New Hampshire Privateers


William Gardner was a resident of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was associated in privateering with THOMAS THOMPSON. Vessels associated with Gardner were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/11/81

NH

Ship Bellona (18/100)

Thomas Manning

Thomas Thompson, William Gardner

Thomas Manning, Thomas Thompson, William Gardner

[NRAR, 234]


GARSTON, GEORGE

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


George Garston was a resident of Annapolis, Maryland. Garston was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Sloop Hope on 25 September 1779. [NRAR, 340] He was commissioned, on 30 August 1782, to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Antelope. Under Garston, the Antelope captured a British privateer with three guns and thirty men. [NOAR, 119]


GARVEN, NICHOLAS

MA

Master, Massachusetts Privateers


Nicholas Garven was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. On 14 August 1780 he was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Pilgrim (Commander JOSEPH ROBINSON) as Master. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 414]


GEE, WILLIAM

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


William Gee was a resident of Gloucester, Massachusetts. He was a presumptive owner of Massachusetts privateers. Vessels associated with Gee were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/19/80

MA

Brigantine Ranger (10/20)

Samuel Babson

William Gee et al

Samuel Babson, Ebenezer Parsons, William Parsons

John Foster, George Burroughs [NRAR, 430]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/29/81

MA

Ship Tempest (12/40)

Isaac Somes

John Somes et al

Isaac Somes, William Gee, William Parsons

Micholas Lobdell, Benjamin Somes, Jr. [NRAR, 391]


GERRISH, SAMUEL

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Samuel Gerrish, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was commissioned, on 23 May 1780, to the New Hampshire Privateer Brigantine Aurora, a vessel of eight guns and sixteen men. Aurora was captured by HM Frigate Cerberus on 25 July 1780. Gerrish was confined in Mill Prison nar Plymouth, England. He escaped on 28 December 1780. [NOAR, 120]


GERRY, THOMAS

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Gerry was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/28/77

MA

Schooner Terrible (4/35)

John Conway

Thomas Gerry, Samuel Trevett

John Conway, Azor Orne, Samuel Trevett

John Roads, Charles Halloran [Allen, MPR, 296]


GERVAIS, JOHN LEWIS

SC

Owner, South Carolina Privateers


John Lewis Gervais was a resident of Charlestown, South Carolina in early 1777. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

Winter 77

SC

Sloop Active (6/15)

John Osborne

John Lewis Gervais

 

[Coker, 300; NDAR 9:403-404]


GIBBONS, WILLIAM

[MD]

Commander, Virginia Privateers


William Gibbons was, possibly, a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Brigantine Tartar on 25 July 1782. [NRAR, 473]


GILES, ELEAZER

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Eleazer Giles was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 2 September 1776 to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Retaliation. [NOAR, 121] Giles was commissioned on 18 September 1779 to the Massachusetts Privateer Snow Cato. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers, 91] In 1780 Giles commanded the [Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine] Saratoga, which was captured by the British in January 1780. [NOAR, 121]


GILLET, JEREMIAH

Second Lieutenant, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Jeremiah Gillet was Second Lieutenant aboard the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Galley Gates, at Fort Ticonderoga on 26 June 1777. [NDAR, 9, 174] When the British attack began on Fort Ticonderoga, Gates escorted the fleeing convoy to Skenesborough, where Gates was burned and blown up to prevent capture on 6 July 1776.[NDAR, 9, 225]


GILMAN, JOHN TAYLOR

NH

Owner, New Hampshire Privateers


John Taylor Gilman was a resident of Exeter, New Hampshire. He was associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/2/76

NH

Schooner Adventure (4/16)

James Johnson

John Taylor Gilman, William Elliot, Isaac Marble

John Taylor Gilman, William Elliot, Isaac Marble, James Johnson

Jonathan Blanchard, John Wentworth [NRAR, 221]


GILMAN, JOSIAH

NH

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Josiah Gilman was a resident of Exeter, New Hampshire. The privateers with which Gilman was associated were:

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/8/77

MA

Sloop Black Snake (12/60)

William Carlton

Simon Forrester, Joshua Ward

William Carlton, Simon Forrester, Josiah Gilman

[NRAR, 240]

7/23/77

MA

Brigantine Joseph (8/25)

Christopher Babbidge

Darby & White

Christopher Babbidge, Joseph White, Josiah Gilman

[NRAR, 361]

8/6/77

MA

Schooner Cutter (8/20)

Silas Smith

John Norris et al

Silas Smith, John Norris, Josiah Gilman

[NRAR, 261]


GILMORE, WILLIAM

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


GIRAUD [GERAUE], RAPHELES

Midshipman, Continental Navy


Rapheles Giraud [Geraue] enlisted aboard the Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain HENRY JOHNSON) on 10 May 1777 as a Midshipman. He was enlisted at either Bordeaux or Rouen, France. [NDAR, IX, 502-507, 584-586] Giraud participated in the cruise of Captain LAMBERT WICKES' squadron around Ireland, from 28 May 1777 to 27 June 1777, in which some twenty prizes were captured or destroyed. He was probably aboard the Lexington when she sailed for America in September 1777. On 19 September 1777 Lexington was captured by HM Cutter Alert (Lieutenant John Bazely) after a long and hard battle. [NDAR, IX, 657]


GODDARD, EBENEZER

CT

First Mate [Master], Connecticut Privateers


Ebenezer Goddard was aboard the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marsall (Commander CHARLES BULKLEY) on 25 July 1782, as First Mate, but possibly as Master. He was aboard during her two cruises. When the sloop or schooner Hunter was captured on 30 August 1782, Goddard was assigned as her prize master and took her in to New London, Connecticut on 7 September 1782. [see Marshall]


GOFORTH, WILLIAM

NY

Captain, Continental Army St. Lawrence River Squadron


William Goforth was a New Yorker, enlisted as a Captain in the lst New York. On 8 April 1776 he commanded the post at Trois Rivieres, Quebec. In a letter to John Jay, a New York delegate to the Continental Congress, Goforth suggested several places to fortify the St. Lawrence River, to prevent the British from penetrating above Quebec. [NDAR, 4, 706-707 and 707 note] Sometime soon after Goforth was assigned to take command of the Continental Army Schooner Maria, then fitting out at Pointe aux Trembles. [NDAR, 4, 1259] Goforth commanded the Maria on 6 May 1776, when she fought a brief action with HM Frigate Surprize (Captain Robert Linzee) during which Maria was driven ashore and captured. Goforth escaped with his crew, except for two men taken prisoner. [NDAR, 5, 187-188] He was then sent express to New York with dispatches, arriving at Fort George on 15 May [NDAR, 5, 106-107] and at New York on 21 May. [NDAR, 5, 187-188]


GOLDSMITH, EPHRAIM

CT

First Lieutenant, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Ephraim Goldsmith was a native of Connecticut. He was enlisted as a First Lieutenant by Captain FREDERICK CHAPPEL on 18 August 1776. [NDAR, 6, 985-986] Although Chappel commanded the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Galley Gates, which did not see action, Lieutenant Goldsmith apparently served on another vessel. He was reported killed in action during the Battle of Valcour Island on 11 October 1776. [NDAR, 6, 1382] In December 1776 one Edmond French accepted the balance of Goldsmith's wages (l.6.5.0) for work on the Continental Navy Brig Cabot from Nathaniel Shaw, Jr. [NDAR, 7, 654]


GOLDTHWAIT, BENJAMIN

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Goldthwait was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. Dyson was associated with the following privateers:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/11/80

MA

Schooner Adventure (6/25)

William James

John Dyson

John Dyson, Benjamin Goldthwait

[Allen, MPR, 68]


GOODALE, JOSHUA, JR.

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Joshua Goodale, Jr. was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was associated with MILES WARD, JR.,  in privateering. He was associated with the following privateer vessels:

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/10/82

MA

Schooner Catchall (6/15)

Moses Chase

Miles Ward, Jr. et al

Moses Chase, Miles Ward, Je., Joshua Goodale, Jr.

Hubbard Oliver, Joshua Ward [NRAR, 247]


GOODWIN & RUSSELL

MD

Owners, Maryland Privateers


This firm was established at Baltimore, Maryland. It was associated in privateer ventures with CHARLES WELLS, JAMES WILLIAMS of Annapolis, WILLIAM HAMMOND, GEORGE MEADE & Co. of Philadelphia, and STATIA HEPBURN.  Vessels associated with Goodwin & Russell were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/7/77

MD

Schooner Beggar’s Benison (4/6)

Thomas Steel

James Williams, William Hammond, Thomas Russell, Statia Hepburn

Thomas Steel, James Williams

[NRAR, 233]

6/8/78

MD

Brig Bacchus (6/19)

Charles Wells

William Hammond et al and Goodwin & Russell

Charles Wells, William Hammond

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 231]

7/9/81

MD

Schooner Betsey (8/25)

John Brice

George Meade, Thomas Russell

John Brice, John Bullen

[NRAR, 237]

1/19/82

MD

Schooner Betsey (8/25)

John Brice

George Meade, Thomas Russell

  


GOOSELEY, GEORGE

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


George Gooseley was a resident of York County, Virginia. He was a one fourth owner of the brig Liberty on 16 February 1776, [Stewart, 191], which vessel became the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty. He was later Captain, commanding the Thetis. He continued to follow the sea after the war, commanding the brigantine Helen in 1788. [Stewart, 191]


GORHAM, BENJAMIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Gorham was a native of Barnstable, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 124] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner [NDAR, III, 748] or Sloop [Allen, MPR, 210-211] Lizard on 12 January 1776, [NDAR, III, 748] although her bond was not posted until 2 February 1776. [NDAR, III, 1172-1173] Listing his address as Boston, Gorham signed a bond for Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Little Bachelor (Commander Miller Johnston) on 6 December 1782. [NRAR, 374]


GORE, ABEL

MA

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Abel Gore was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Little Weasel on 7 August 1778 and to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Resolution on 26 April 1779. [NOAR, 124] This is probably the same Abel Gore who was appointed as First Lieutenant on the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marshall (Commander CHARLES BULKLEY) on 25 July 1782. Gore made two cruises in the Marshall during which four prizes were captured. Gore was aboard during the fight with the British Privateer Brig Ann and her consort, the British Privateer Ship New Salt Spring. When the brig Thomas was captured on 22 October 1782, Gore was assigned as her prize master and took her into port on 3 November 1782. [see Marshall]


GOURLAVER, GASPARD

SC

Commander South Carolina Privateers

Gaspard Gourlaver was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Brig Molly in 1777. [Coker, 300]


GRAFTON, JOSEPH

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Grafton was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was frequently associated with his relative, JOSHUA GRAFTON, in his privateering ventures. Vessels associated with Grafton were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/3/81

MA

Brig Lion (10/45)

Jonathan Mason

Joseph Grafton, Joshua Grafton

Jonathan Mason, Joseph Grafton, Joshua Grafton, B. Watkins

Thomas Appleton, Barent Bleecker [NRAR, 374]

11/20/82

MA

Ship General Galvez (18/40)

Thomas Smith

Joseph Grafton, Joshua Grafton

Thomas Smith, Daniel Bigelow, Jr., Josiah Spear

J. D. Robins, Sampson Rea [NRAR, 309]

11/20/82

MA

Brigantine Romulus (14/20)

Thomas Palfrey

Joseph Grafton, Joshua Grafton

Thomas Palfrey, Daniel Bigelow, Jr., Josiah Spear

J. D. Robins, Sampson Rea [NRAR, 447]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

3/31/81

MA

Schooner Comet (9/29)

Richard Elledge

Benjamin Frost et al

Richard Elledge, Joseph Grafton, Benjamin Frost

Lewis Carnes, Benjamin S. Williams [NRAR, 255]


GRAFTON, JOSHUA

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Joshua Grafton, of Salem, Massachusetts, was a commander, and an owner and bonder of Massachusetts privateers. He is frequently associated with his relative, JOSEPH GRAFTON,  also of Salem. His privateer command was the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Romulus, commissioned 10 January 1781. [NRAR, 447] Vessels associated with Grafton were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/30/80

MA

Sloop Commerce (10/25)

John Baptiste Millet

Joshua Grafton et al

John Baptiste Millet, Joshua Grafton, Joseph Grafton

Benjamin Frost, Nathaniel Perry [NRAR, 256]

8/30/80

MA

Schooner Manete (6/16)

John Daccaretta

Joshua Grafton et al

John Daccaretta, Joshua Grafton, Joseph Grafton

Benjamin Frost, Nathaniel Perry [NRAR, 382]

1/10/81

MA

Brigantine Romulus (14/25)

Joshua Grafton

Joshua Grafton et al

Joshua Grafton, Stephen Higginson, Samuel Parkman

Josiah Roberts [NRAR, 447]

7/3/81

MA

Brig Lion (10/45)

Jonathan Mason

Joseph Grafton, Joshua Grafton

Jonathan Mason, Joshua Grafton, Joseph Grafton, B. Watkins

Thomas Appleton, Barent Bleecker [NRAR, 374]

7/12/81

MA

Brigantine Romulus (14/25)

Joseph Waters

Joshua Grafton et al

Joseph Waters, Joshua Grafton, George Williams

Thomas Appleton, Barent Bleecker [NRAR, 447]

11/20/82

MA

Brigantine Romulus (14/20)

Thomas Palfrey

Joseph Grafton, Joshua Grafton

Thomas Palfrey, Daniel Bigelow, Jr., Josiah Spear

J. D. Robins, Sampson Rea [NRAR, 447]

11/20/82

MA

Ship General Galvez (18/40)

Thomas Smith

Joseph Grafton, Joshua Grafton

Thomas Smith, Daniel Bigelow, Jr., Josiah Spear

J. D. Robins, Sampson Rea [NRAR, 309]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/27/81

MA

Brigantine Aurora (6/12)

George Williams, Jr.

George Williams, Jr. et al

George Williams, Jr., Joshua Grafton, Benjamin Frost

Jonathan Waldo, Nathaniel Perry [NRAR, 231]

As witness:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/9/80

MA

Schooner Dolphin (8/20)

David Ropes

Samuel Ward et al

David Ropes, Joseph Sprague, Samuel Ward

John Jenks, Joshua Grafton [NRAR, 272]


GRAHAM

[see GRIMES]


GRAHAM, CHAUNCEY

CT

Surgeon, Connecticut Privateers


Chauncey Graham was the Surgeon aboard the Connecticut Privateer Ship Recovery (Commander SAMUEL SMEDLEY) on 18 February 1780. On the susequent cruise the Recovery was captured by HM Frigate Galatea. The crew of the Recovery was delivered to the prison ships at New York, New York. Graham was exchanged and was the Surgeon on the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marshall (Commander NOAH SCOVELL) on 6 March 1783. One prize was captured on the cruise. [see Marshall]


GRAHAM, [JOHN]

 [see GRIMES, JOHN]


GRANDALL [GANDAL], WILLIAM

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Grandall [NOAR, 126] (or Gandal) was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 250] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Chance on 6 July 1779, [NOAR, 126] or on 30 July. [NRAR, 250]


GRANNIS, JOHN

MA/(A)

Captain, Continental Marines


On 14 June 1776, John Grannis was appointed as Captain of Marines aboard the Continental Navy Ship Warren (Captain JOHN BURROUGHS HOPKINS), then recently launched and laying at Providence, Rhode Island. The appointment was made by the Rhode Island Frigate Committee. [NDAR, V, 526-527, 856 and note; VI, 651-652] Grannis was a resident of Massachusetts. At the time of his appointment he was a Captain in the Massachusetts sea-coast defence companies. [NDAR, V, 598 and note, 1300-1301] Grannis' appointment was confirmed on 1 July 1776, when the Marine Committee recommended to the Continental Congress that Grannis be commissioned. [NDAR, V, 856 and note] Grannis was now to come to Providence in July to consult with the Rhode Island Frigate Committee. On 27 July the Committee wrote to the Massachusetts Council, requesting that Grannis be dismissed from Massachusetts service. The Committee also requested that Grannis be allowed to raise his complement of Marines from Massachusetts. [NDAR, V, 1238] On 31 July the Massachusetts Council met and considered the Rhode Island request, but turned it down. The Massachusetts Council did not have that authority, and the Assembly was not in session, the Council explained in a letter to the Committee. [NDAR, V, 1300-1301] On 13 September 1776 Massachusetts agreed to release Grannis, noting "we shall endeavour to supply his place by as good a Man." However, recruiting Marines from the sea coast companies was forbidden. [NDAR, VI, 802-803 and 803 note] Warren was not a happy ship. On 11 February 1777, a group of officers from the Warren approached attorney Robert Treat Paine. They had drawn up a paper containing charges against Commodore Esek Hopkins and his son, Captain John Burroughs Hopkins. Prominent among the ten signers were Captain of Marines Grannis and his two lieutenants, GEORGE STILLMAN and BARNABAS LOTHROP. Paine advised them to go to the Marine Committee. [NDAR, VII, 1166-1168 and 1168 note] The officers agreed that they would draw up statements and Grannis would take them to Philadelphia, to the Marine Committee, thus absenting himself without permission of his commanding officer. The officers drew up their statements on 23 and 24 February. A cover letter, dated 19 February, was drawn up. [NDAR,VII, 1234-1235 and 1235 note; 1265 and note, 1275-1276, 1276-1277] On 14 March some of the officers approached Commodore Hopkins and recanted their complaints. In a letter to the Marine Committee, Hopkins said of Grannis that he had never been aboard the Warren "three nights together, nor I believe ten days this five Months past." Grannis, thought Hopkins, was irritated with him  because Hopkins had several times ordered him aboard the frigate to do his duty. "I at last threaten'd to break him and get another man in his Room if he did not -- Upon which he went onboard but staid only two Nights." Hopkins noted the impropriety of Grannis' leaving the ship, liable to attack at any time, without informing his superior officers. Further, Grannis must be acting on some private motive, for he had not made known the officers' complaints to his superiors.  [NDAR, VIII, 142-144 and 144 note] Grannis was in Philadelphia in March. About 24 March 1776 he was examined by a subcommittee of the Marine Committee, in relation to the charges he had brought against Hopkins. [NDAR, VIII, 189-192] Two days later Congress suspended Hopkins from command.


GRANT,

Captain, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Grant was at Fort Ticonderoga on 18 August 1776, in command of the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Gondola Connecticut. He was to sail for Crown Point in a few days. [NDAR, 6, 224] Arrived at Crown Point at 0700 on 24 August 1776. [Bird, Navies, 177] Connecticut's mast broke in storm of 26 August, off Highlander's Bonnet, but she was taken in tow by Revenge. [Bird, Navies, 178]


GRASON, THOMAS

MD

Commodore, Maryland Navy


Thomas Grason was in command of the Dolphin in September 1778. With the sloop Hannah (Captain Hussey), the Conqueror and the Chester, he cruised about the Virginia Capes to protect commerce. Commanding the Revenge, with Captains Dashiell and Speddin, he took two schooners and a barge. On 17 November 1780 he commanded several vessels transporting troops from the Head of Elk to Virginia, assisted by Captain Middleton and Lieutenants Ewing and Skinner. [NOAR, 126]


GRAY, JAMES

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


James Gray was appointed Second Mate on 27 March 1776, aboard the vessel commanded by Captain RICHARD TAYLOR. He was later commissioned Lieutenant. [NOAR, 126]


GRAY, ROBERT

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Robert Gray was commissioned as a Lieutenant on 1 November 1776 and assigned to the brig Raleigh. [NOAR, 126]


GRAY, THOMAS

CT

Surgeon's Mate, Connecticut Navy


Thomas Gray was appointed to the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell as Surgeon's Mate "and Physician" on 10 September 1776. [NDAR, 6, 770] He was aboard the ship on 25 February 1777, according to the crew list. [NDAR, 7, 1283-1287] Dr. Gray was one of those officers who roomed and boarded ashore during the time the ship was fitting out, from about 25 September 1776 to 12 December 1776. During this time he had care of one wounded man, two sick and one lame. [NDAR, 7, 459]


GRAY, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Gray was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 126] Gray was evidently a prize master aboard Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Oliver Cromwell (Commander WILLIAM COLES) during her cruise to Spain in July-August 1777. Prize brig Queen of Portugal was captured by Oliver Cromwell on 6 August 1777. [NDAR, IX, 552-553 and 553 note, 592-593 and note] The prize was placed under the command of Gray, and she accompanied the Oliver Cromwell for a time. Aboard the Queen of Portugal were a number of passengers, including some “Laidys,” whom it was determined should be landed on British territory. Recalling that a British warship was in pursuit, Oliver Cromwell set sail. At 1500 she sighted two brigs and ran down to them, Coles ordering Gray to keep away to the west. [NDAR, IX, 552-553 and 553 note] Meanwhile, Gray bore away and encountered a  convoy on 8 August, along with privateers General Mercer (Commander JAMES BABSON) and Fanny (Commander JOHN KENDRICK), who had just taken two prizes. Gray transferred his passengers to General Mercer and sailed for America. He arrived at Boston at the end of September 1777. [NDAR, IX, 592-593 and 593 note; X, 90 and notes]

Gray was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Mary on 22 December 1777. On 23 June 1778 he was again commissioned, to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Scorpion. Gray’s next command, commissioned 26 October 1778, was the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Roebuck. On 14 March 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Two Brothers. On 12 December 1781 Gray was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Dart. On 19 March 1782 he arrived at a New Jersey harbor with a prize sloop. On 30 November 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Fox. [NOAR, 126]


GRAY, WILLIAM

MA

Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


William Gray was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was a lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Jack (Commander DAVID ROPES). On 28 May 1782 the Jack fought HM Sloop Observer, with Ropes being killed in the fight. Gray took command but was forced to surrender Jack the next day. [NOAR, 126-127]


GREELY, JONATHAN [JOHN]

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Jonathan Greely was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Speedwell and was ordered to sea on 26 April 1777. On 18 April 1778 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Speedwell. On 10 April 1778 he captured a sloop bound to New York from Dominica or St.-Domingue. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Columbia [Columbus] on 30 October 1780. [NOAR, 127]


GREEN, EZRA

NH

Surgeon, Continental Navy


Ezra Green was a resident of Dover, New Hampshire. He was appointed as Surgeon aboard the Continental Navy Ship Ranger (Captain JOHN PAUL JONES) in 1777. He served until the end of the war. [NOAR, 127]

GREEN, JOHN

MD

Captain, Maryland Navy


According to NOAR, 127.


GREEN, JOHN

PA/(P)

Captain, Continental Navy


In late August 1777 John Green was an unemployed ship master, at Nantes, France. Before the war he had sailed out of Philadelphia. Green was married and had a wife and family in Philadelphia. He was known personally to Captain LAMBERT WICKES (Continental Navy Brig Reprisal), who recommended him to the American Commissioners in France on 22 August. Wickes stated Green was loyal to the American cause and “Very Capible of Commanding either a Merchant man or Vessell of War.” [NDAR, IX, 594] In a letter to Captain Henry Johnson of 5 September 1777 Wickes mentions Green as someone who was “an intimate Acquaintance of Mine, as we Commanded Ships in the Same employ out of Philadelphia—he is a Very hearty friend to America & a Very good Companion.”  [NDAR, IX, 629-630]

On 15 October 1777 a British spy from Paris reported that John Green was commanding a ship, (the Brune) armed with twenty-four 6-pounders. Green intended to proceed to America. The spy noted the ship would be richly loaded. [NDAR, X, 912-913 and 913 note] By 22 November Brune was at L’Orient. She was being cleared out with a French master (Berube Dufraisne) and crew, and with a destination for one of the French overseas colonies. Aboard was an American passenger, one John Green, supposed to be a captain in the Continental Navy. The vessel was bound for America. The French commissary at L’Orient, Charles Pierre Gonet, learned of these arrangements and reported them to Gabriel de Sartine. Sartine, on 22 November, directed Gonet to halt the sailing of the Brune until her French captain gave a pledge to only go to the French colonies in America. Brune wasowned by Berard Freres & Co. [NDAR, X, 1014-1015 and 1015 note] De Sartine reiterated the orders to demand a pledge from this captain on 2 December 1777. [NDAR, X, 1059-1060]

On 1 December 1777, Silas Deane, in a letter to John Ross, revealed that he had an interest in the ship and cargo. Deane left all the arrangements as to cargo, freight, and such to Ross, but clearly indicated the primary object was to obtain a cargo of tobacco for the return trip. If the ship were to be sold to the public and not loaded back, Deane directed his portion of the proceeds be paid to his brother Simeon Deane, at Petersburg, Virginia, or to Barnabas Deane, in Connecticut. Deane wished to know how soon the ship would be ready to sail. [NDAR, X, 1055-1056 and 1056 note]

On 10 December 1777 the shipping articles were drawn up for the Brune. These provided for the payments and terms of the employments of the French officers, clearly stated that Berard Freres & Co. were the outfitters of the ship, and clearly stated that a voyage to America was contemplated. Dufraisne was instructed to follow the course given him by the “American captain, his passenger.” He was to follow Green’s instructions after he passed 37°N and 17° west of the latitude of Paris. It was also contemplated that the ship would be moved to Nantes to finish fitting out. The officers were N. Fautrel, master; De Livoyes, first mate; Coulas Rozan, Surgeon. [NDAR, X, 1987-1090 and 1090 note] Not all the French sailors wished to sail. At least one, from St. Malo, wished to leave the Brune, and apparently did so with the aid of Commissary Gonet, before 3 December. [NDAR, X, 1096-1097]

In the period before 15 December, Green reported to John Ross that there were some suspicious delays in preparing the Brune for sea. Ross made an unexpected call on Berard Freres & Co. on the 15th. He later reported to Silas Deane that, had he not  made an appearance Berard would have delayed the ship “without the least cause, except the Suspitions of his own heart, that I had become disgusted with his Management. . .” Ross’s presence galvanized the agent, and Brune was now to be expected at Nantes with the first fair wind. Before he left L’Orient she had fallen down the river to the Isle of Groix. [NDAR, X, 1106-1108]

On 18 December the American Commissioners in France wrote to Ross. They suggested that the Brune and the Lion (later Continental Navy Ship Deane, under Captain Samuel Nicholson) sail in company from Nantes. Lion was nearly ready for sea. Other vessels being readied could sail with them, as all were armed. Ross was to arrange the point of rendezvous with Nicholson. [NDAR, X, 1118 and note]

Brune arrived at Nantes on 20 December. On 23 December Ross was looking for Green to confer with him to forward everything for her final departure. [NDAR, X, 1142] On 24 December Ross wrote to the American Commissioners in France, advising that plans for the intended convoy be kept secret. He hoped that the Brune, then laying at Paimboeuf, could complete her lading in the following week. On the 27th, in a letter delivered by Captain John Paul Jones, Ross stated that Ranger could join the intended convoy to give it a good offing from the coast. [NDAR, X, 1153-1154 and 1154 note]

Green was given a commission as Captain in the Continental Navy on 11 February 1778. [NOAR, 127]

Green brought her into Boston in May 1778, where the Frenchmen were paid off and the vessel laid up for refit, being re-named Queen of France. [Smith, Marines, 177] Green was apparently in command of the Queen of France on 19 June 1778, when the Marine Committee notified one Captain John Greene (at Boston?) that he was to be under orders of the Eastern Navy Board as to employment of his vessel (Queen of France?) [NRAR, 76] Nevertheless, On 20 August 1778 the Marine Committee ordered Greene (commanding Retaliation in the Delaware River) to cruise to the mouth of the Delaware with the French frigate Chimere, and then to cruise about the mouth with the Pennsylvania Navy Brig Convention or alone. [NRAR, 80]

On 30 January 1784 a committee reported on granting a sea letter to Green, commanding the Empress of China, who was sailing for that place. [NRAR, 201]


GREEN [GRAN], JOHN

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


On 28 April 1779 John Green was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Nesbitt, six guns and twelve men, owned by John M. Nesbitt & Co. of Philadelphia. Green listed his address as Philadelphia. [NRAR, 404] About July 1779 she was captured by the British vessel Liberty. Green (or Gran) was either an officer aboard, or commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer [unknown] Lion, captured by the British in June 1781. On 31 August 1781 he was committed to Mill Prison. [NOAR, 127, and see NOAR, 8] Whether these two officers are the same men is not certain.


GREEN, JOHN H.

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


John H. Green was a Midshipman in the Connecticut Navy, on the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain TIMOTHY PARKER) in 1777-1778. He deserted. [NOAR, 127]


GREEN, OLIVER

RI

Surgeon’s Mate, Continental Navy


In March 1777 Oliver Green was Surgeon’s Mate aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Providence. She was captured in November 1779. [NOAR, 127]


GREEN, PETER

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Peter Green was a Lieutenant in the Continental Marines, commissioned on 24 August 1778. [NOAR, 127]


GREEN, SAMUEL

MA

Captain, Massachusetts Navy


Samuel Green was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was in command of the Massachusetts Navy Trading Ship Pliarne in 1777. On 17 September 1777 Green was captured in the Pliarne. Several months later one Mark Workman was sent to Rhode Island to be exchanged for Green. [NOAR, 128]


GREEN, THOMAS

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


According to NOAR, 128, Thomas Green was a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy.


GREEN, WILLIAM

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Green, possibly from Philadelphia, was commissioned to command the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Active on 30 April 1779. [NRAR, 217]


GREEN, WILLIAM

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


William Green was the son of Colonel John Green of Culpeper County, Virginia. In the early period of the war he marched with Colonel Patrick Henry on Williamsburg. When the Virginia Navy began Green came forward. [Stewart, 193] On 1 April 1776 the Committee of Safety directed Mann Page and Fielding Lewis to purchase a suitable vessel. This vessel would be fitted out under “Lieut. Wm. Green.”[NDAR, “Minutes of the Virginia Committee of Safety,” IV, 672-674] This vessel became the Defiance. This Lieutenant Green had been appointed, on 16 March 1776, as master of a galley to be used in the Rappahannock River. [NDAR, “Minutes of the Virginia Committee of Safety,” IV, 368-369] Nevertheless, on 1 April 1776, Eleazer Callender was appointed to command the second cruiser on the Rappahannock River, and William Green was appointed as his First Mate [First Lieutenant]. [NDAR, “Minutes of the Virginia Committee of Safety,” IV, 621] On 30 April a “Mr Williams” was paid £23 for half pay for himself for one month and for recruiting sailors. [NDAR, “Naval and Marine Expenditures from the Ledger of the Virginia Committee of Safety,” IV, 1428-1429] The same amount of money was ordered paid to Lieutenant William Green on the same day by the Virginia Committee of Safety.  [NDAR, “Minutes of the Virginia Committee of Safety,” IV, 1345] [Defiance?] On 20 July 1776 Green was commissioned as First Lieutenant of the Virginia Navy Sloop Defiance. [NDAR, “Journal of the Virginia Council of Safety,” V, 1164 and notes] By early October 1776 Callender had left the sloop and Green was promoted to Captain and given her command. sloop Defiance (commanded now by Captain William Green succeeded Callender) to Surinam. [Stewart, 17] On 24 October William Green of Defiance ordered to turn over men to the Raleigh. [Stewart, 42] He was in command of the Defiance on 5 December 1776. [NOAR, 128] Stewart says he succeeded Callender on 6 December 1776. [Stewart, 193]


GREENALD, RICHARD

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Richard Greenald was born about 1756. [NOAR, 128] He was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship St. James (Commander THOMAS TRUXTON) on 28 September 1781, [NRAR, 463] listing his age as 25. [NOAR, 128, where 25 September 1781 is given as the date]


GREENE, JACOB

RI

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers


Privateers associated with Greene:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/13/79

RI

[Schooner] Black Snake

Isaac Carr

Jacob Greene

 

[Sheffield, 61]

11/13/79

RI

[Schooner] Black Snake

Job Pierce

Jacob Greene et al

 

[Sheffield, 61]


GREENE, NATHANIEL

RI

Major General, Continental Army

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Nathaniel Greene, the brilliant ex-Quaker general, was involved in privateering. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

1/15/79

MA

Brigantine Adventure (8/30)

Joseph Tripp

Nathaniel Greene et al

Joseph Tripp, Mungo Mackay, [Nathaniel Greene]

[Allen, MPR, 67-68]


GREENE [TREENE], WILLIAM

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Greene [NOAR, 128] (or Treene) [NRAR, 432] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NOAR, 128] On 2 March 1780 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Rattlesnake. [NRAR, 432] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Fame on 23 November 1780. [NRAR, 289] At this time he listed his age as 29. [NOAR, 128]


GREENLEAF, ABNER

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Abner Greenleaf was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. Greenleaf was associated in privateering with JOSEPH STANWOOD, JONATHAN MULLIKEN, and MOSES BROWN.
Privateers associated with Greenleaf:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

1/31/81

MA

Ship Beaver (6/20)

William Russell

Moses Brown, Joseph Stanwood, Jonathan Mulliken, Abner Greenleaf

William Russell, Jonathan Mulliken, Joseph Stanwood

[NRAR, 233]

2/5/81

MA

Ship Beaver (6/20)

William Russell

Moses Brown, Joseph Stanwood, Jonathan Mulliken, Abner Greenleaf

William Russell, Moses Brown, Jonathan Mulliken

[NRAR, 233]


GREENLEAF, THOMAS

MA

Lieutenant of Marines, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Greenleaf, of Boston, Massachusetts, was [First] Lieutenant of Marines aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Angelica (Commander WILLIAM DAVIS) about May 1778. Angelica was at sea about June 1778 when she encountered the British ship Andromeda, in which General Howe was returning home to England. Angelica was captured, the crew removed and the ship burned. The British reported she was armed with sixteen guns and had ninety-eight men aboard when captured. Andromeda arrived at Portsmouth with her prisoners on 2 July 1778. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 74] On 7 July 1778 Greenleaf and others were committed to Fortun Prison at Gosport, near Portsmouth, England. [Kaminkow, Mariners of the American Revolution, 6; NOAR, 29, 44, 85, 98, 128] Greenleaf escaped later. [NOAR 128]


GREENWAY, JOSEPH

(A)

Third Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Joseph Greenway was commissioned as a Third Lieutenant in the Continental Navy on 28 August 1776 and assigned to Continental Navy Ship Delaware. In 1779 he commanded the privateer Lady Washington [NOAR, 128] and with Maryland Privateer Schooner Montgomery (Commander JAMES BELT) and Maryland Privateer Schooner Baltimore Hero (Commander JOHN EARLE), on 13 June 1779, engaged in a battle with two enemy privateers of twelve guns each off the mouth of the Rappahannock River. The battle ended with the arrival of British support and the Americans returned to Baltimore, Maryland. A captured American privateer was re-captured. [NOAR, 21, 128; Maclay, History of American Privateers, 133. On p. 73 Maclay says the Baltimore Hero took the privateer.] On 11 April 1780, Joseph Greenway was commissioned to Maryland Privateer Brigantine Virginia, twelve guns and twenty-four men, owned by Hooe & Harrison of Alexandria, Virginia. [NRAR, 487]


GREENWAY [GREENAWAY], WILLIAM

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Greenway [Greenaway] was appointed as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy and assigned to command a "tier of Fire Rafts" on 26 March 1776. [NDAR, IV, 526]  However, the "Fire Raft" in question was apparently one of the newly-built "Guard Boats," an open type of half galley or barge. Greenway was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Vulture on 28 March 1776. [Jackson, 342] A committee was appointed to fit his boat, and three others, for a patrol in the Cape May channel on 2 May 1776. [NDAR, IV, 1381] Vulture was at Philadelphia on 11 May, when Greenway was ordered to carry ammunition down river to the gondolas, following the Battle of the Delaware River on 7/8 May. [NDAR, V, 50-53] Greenway was ordered to deliver up surplus muskets from his boat on 13 June 1776, being down the river with the fire rafts at that time. [NDAR, V, 512-513] Greenway was one of three men sent, in August 1776, to New York to help prepare fire ships in that city, under command of Captain John Hazelwood. [NDAR, VI, 1200-1201] Greenway was transferred to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Fame on 1 October 1776, [Jackson, 342] but he was also commissioned as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Congress on 3 October 1776. [NDAR, VI, 1122] On 17 October he requested his discharge from the Navy. [Jackson, 342] On 10 October Greenway (and Hazelwood and Gunning Bedford) received the balance of the money due them from the New York work. [NDAR, VI, 1200-1201] Captain JACOB HANSE was tansferred to the Vulture to replace Greenway.

Congress sailed with Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Chance [NDAR, VII, 12 and note] in mid-October 1776. [NDAR, 7, 1086 and note] Soon after two sloops were captured, the Dragon and the Molly, both owned in New Providence [Nassau] in the Bahamas. Although Bahama property was specifically exempted by Congress from capture, the privateers sent in these prizes to Philadelphia. They were later released, and Isaac Cox, on behalf of the owners, petitioned Congress for a safe conduct on 18 November 1776, to enable the sloops to return home. [NDAR, 7, 198] On 21 October [NDAR, 7, 12 and note] the pair captured the brig Britannia (Benjamin Francis Hughes, master and owner) from Jamaica in ballast. [NDAR, VII, 12 and note, 317-318 and 318 note] She was later recaptured. [ibid] Some time after Britannia was captured by the two privateers, Congress captured the brig Dispatch, based in Cork, Ireland and bound there from the Grenadines. She was also recaptured. [NDAR, 7, 258 and note] Congress ended this cruise by putting in to Charleston, South Carolina. She was sold there in February 1777. [NDAR, VII, 1105]

Following his career privateering, Greenway returned to the Pennsylvania Navy, commanding the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Hornet on 4 July 1777. [Jackson, 342] Greenway, in the Hornet, participated in the Delaware River campaign of September-November 1777. Hornet was among those craft which escaped up river on the morning of 20 November 1777. [xx] He was discharged on 17 August 1778. [Jackson, 342]


GREGG, GEORGE

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


George Gregg was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned, on 4 August 1779 to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Thetis [NRAR, 474] [Thaetis]. [NOAR, 129]


GREGORY, JOHN

NH

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


John Gregory, presumably of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, [NOAR, 129] was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Brigantine McClary on 28 January 1778. [NRAR, 381] McClary (McClery; McClarey) was subsequently captured by the British. [NOAR, 129, 293]


GREGORY, STEPHEN

(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


According to NOAR, 129, he was commissioned on 4 August 1778.


GREGORY, WILLIAM

PA

Prize Master, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Gregory, presumably a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was a Prize Master aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Oliver Cromwell, commissioned on 7 February 1777 under Commander HARMAN COURTER. The Oliver Cromwell sailed for the West Indies on 17 February 1777. Gregory was presumably aboard during the inconclusive fight with the Lady’s Adventure on 13 April 1777. The ship Mercury, from Glasgow, Scotland and Cork, with beef, butter, dry goods, nails, copper and tinwares was captured in April and was at Martinique, certainly before the end of April. Mercury was sent on to Massachusetts under Gregory. On her route to the United States, Mercury was spoken by a South Carolina vessel, at 34°30'N, 64°00'W, on 23 June 1777. Gregory reported all was well on board. He valued the prize’s dry goods at £14000. Mercury arrived safely at Bedford, Massachusetts about 12 June 1777 where her cargo was valued at £18000. [see Oliver Cromwell


GRENNELL [GRINNELL], THOMAS

NY/(P/A)

Captain, Continental Navy


Thomas Grennell (or Grinnell) was a New Yorker. He was commissioned on 15 June 1776 as a Captain in the Continental Navy and assigned to the 24-gun Continental Navy Ship Montgomery, then under construction at Poughkeepsie, New York. [NDAR, V, 549, 568] Perhaps early in August 1776 Grennell was advised that he would be transferred to the Continental Navy Ship Congress; since her captain, CHRISTOPHER MILLER, had never taken his post. On 22 August 1776 Grennell was replaced on the Montgomery by JOHN HODGE. [NDAR, VI, 270-271] He thus became the senior of the New York captains. On 21 September Grennell was asked by the New York Convention to assist with the sinking of block ships in the Hudson. [NDAR, VI, 926-928] On 10 October 1776 the Continental Congress ranked its naval captains: Grennell was ninth and Hodge fourteenth. [NDAR, VI, 1200-1201] On 18 October the Marine Committee more or less turned the direction of the New York ships over to the New York Convention, [NDAR, VI, 1353-1354] with whom the captains were to consult when officers were selected. [NDAR, VI, 1354] Congress was launched about mid-November 1776 [NDAR,  VI, 1435 and note; VII, 47-48, 307 and note] and moved to Esopus Creek [Kingston], New York for the winter on 11 December 1776. [NDAR, VII, 460] As part of a new Hudson Highlands defense scheme the Congress and Montgomery were ordered to be completed and stationed at Fort Montgomery, behind and to support the river chain, in May 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 987 and note] Grennell and Hodge now appointed several sea and Marine officers for their ships. The frigates were at Poughkeepsie in early June 1777, where they were being rigged. [NDAR, IX, 82] Crews were provided from the garrison at Fort Montgomery on 15 June. [NDAR, IX, 118] Grennell reported aboard on 20 June. [NOAR, 129. My interpretation of the entry.] On 26 June the Marine Committee ordered Grennell and Hodge to fit out their ships and place themselves under the generals in charge of the Hudson defenses. Blank commissions for their officers had been sent to the New York Council of Safety. [NDAR, IX, 176-177] Congress arrived at Fort Montgomery sometime after 3 July 1777. [NDAR, IX, 213 and note] On 4 July Grennell's First Lieutenant, DANIEL SHAW, was seconded to command the galley Shark, [NDAR, IX, 215 and note] so it may be assumed that Congress arrived at Fort Montgomery about that time. Grennell was absent from the naval force at the fort on 13 July. [NDAR, IX, 281 and note]. Soon after he returned and saw the Marine Committee's letter of 26 June. A severe argument developed over who was to appoint officers for the frigates, Grennell taking the line that he was to appoint them, and the New York Council of Safety was to commission them, whereas the Council thought it was to investigate candidates and approve or disapprove them. Hodge supported Grennell. [NDAR, IX, 286 and note, 294, 300] Grennell stated his intention to resign when the present dangers should "subside." [NDAR, IX, 300] Grennell stayed with his ship until 7 October 1777, when the British captured the Hudson River forts. A contrary wind prevented the frigates escaping and they were burned to prevent capture. Since no more is heard of Grennell he presumably resigned.


GREY, DAVID

RI

First Lieutenant, Rhode Island Privateers


David Grey was a [First] Lieutenant [NOAR, 129] aboard the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Swallow (Commander JOHN MURPHY), commissioned 13 August 1777. [NDAR, X, 294-295 and 296 note] Swallow sailed from Rhode Island about August 1777 bound for the West Indies. She was captured on 12 September 1777 by HM Frigate Aeolus off the Turks Islands. [NDAR, IX, 921 and note] Murphy, Grey and other members of the crew were sent to England. On 23 January 1778 Murphy, Grey and seventeen others were committed to Forton Prison. [NDAR, X, 294-295 and 296 note] He later escaped. [NOAR, 129]


GRIFFIN, BAXTER

MD

First Master’s Mate, Maryland Privateers


Baxter Griffin was the First Mate on the Maryland Privateer Boat Rebecca and Sally (Commander THOMAS RUSSELL), commissioned 24 June 1776. [NDAR, V, 715-716]


GRIFFIN, CORBIN

VA

Surgeon, Virginia Navy


Corbin Griffin was a Surgeon in the Virginia Navy. [NOAR, 129]


GRIFFIN, DANIEL

NY

Commander, New York Privateers


Daniel Griffin was commissioned in 1776 to command the New York Privateer [Sloop] Revenge. [NOAR, 129]


GRIFFIN, JOSEPH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Griffin was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. On 21 July 1778 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop General Lincoln. [NOAR, 129]


GRIFFIN [GRIFFING, GRIFFITH, GIFFING], MOSES

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Moses Griffin [NOAR, 129] (also Griffing, [NRAR, 229] Griffith, or Giffing) [NOAR, 129] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 229] He was born about 1745. [NOAR, 129] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner General Maxwell on 21 August 1779. [NRAR, 312] His next command was the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Argo, commissioned 12 December 1780. [NRAR, 229] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Governor Livingston on 30 June 1781. [NRAR, 319] He listed his age as 36 in 1781. [NOAR, 129]


GRIFFING, DANIEL

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Daniel Griffing was a resident of New Haven, Connecticut.  [NOAR, 129-130] He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Humbird on 11 August 1778. [ NRAR, 346]


GRIFFING, JASPAR [JASPER]

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Privateers


Jaspar [Jasper] Griffing was born in 1746. He later listed himself as 5'7" tall, with light eyes and a dark complexion. He served aboard the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Hancock (Commander JOSEPH CONKLING) as First Lieutenant. On 2 April 1783 the British brigantine Lyon was captured. [Middlebrook, II, 108]


GRIFFITH, JOSHUA [JOSEPH]

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Joshua (Joseph) Griffith was a resident of Guilford, Connecticut. On 20 March 1777 he was commissioned to cruise in Long Island Sound. In May 1777 he captured the brig Brittany and the schooner Hope. [NOAR, 130] On 21 October 1779 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Industry. [ NRAR, 351] He apparently moved to Middletown, Connecticut, which was his residence when he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Chatham. On 21 September 1781 he captured the schooner Betsey and, on 2 April 1782 captured the sloop Fanny in the Connecticut River off Lyme, Connecticut. In the second capture he was accompanied by a vessel commanded by Joshua Cook. [NOAR, 130] On 8 November 1782 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Boat Chatham. [NRAR, 252]


GRIMES [GRAHAM],

Captain, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Grimes (Graham) was at Fort Ticonderoga on 18 August 1776, in command of the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Gondola New Jersey. His vessel was still being rigged. [NDAR, 6, 224]


GRIMES [GRAHAM], JOHN

RI

Captain, Rhode Island Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


John Grimes (or Graham) was appointed as a First Lieutenant in the Rhode Island Navy on 12 June 1775, the date the Rhode Island Navy was created, and assigned to the Rhode Island Navy Sloop Katy (Commodore ABRAHAM WHIPPLE). [NDAR, I, 664-665] On 28 June 1775 he was promoted to Captain and assigned to the Rhode Island Navy Sloop Washington, replacing CHRISTOPHER WHIPPLE).

In 1777 Grimes was in command of the Rhode Island Privateer [unknown] Tartar. [Sheffield, 60] On 3 April 1778 Grimes was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Minerva. Minerva was again commissioned under Grimes on 18 May 1779, with a New Hampshire commission. [NOAR, 130] Grimes was commissioned, on 6 March 1781, to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Romeo. [NRAR, 446]


GRIMES, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Grimes was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship American Tartar on 29 November 1776. On 22 March 1777 her owners petitioned the Massachusetts authorities for permission to enlist a crew and sail, despite the current embargo on privateer departures. The owners also offered to allow the American Tartar to sail with the two Continental Navy frigates, Hancock (Captain John Manley) and Boston (Captain Hector McNeill), which were preparing to patrol off the New England coast. [NDAR, VIII, 19-180] On 22 May 1777 the Continental frigates and associated privateers sailed from Boston [NDAR, VIII, 1018] For a few days Grimes stayed with the fleet and then the American Tartar broke away and steered for European waters. She was next heard from, if this be her, off Akersund, Norway, on 8 July 1777. Here Grimes sent his boat ashore to obtain provisions, which were paid for. On 12 July 1777 he met, fought, and was beaten off by the British ship Pole. About mid July the American Tartar encountered the ship Royal Bounty and captured her, but she was later re-captured. Ship Janet was taken next, then snow Charming Jenny. The  Nautilus  was captured on 20 July. The American Tartar then bore away for the Naze of Norway On 28 July, some fifteen miles west southwest of the Naze, the ship Peggy was captured. About a half hour later the brig Fanny was was secured. At 2200 the ship Thomas and Elizabeth was captured. On 28 August the American Tartar was out in the ocean. She fell in with the 64-gun HMS Bienfaisant. After a long chase, Grimes surrendered. He wound up at Halifax as a prisoner, and went to Boston on parole, seeking an exchange. By 31 December 1777 an exchange had been agreed to. [See American Tartar]


GRINDALL, ICHABOD

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Ichabod Grindall was a resident of Haverhill, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Boat Spy on 2 September 1782. [NRAR, 463]


GRINNELL, JAMES

[see GRINWELL, JAMES]


GRINNELL, MOSES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Moses Grinnell was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 25 June 1779 to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Sally and Becky. In December 1779 Becky and Sally was captured by the British. [NOAR, 130]


GRINNELL [CRINNAL], WILLIAM

CT (P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Grinnell was probably in the merchant service before the war and living in the Newport area. He was enlisting a few sailors at Newport on 1 January 1776 (nine or ten men) who would join the fleet as soon as possible. Although Grinnell was assisted by Nicholas Brown, Commodore ESEK HOPKINS commissioned him because Captain DUDLEY SALTONSTALL had mistakenly thought he could name his own officers, and had promised Grinnell a commission. It is possible then, that Grinnell may have been from Connecticut. He enlisted 1 January 1776 as a [First] Lieutenant and joined the fleet in Delaware Bay, being assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (ABRAHAM WHIPPLE). [NDAR, VII, 142-154] Grinnell participated in the New Providence Expedition and the Battle off Block Island. He was transferred from Columbus to Continental Navy Sloop Providence (JOHN HAZARD) on 16 April 1776. [NDAR, VII, 142-154] He is shown as First Lieutenant aboard the Providence, which was confirmed later. During the ensuing cruise in Providence under command of JOHN PAUL JONES, Grinnell was assigned as prizemaster of the brig Britannia, which was recaptured by the British. "the Scenes I went through, I have not Time to Tell you . . . however at the Risque of my Life I Made my Escape," said Grinnell in a letter to Jones. [NDAR, VII, 982-983 and 983 notes] Grinnell got to Philadelphia, where the Marine Committee received him "Very Genteele, and Told me I had Done well to Git my Liberty So Soon." The Marine Committee took the opportunity to question Grinnell about Jones, who "Gave them Sattisfactory ansers." Then Grinnel called on the paymaster to receive some of his money, for he had lost chest, bed, clothes, books and instruments in his escape. He asked for £50, which was readily paid, then examined his account. Grinnell was astounded to find that some £20 had been paid Jones for him. When Grinnell questioned the entry, a receipt was produced: "I Left it So, & Told them it was very Good, if I Ever Saw you aGain,  they Told me they Could not Pay it aGain, wheather I Did or not . . ." Grinnell then tasked Jones for not informing him about receiving the money: "Excuse me Sir, If I Tell you that it was a Neglect in you, and of Some Conciquence to, for you not, to Tell me...becaus I Should have Left it on Shore, and not Risqued it at Sea." Grinnell noted that Jones had sent him $20 from Philadelphia down to Chester, and he had returned $6 to Jones, being informed that the officers' sea stores would be reimbursed. Grinnell noted that Master William Hopkins had taken in his account to the paymaster "which, was Cast out with Disdain-I Could not find any way to Git it." Grinnell asked Jones to forward his money to Providence, to the care of David Lawrence. He then adds: "Now I will Tell you Some thing, that Perhaps you young Batcholers, my thing Strang, that is to Take wife these hard Times, but I asure you that it is a Grand Step...therefore I have Made that Leep, and Made Choyce of the one, that you Called the I Dol of my affections, who is now with me  the Little angels at Salem are waiting for you." The new Mrs. Grinnell offered to give Jones letters of introduction to "Some Ladys that She is Sartain will be very aGreable to you and them." [NDAR, VII, 982-983 and 983 notes]

On 4 February 1778 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Loyal American. [NOAR, 130]


GRINWELL [GRINNELL], JAMES

(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


James Grinwell (Grinnell) was a Lieutenant in the Continental Navy. [NOAR, 131]


GROSS, SIMON

PA (A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Simon Gross was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Continental Navy on 12 October 1776. On 19 June 1778 he resigned his commission to serve on a privateer. [NOAR, 131] On 26 December 1781, Simon Gross was selected as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Two Esthers (Commander JAMES BYRNE). [NRAR, 480] Gross listed his age as 30 at that time. [NOAR, 131]


GROUNDWATER, ANDREW

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


Andrew Groundwater was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Swift in August 1776. [Coker, 88, 300] Later he was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Peggy in 1777. [Coker, 300]

On 22 November 1776, Andrew Groundwater was commissioned to the Swift, [NDAR, VI, 212 and note] apparently being transferred from the Peggy. [NDAR, IV, 515; Coker, 300] About 7 May 1777 the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Vixen (Commander Downham Newton) sailed from Charleston, probably in company with the Swift. [NDAR, IX, 113 and note] On 1 June 1777 the two sloops raided the harbor of New Providence, Bahamas and engaged the fort and the British tender Comet. When a bigger British warship showed the two sloops left. [NDAR, IX, 146 and note, 159-161, 192-195] Soon after leaving New Providence, Vixen was in company with the Swift near the Bahama Banks. A gale blew up and Swift ran onto a rock or reef. The heavy surf began to break her up, but Groundwater and his crew got aboard the Vixen, which continued the cruise with a double crew. [NDAR, IX, 113 and note] Vixen put into Havana on 10 June for supplies and provisions. After receiving the supplies and provisions he immediately sailed the next day. [NDAR, IX, 113 and note] On 13 June Vixen overhauled and captured the sloop Polly [NDAR, IX, 113 and note] By 30 June Newton and Groundwater had met the South Carolina Privateer Sloop General Washington (Commander Hezekiah Anthony) and had begin cruising together. On that day the two privateers took the sloop Sally. [NDAR, IX, 113 and note] On 1 July the two commanders encountered the sought-for Jamaica convoy. There were over 100 sail of merchant vessels, escorted by HMS Solebay, Kent, Lively, and Porcupine. The privateers dogged the convoy looking for stragglers. Finally, on 5 July, [NDAR, IX, 113 and note] the two picked off the ship Nancy. Groundwater  was assigned as prizemaster, with a prize crew of about nine men. On 9 July 1777, HM Frigates Brune, Perseus, and Galatea were patrolling off the entrance to Charleston harbor. At 0400 a two sail were sighted in the northeast, one of which was the Nancy. Both Brune and Perseus gave chase. Nancy surrendered at 0600 and her prize crew was removed to the Perseus. Although Nancy was sent to New York, the American prize crew was kept prisoners aboard the Perseus. Several weeks later they either escaped or were released in Chesapeake Bay. Groundwater arrived in Charleston on 28 September 1777. [xx] In March 1779 he and two other men were tried on charges of “treasonable dealings” with the British. Groundwater was convicted and hanged at Charleston. [Coker, 88]


GROVES, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


William Groves was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Black Bird (or Blackbird) on 6 August 1777. [NRAR, 239. Also in Allen, MPR, 82] Groves was at sea soon after, operating with several other privateers. On 6 October 1777 Groves libeled the 60-ton schooner Lively (David Fletcher), along with the commanders of the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Spy (Commander ELIAS SMITH), New Hampshire Privateer Schooner Friends Adventure (Commander KINSMAN PEVERLY), and Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Fancy (Commander JOHN FARREY [FERRY]).[NDAR, X, 45-46 and 46 notes] On 9 October Groves libeled the 100-ton sloop Annabella (Potts), which he had captured in conjunction with Massachusetts Privateer Resolution (Commander JEREMIAH O’BRIEN). [NDAR, X, 89-90] Groves left the Black Bird in October 1777. Groves was commissioned, on 4 January 1779, to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Success. On 8 September 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Black Hawk. Groves was commissioned, on 17 June 1780, to the New Hampshire Privateer Ship Eagle. [NOAR, 131]


GROW, NATHANIEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nathaniel Grow was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Spring Bird on 29 June 1778. [NOAR, 131]


GRUSH, JOHN

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


John Grush was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with SAMUEL WHITE of Boston, Massachusetts and, possibly, with JAMES MUGFORD of Marblehead. Vessels associated with Grush were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

1/1/78

MA

Brig Bellona (14/75)

Nicholas Ogelbe

Samuel White, John Grush

Nicholas Ogelbe, Samuel White, John Grush

[Allen, MPR, 79]


GUIGNACE, JOHN

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


John Guignace served as a Lieutenant of Continental Marines in 1781. [NOAR, 131]


GUILLOT, FRANCIS

PA

Commander, [Pennsylvania Privateers]


Francis Guillot was commissioned, on 27 September 1776, to command an unnamed privateer. [NOAR, 131]


GULIKER, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Guliker was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 30 July 1778 to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Congress. [Allen, MPR, 103] On 14 October 1778 he was again commissioned, to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Favorite [Lady’s Favorite]. [NOAR, 131]


GURNEY, FRANCIS

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


As witness:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/29/81

PA

Brigantine Active (7/25)

Charles Biddle

Francis Gurney, Charles Pettit, Charles Biddle et al

Charles Biddle, Francis Gurney

 [NRAR, 219]


GUTHRIE, ALEXANDER

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


Alexander Guthrie was commissioned as a Captain in the Virginia Navy in September 1776 and assigned to command the Virginia Navy Schooner Peace and Plenty. [NOAR, 131]


GWIN, JAMES

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Gwin was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [NRAR, 275] born about 1759. He was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Don Francisco (Commander HUGH WILSON) on 27 October 1781. [NRAR, 275] On 27 February 1782 he was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer George (Commander ROBERT FRENCH). [NRAR, 316] Gwin listed his age as 23 at that time. [NOAR, 132]


Revised 23 August 2014 © awiatsea.com