C




CABEL, ABSALOM
VA

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy

Absalom Cabel was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy on 8 January 1777 and assigned to the Virginia Navy Sloop Congress. [NOAR, 46]


CABOT, ANDREW

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

Andrew Cabot was a merchant of Beverly, Massachusetts, usually associated with his relative JOHN CABOT, in his enterprises. He is associated with the following privateers:
As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

3/10/78

MA

Brigantine Terrible Creature (16/100)

Robert Richardson

George Cabot, Andrew Cabot

Robert Richardson, George Cabot, Andrew Cabot

[Howe, BPR, 419]

9/18/79

MA

Snow Cato (10/30)

Eleazer Giles

John Cabot

[Job Prince]

[Allen, MPR, 91]

8/21/80

MA

Ship Sebastian (10/30)

Ichabod Groves

 

Ichabod Groves, Isaac Spofford, Samuel Cabot

Joseph Lee [NRAR, 457]

4/9/81

MA

Brigantine Active (14/60)

John Patten [Pattin]

John Cabot

John Patten, Richard Quartermass, John & Andrew Cabot

Jacob McDaniell, Samuel F. Brook, Jr. [NRAR, 219]

4/14/81

MA

Ship Pilgrim (18/150)

Joseph Robinson

John Cabot

Joseph Robinson, Andrew Cabot, Zachariah Burchmore

Samuel Williams, W. Pickman [NRAR, 415]

6/22/81

MA

Ship Franklin (18/100)

John Allen Hallet

George Cabot, Bartholomew Putnam

John Allen Hallet, Samuel Grant, Samuel Parkman

James Lamb, James Ives [NRAR, 303]

7/30/81

MA

Ship Buccaneer (18/150)

Hoysted Hacker

John Cabot

Hoysted Hacker, John & Andrew Cabot, Edward Allen

Job Prince, Jr., Timothy Newman [NRAR, 242]

2/14/82

MA

Ship Revolution (20/130)

Stephen Webb

John Cabot

Stephen Webb, Andrew Cabot, Samuel Cabot

Moses Brown, George Cabot [NRAR, 443]

2/14/82

MA

Ship Rambler (16/50)

Benjamin Lovett

 

Benjamin Lovett, Andrew Cabot, Job Prince, Jr.

Samuel Holbrook, Jr., Samuel Prince [NRAR, 428]

3/14/82

MA

Ship Lyon (26/90)

William Tuck

John Cabot

William Tuck, Samuel Cabot, Andrew Cabot

George Cabot, Moses Brown [NRAR, 380]

3/27/82

MA

Ship Buccaneer (18/120)

Jesse Fearson

 

Jesse Fearson, Andrew Cabot, Job Prince, Jr.

Isaac Peirce, John Dall [NRAR, 242]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/13/80

MA

Brigantine Active (12/60)

Nathaniel Swasey

John Cabot

Nathaniel Swasey, Andrew Cabot, John Cabot

William Leach, John Cabot, John Haynes [NRAR, 218]

11/8/81

MA

Ship Pilgrim (20/130)

Joseph Robinson

John Cabot

Joseph Robinson, John Cabot, Andrew Cabot

Samuel Williams, M. Lafitte [NRAR, 415]


CABOT, GEORGE

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

George Cabot was associated with the following vessels:
As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

3/10/78

MA

Brigantine Terrible Creature (16/100)

Robert Richardson

George Cabot, Andrew Cabot

Robert Richardson, George Cabot, Andrew Cabot

[Howe, BPR, 419]

6/22/81

MA

Ship Franklin (18/100)

John Allen Hallet

George Cabot, Bartholomew Putnam

John Allen Hallet, Samuel Grant, Samuel Parkman

James Lamb, James Ives [NRAR, 303]


CABOT, JOHN

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

John Cabot was a merchant of Beverly, Massachusetts, usually associated with his relative ANDREW CABOT, in his enterprises. He is associated with the following privateers:
As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/18/79

MA

Snow Cato (10/30)

Eleazer Giles

Andrew Cabot

[Job Prince]

[Allen, MPR, 91]

12/13/80

MA

Brigantine Active (12/60)

Nathaniel Swasey

 

Nathaniel Swasey, Andrew Cabot, John Cabot

William Leach, John Cabot, John Haynes [NRAR, 218]

4/9/81

MA

Brigantine Active (14/60)

John Patten [Pattin]

Andrew Cabot

John Patten, Richard Quartermass, John & Andrew Cabot

Jacob McDaniell, Samuel F. Brook, Jr. [NRAR, 219]

4/14/81

MA

Ship Pilgrim (18/150)

Joseph Robinson

Andrew Cabot

Joseph Robinson, Andrew Cabot, Zachariah Burchmore

Samuel Williams, W. Pickman [NRAR, 415]

7/30/81

MA

Ship Buccaneer (18/150)

Hoysted Hacker

Andrew Cabot

Hoysted Hacker, John & Andrew Cabot, Edward Allen

Job Prince, Jr., Timothy Newman [NRAR, 242]

11/8/81

MA

Ship Pilgrim (20/130)

Joseph Robinson

 

Joseph Robinson, John Cabot, Andrew Cabot

Samuel Williams, M. Lafitte [NRAR, 415]

2/14/82

MA

Ship Revolution (20/130)

Stephen Webb

Andrew Cabot

Stephen Webb, Andrew Cabot, Samuel Cabot

Moses Brown, George Cabot [NRAR, 443]

3/14/82

MA

Ship Lyon (26/90)

William Tuck

Andrew Cabot

William Tuck, Samuel Cabot, Andrew Cabot

George Cabot, Moses Brown [NRAR, 380]










CADET, MENDES fils

NH

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Mendes fils Cadet, supposedly a resident of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was commissioned as commander of the New Hampshire Privateer Sloop Wilks (Wilkes) on 29 May 1777. [NRAR, 492]


CAHOON, ISAIAH

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


Isaiah Cahoon served as a Midshipman in the Connecticut Navy in 1777-1778 aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain Timothy Parker). The Oliver Cromwell was captured by the British on 5 June 1779. [NOAR, 46]


CAIN, ALEXANDER

PA

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Alexander Cain was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, born about 1750. [NOAR, 46-47] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Sloop Fly on 30 March 1779. [NRAR, 296] On 15 June 1779 he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Dragon, [NRAR, 277] and, on 19 July 1781, to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Polly. [NRAR, 417] The day after Cain served as a witness on the bond of the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Adriana (Commander ROBERT ALCORN). [NRAR, 220] On 10 August 1782 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship St. James. [NRAR, 464] Cain listed his age as 32 at this time. [NOAR, 47]


CAIN, WILLIAM

MD

Second Mate, Maryland Privateers


William Cain served as Second Mate on the Maryland Privateer Sloop Adriana (Commander JOSEPH VESEY), commissioned 8 October 1778. [NRAR, 220]


CALDERWOOD, JAMES

First Lieutenant of Marines, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


James Calderwood was a native of Pennsylvania. He had spent three and a half years in the "sea service" before the Revolution, including some time as a midshipman in the Royal Navy. Calderwood enlisted in the 6th Pennsylvania on 9 January 1776 as a quartermaster and was promoted to ensign on 1 May 1776. He was recommended by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Hartley to replace ROBERT HOPES about 23 July, as a "person of courage," and was commissioned by Gates on 1 August 1776, being assigned to the Continental Army Schooner Royal Savage (Commodore JACOBUS WYNKOOP). [Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 28-29] Calderwood was aboard the Royal Savage, now under Arnold, when the fleet sailed on 24 August. He was sent to Fort Ticonderoga on 2 September, by Arnold, to pick up more recruits for the fleet. [NDAR, 6, 371-372, 734-735] On 4 September thirty-three men were drafted from Colonel Asa Whitcomb's regiment to serve under Calderwood. [Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 28-29] Calderwood was at Fort Ticonderoga on 5 September and sailed the next day with seventy recruits for the fleet. [NDAR, 6, 708]  He performed a similar mission on 1 October, when he left the fleet, arriving at Fort Ticonderoga on 2 October. [NDAR, 1116-1117] Calderwood returned to Pennsylvania after the northern campaign. In August 1777, during the British invasion of Pennsylvania, he raised an independent battalion. He was mortally wounded at the Brandywine, on 11 September 1777. [Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 28-29]


CALDWELL, ANDREW

PA

Commodore, Pennsylvania Navy


Andrew Caldwell was appointed Commodore of the Pennsylvania Navy on 13 January 1776. [Jackson, 334]. While Commodore he gives his opinion on the size of guard boats needed to manage fire rafts. [Jackson, 21] He was ordered, on 19 January 1776, to recruit 400 seamen and landsmen [Jackson, 35] Caldwell ordered to send four galleys downriver to counter theRoebuck in March 1776. [Jackson, 37] Ordered to restrain the galley captains from demanding compliments. [Jackson, 40] In ill helth, he resigned 25 May 1776, which was accepted 25 May [Jackson, 61]. Andrew Caldwell resigned as Commodore of the Pennsylvania Navy on 23 May 1776, due to a serious illness. [NOAR, 47]


CALDWELL, JAMES

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Caldwell was probably a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with GEORGE WOOLSEY of Baltimore, Maryland; and JOHN PRINGLE "and others", and JOHN BAYARD, all of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in privateering. Later he was associated with many other Philadelphians in privateering. Vessels associated with Pringle were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Bonder

Witness

2/7/77

PA

Ship Oliver Cromwell (24/150)

Harman Courter

George Woolsey, John Pringle et al, James Caldwell, John Bayard

Harman Courter, James Caldwell, John Bayard

[Photograph of bond]

7/20/81

PA

Brigantine Adriana (6/20)

Robert Alcorn

George Haines, Andrew and James Caldwell, John Barclay, and John Mitchell

Robert Alcorn, James Crawford

[NRAR, 220]

8/7/82

PA

Schooner Harlequin (4/16)

John Earle

James Caldwell, Thomas Truxtun, Thomas Randall

John Earle, Thomas Randall

[NRAR, 327]


CALDWELL, ROBERT

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Robert Caldwell was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 224] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine General Washington on 18 October 1779. [NOAR, 47] A Caldwell, possibly Robert, was at sea in 1782, commanding the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Aurora. [Allen, MPR, 77] His next command was the Massachusetts Privateer Ship American, commissioned 9 July 1782. [NRAR, 224] His final command was the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Duke of Leinster, commissioned 30 August 1782. [NRAR, 278]


CALDWELL, ROBERT

PA

Captain of Marines


Robert Caldwell was supposed to be a Captain of Marines in the Continental Marines. [NOAR, 47]


CALEF, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Calef was a resident of Ipswich, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hawk on 17 November 1778. The Hawk was captured by the British and Calef was committed to Mill Prison (Plymouth, England). He escaped from the prison. [NOAR, 47] On 23 November 1778 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Massachusetts. Calef now listed his residence as Boston. [NRAR, 388]


CALKINS, FREDERICK

CT

First Mate, Connecticut Navy


Frederick Calkins was First Mate on the Connecticut Navy Sloop Dolphin (Captain ROBERT NILES) on 12 October 1777. He participated in the voyage which took a copy of the ratified Treaty of Alliance to France. The Dolphin sailed from Stonington, Connecticut to Brest, France in twenty-one days. [NOAR, 47]


CALKINS, TIMOTHY

CT

[First] Mate, Connecticut Navy


Timothy Calkins was [First] Mate aboard the Connecticut Navy Schooner Spy (Captain ROBERT NILES) in 1775. [NOAR, 47]


CALLENDER, ELEAZER [ELIEZER]

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


Eleazer (Eliezer) Callender entered service in 1775. [Stewart, 160] He was appointed, by the Committee of Safety, as a Captain in the Virginia Navy on 1 April 1776 and assigned to the second cruiser to be built on the Rappahannock River. Captain Green was to be his first mate. [Stewart, 12n] On 17 June 1776 he was assigned to the Virginia Navy Sloop Defiance. On 19 August 1776 he was ordered to sail down the Rappahannock River to Hobbs Hole. On 12 September 1776 he was ordered to transport troops to New York. [NOAR, 47] Between then and October 1776 he left the Defiance. [Stewart, 17] He later commanded the Dragon. He lived in Fredericksburg after the war. On 12 November 1791 he petitioned the Virginia House of Delegates for compensation for a valuable horse lost in the service. He was an original member of the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati. [Stewart, 160]


CALVERT, CHRISTOPHER

VA

"Navy commander"


Christopher Calvert was born in 1736 and died in 1791. He was a "Navy commander." [NOAR, 47, citing DAR]


CALVERT, JOHN

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


John Calvert was a resident of Norfolk, Virginia. [Stewart, 160] On 8 February 1776 he was appointed to superintend the construction of a galley for the James River by the Virginia Committee of Safety. [Cross, 21] He was commissioned as a Captain in the Virginia Navy and assigned to the Virginia Navy Galley Norfolk Revenge in June 1776 [8 June 1776?]. On 13 July 1776 he was ordered down the James River to attack and harass the enemy. [NOAR, 48] Calvert was to proceed “down the James River & into the Bay as far as . . . safe and necessary for the purpose of annoying or distressing the Enemy . . . taking care at the same time to afford all the Protection in your Vessels to such of the Inhabitants on the Shores as may be exposed to the attacks of the Enemy.” She sailed on 13 July 1776. [Cross, 21-22] On 20 August 1776 one John H. Norton was paid £19.11.06 for whiskey furnished to the Norfolk Revenge. [NOAR, 48] By the late summer of 1776 the Norfolk Revenge was cruising in the Bay, with orders to Calvert to use his “power & Abilities in Captivating and annoying and distressing such of the Enemy’s ships” as he encountered. [Stewart, 16-17] On 6 August 1776 the Virginia Navy Galley Manley (Captain Edward Travis), Virginia Navy Brig Liberty (Captain Thomas Lilly), and Virginia Navy Schooner Revenge  (Deane) were ordered to join the Virginia Navy Brig Raleigh (Captain Cocke) and Calvert of the Norfolk Revenge in Hampton Roads to act in conjunction with them against the enemies of America, “or separately as you think best.” [Stewart, 44] In September 1776 there was a change of command. Calvert was transferred to the Virginia Navy Sloop Defiance. [Stewart, 160] On 11 September 1776 he was ordered to transport troops to New York. [NOAR, 48] This new command was short, for Calvert was soon back in the Norfolk Revenge, giving up the Defiance to Captain GREEN. [Stewart, 17] He resigned his commission on 8 September 1777, although later (September 1778) he was said to be in the galley Revenge. [Stewart, 160]


CALVERT, JOHN

SC

Clerk, South Carolina Navy Board


John Calvert was hired as clerk to the South Carolina Navy Board on 12 October 1776, at an annual salary of £1400. He was at that post on 10 July 1777.


CAMPBELL,

Captain, Georgia Navy


Campbell commanded the Georgia Navy Galley Congress in March 1779, during the Action off Yamasee Bluff, in which Campbell was killed and his vessel lost.


CAMPBELL, DANIEL

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Daniel Campbell of Philadelphia [NRAR, 484] served as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer [unknown] Signora Bernardo (Commander John Turner) on 3 August 1781, listing his age as 28. [NOAR, 48] On 12 January 1782, still 28, [NOAR, 48] he was listed as the First Mate on Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Van Tromp (Commander Robert Shewell). [NRAR, 484]


CAMPBELL, DAVID

PA

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


David Campbell was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 289, 363] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine [unknown] on 3 June 1780. [NOAR, 48] On 26 August 1780 he was appointed to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Juno [NRAR, 363. According to NOAR, 48, this was the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Ariel.] Campbell next commanded the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Fame, commissioned 22 December 1781. [NRAR, 289] On 26 September 1782 he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Plunkett. [NOAR, 48]


CAMPBELL, JAMES

PA

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Campbell was a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned on 14 June 1776 to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Enterprize. [NRAR, 282] In her he captured the brigantine Clementina and the sloop Fame. [NOAR, 48] The Enterprize was taken into Continental service for a time in early 1777. On 9 February 1777 Campbell was ordered to provide and escort for the transports taking troops across Chesapeake Bay, and to act in conjunction with them against the British. New York Navy Sloop Montgomery (Captain WILLIAM ROGERS) also assisted in this mission. [NRAR, 37-38] On 5 August 1777 he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brig Sturdy Beggar. [NRAR, 465. NOAR, 48, gives the date as 3 August.] He made a cruise to Europe, during which Sturdy Beggar may have recaptured the snow Georgia. [NOAR, 48, 71] About March 1778 the privateer was wrecked on the coast of France with the loss of all hands [see Sturdy Beggar]


CAMPBELL, JOHN

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Campbell was probably a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with the following privateer:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

2/27/78

PA

Boat Otter

[John Harvie]

John Campbell & Co.

John Harvie, John Campbell

[NRAR, 408]


CAMPBELL, JOSEPH

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Campbell was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Cat on 14 August 1779. [NRAR, 247]


CAMPBELL, WILLIAM

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Campbell was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 25 May 1781 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig George. [NRAR, 316] Campbell listed his age as 29. He was described as 5'4" tall, with dark brown hair and a fresh complexion. [NOAR, 48] Campbell was in Philadelphia on 20 September 1781 when he witnessed the bond for Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Schuylkill (Commander JOHN BURROWS). [NRAR, 456] He was next commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Burd on 13 March 1782. [NRAR, 244. NOAR, 48, gives the name of the vessel as Bird.] Campbell listed his age as 28. He is described as 5'6" tall with brown hair and a fresh complexion. [NOAR, 48. In NOAR William Campbell is listed as two different individuals. Since all three vessels listed above belonged to the same ownership group it is likely that both men are the same individual.]


CAMPBELL, ZACHARIAH

MD

Naval Officer, Maryland


Zachariah Campbell was appointed the Naval Officer for the Sixth District of Maryland on 28 March 1777. This was not a naval office, but a commercial one. [NOAR, 48]


CANFIELD, JOSIAH

CT

Second Lieutenant, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Josiah Canfield was commissioned as Second Lieutenant aboard the Continental Army Galley Trumbull (Captain SETH WARNER) on 13 August 1776. He was subsequently wounded [NOAR, 48] at the Battle of Valcour Island (?).


CANDY, JOHN FOSTER

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/13/77

MA

Brig Active (12/70)

John Foster Williams

Jacob Williams, Nehemiah Somes, Charles Sigourney, James Foster Candy

John Foster Williams, Jacob Williams, Nehemiah Somes

[Allen, MPR, 65, 66]


CANNON, DANIEL

Member, Second South Carolina Provincial Congress and General Assembly


Daniel Cannon was a militia Captain. He constructed the battery on Sullivan's Island in January 1776. On 22 March the South Carolina Provincial Congress appointed Cannon to the Commission to Obstruct Passages over the Bar. The Commission was also ordered to prepare fire vessels the next day.


CANNON, JESSE

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


According to NOAR, 49.


CANNON, LUKE

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


According to NOAR, 49.


CANNON [CARMON], NEWTON

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Newton Cannon [NRAR, 315] (or Carmon) was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. [NOAR, 49] On 22 September 1779 he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Sloop General Wayne. [NRAR, 315]


CANNON, WILLIAM

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


William Cannon was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Seaflower in 1777. [Coker, 300]


CARD, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Card was a resident of Cape Ann (Gloucester), Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Phoenix on 21 November 1776. [NOAR, 49]


CARDAL, SAMUEL

(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Samuel Cardal was commissioned on 15 August 1778. NOAR, 49 says 15 August 1776.


CAREY, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Carey was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Retaliation on 18 March 1778. On 13 November 1778 he took command of the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Charming Sally. Carey was commissioned again on 6 April 1779, to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hope. [NOAR, 49]


CAREY, JOHN

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


John Carey was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Hercules on 1 July 1780. [NRAR, 333]


CAREY, JOSIAH

CT

Third Mate, Connecticut Privateers


Josiah Carey was aboard the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marshall (Commander NOAH SCOVELL) on 6 March 1783. During the following cruise the brigantine Hope was captured. [see Marshall]


CAREY, T.

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


T. Carey was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine New Orleans on 6 September 1782. [NOAR, 49]


CARLETON, WILLIAM

[see CARLTON, WILLIAM]


CARLTON, SAMUEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Carlton was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Porcupine on 31 August 1779. [NOAR, 49] This may be the same man who witnessed a bond for the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Hazard (Commander HUGH HELME) on 22 August 1782. [NRAR, 331]


CARLTON [CARLETON], WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Carlton was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 240] On 8 August 1776 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner General Gates. The schooner was captured by HM Brig Hope (Lieutenant George Dawson) and taken into Halifax, Nova Scotia. Carlton and part of his crew escaped by swimming ashore. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner True American on 3 December 1776, and, on 8 July 1777, to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Black Snake. [NRAR, 240] Black Snake was at sea in August 1777. On 23 August she captured the brig Sophia, from the Grenadines bound to London, laden with rum, sugar, coffee and cotton. A prize crew was put aboard and the brig dispatched to America. On 2 September 1777 Sophia was driven ashore and recaptured by HM Brig Cabot. The prize crew escaped. [NDAR, IX, 870 and note] Black Snake made at least one other prize under Carleton. He libeled the schooner Sally on 4 December 1777. [NDAR, X, 664-665 and 665 note] Carlton was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Modesty on 6 August 1779. [NOAR, 49]


CARMON, NEWTON

[See CANNON, NEWTON]


CARNES, EDWARD

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Edward Carnes was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. Vessels associated with Sargent were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/14/78

MA

Ship Cumberland (20/150)

John Manley

Edward Carnes  et al

John Manley, Edward Carnes, Stephen Bruce

Job Prince, Richard Salter [Allen, MPR, 106]


CARNES, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Carnes was a resident of Salem and Beverly, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 394, 396, 420] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Lynch [NOAR, 50] or Lyon on 9 June 1778, and, on 22 June 1779, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Hector. This vessel was taken into Massachusetts service for the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition and was destroyed in the Penobscot River to prevent her capture. On 31 August 1779 Carnes was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine General Lincoln. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426] On 12 September 1780 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Montgomery. [NRAR, 396] His next command was the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Porus, commissioned 7 June 1781. [NRAR, 420] On 6 September 1782 Carnes was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Mohawk [NRAR, 394] or Mohock. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426]


CARNES, THOMAS JENNER

NC



Thomas Jenner Carnes was supposed to be a Captain of Marines in the Continental Marines. [NOAR, 50]


CARPENTER, COMFORT

RI

Surgeon, Continental Navy


Comfort Carpenter was a Surgeon in the Continental Navy aboard the Continental Navy Ship Queen of France (Captain JOHN PECK RATHBUN) during the South Carolina campaign. [NOAR, 50]


CARPENTER, J.

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


J. Carpenter is listed as First Lieutenant aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Oliver Cromwell (Commander JAMES BARR), commissioned 16 August 1779. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426]


CARR, ISAAC

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Isaac Carr was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Schooner (or Brig) Black Snake on 13 October 1779. Black Snake made a prize earlier than this date, on 7 July 1779, with the Rhode Island Privateer Boat General Gates. She was probably under Carr’s command at that time. On 28 October 1779 Black Snake was mistaken by a privateer from New Haven (or Boston) for an enemy vessel and was attacked in Narragansett Bay. Two men were wounded, one mortally. [see Black Snake]


CARR [KERR], JOHN

MA

[Second] Lieutenant, Continental Marines


John Carr was born in France, but was a Massachusetts man. [NOAR, 50] He was supposed to have been appointed as a Lieutenant of Marines in the Continental Navy Brig Cabot (Captain JOHN BURROUGHS HOPKINS) at Providence, Rhode Island, on 30 April 1776, replacing JAMES HOOD WILSON. Cabot made a short cruise in May 1776. In March 1777 she was driven ashore and captured off Nova Scotia, although her crew escaped. Carr's activities are unknown for some time, but he may have been captured and imprisoned in England. He may have escaped to France. He was commissioned on 8 May 1777 as [Second] Lieurenant of Marines aboard the Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain HENRY JOHNSON), at Bordeaux, France. Carr was discharged on 22 May at Nantes, France. [Smith, Marines, 434]


CARR, SAMUEL

VA

Captain, Virginia Marines


Samuel Carr was commissioned on 19 June 1776 as Captain of Marines "for the Eastern Shore." He served until the close of the war. [NOAR, 50] According to Stewart, 161, he was a Lieutenant of Marines, and was later, on 20 November 1776, a Captain of Marines. He died in service. [Stewart, 161]


CARRICK, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Carrick was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 28 August 1778 to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Dolphin. [NOAR, 50]


CARSON, JAMES

PA

Second Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy


James Carson was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 6 March 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Chatham. [NOAR, 50]


CARSON, JOSEPH

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Carson was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/9/78

PA

Schooner Addition (10/45)

John Craig

[Joseph Carson et al]

William Marshall, Joseph Carson

[NRAR, 219]

6/11/79

PA

Schooner Addition (10/30)

Joseph Spencer

Joseph Carson & Co.

Joseph Carson, Daniel Edwards

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 220]

5/29/82

PA

Schooner Adventure (4/9)

Matthew Strong

Joseph Carson and Blair McClenachan et al

Matthew Strong, Joseph Carson

[NRAR, 222]


CARSON, SAMUEL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Samuel Carson was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned on 29 September 1780 to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene. [NRAR, 310]


CARTER, WILLIAM

MD

Midshipman, Maryland Navy


William Carter was a Midshipman in the Maryland Navy in September 1776, serving aboard the Maryland Navy Ship Defence (Captain George Cook). [NOAR, 50]


CARTER, WILLIAM

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Carter, possibly of Philadelphia, was appointed as First Mate aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Boat Flying Fish (Commander ZACHARIAH GOFORTH) on 12 July 1782. He could be the same as William Carter of Maryland. [NRAR, 298. NOAR, 51, refers to him as a Lieutenant.]


CARTWRIGHT, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Cartwright was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hector on 5 November 1782. [NRAR, 332]


CARVER, LEMUEL

MA

Midshipman, Continental Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Lemuel Carver was a native of Dartmouth, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 448] He was appointed as a Midshipman in the Continental Navy on 26 June 1776 aboard the Continental Navy Ship Warren (Captain JOHN BURROUGHS HOPKINS). [NDAR, V, 752] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Rover Galley on 3 March 1782. [NRAR, 448]


CARVER, NATHANIEL

MA

Captain, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nathaniel Carver was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Reprisal on 26 November 1776, and recommissioned to the same vessel on 25 March 1777. Since the ownership was now listed as the State of Massachusetts Bay, we may consider this commission as a Captain in the Massachusetts Navy. In 1779 he commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Sally. [NOAR, 51]


CARY, JOSIAH

CT

First Mate, Connecticut Privateers


Josiah Cary was appointed as First Mate on the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marshall (Commander NOAH SCOVELL) on 6 March 1783. [NOAR, 51]


CASSAN, JOHN

[See CASSIN, JOHN]


CASSAN [CASSIN], SAMUEL

PA

First Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Samuel Cassan (Cassin), 1743-1803, [NOAR, 51]  was was a former First Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy. He was commissioned on 12 November 1779 to command the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Vengeance of six guns and twenty men, owned by John Pringle & Co. of Philadelphia. Cassan was listed as a resident of Philadelphia. Vengeance had originally been intended for former Pennsylvania Navy Captain JAMES MONTGOMERY, but he declined. [NRAR, 484] . On 16 March 1781 [NRAR, 445] (when he listed his age as 36, rather than 38) [NOAR, 51] he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Rising Sun of twenty guns and 130 men. [NRAR, 445] He was recommissioned to the Rising Sun on 5 July 1781. [NRAR, 445]


CASSAN, URIAH

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Uriah Cassan was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Boat Quicktime (Commander JOSEPH BADCOCK) on 11 September 1781. [NRAR, 425]


CASSIN [CASSAN], JOHN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Cassin (or Cassan) [NOAR, 51] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 389] He was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Mayflower (Commander MARK COLLINS) on 27 June 1782. [NRAR, 389] He listed his age as 23. [NOAR, 51]


CASSIN, SAMUEL

[see CASSAN, SAMUEL]


CASTLE, JOY

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joy Castle was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Snow Diana on 3 December 1779. [NRAR, 267] About May 1780 he and his vessel were captured by the British vessel Alert. [NOAR, 51]


CASTLE, ROBERT

NY

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Captain, New York Navy


Robert Castle of New York, was in command of the New York Navy Sloop Camden on 25 September 1776, when he was at Poughkeepsie, New York with a load of lumber. [NDAR, VI, 1033-1036] On 14 January 1777, Camden was on the upper Hudson River, when Castle drew £80 for wages and rations for his crew. [NDAR, VII, 952] He was ordered to protect the Hudson River. [NOAR, 51] He was appointed as First Lieutenant in the Continental Navy Ship Montgomery by the Montgomery's captain, JOHN HODGE. [NDAR, IX, 281 and note] Castle continued to command the Camden as First Lieutenant of the Montgomery (13 July 1777). [NDAR, IX, 281 and note] Castle presumably commanded the Camden during the action at Fort Montgomery, New York on 7 October 1777, when the British took that place. The American fleet, trapped in the river, was burned to prevent capture. Both the Camden and the Montgomery were destroyed. [Note: Castle is not listed in Allen.]


CATHCART, JOHN

MA

Captain, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Cathcart was a native of Salem, Massachusetts, [NRAR, 283] and later resided in Boston. [NRAR, 473] He was commanding the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Fortune in early 1780. On 6 May 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Essex. He captured three valuable prizes off the coast of Ireland while in the Essex. [NOAR, 52] On 14 April 1781 he was recommissioned to the Essex. [NRAR, 283] In 1782 Cathcart was commissioned in the Massachusetts Navy and assigned command of the Massachusetts Navy Schooner Tartar. [NOAR, 52] When Tartar was sold she was purchased by John Coffin Jones and commissioned as Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Tartar, with Cathcart as her commander, on 8 January 1783. [NRAR, 473] In May 1783 the Tartar was captured by the British vessel Bellisarius. The crew and prize were taken into New York, where the crew were held as prisoners. [Allen, MPR, 296]


CATLETT, GEORGE

VA

Lieutenant (in the Navy)


1743-1814. A Navy lieutenant according to the DAR. [NOAR, 52]


CATLIN, BENJAMIN


[CT] (P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Benjamin Catlin was possibly from Connecticut. He was listed by Sweeny, Allen and Paullin as a Lieutenant of Marines. [Smith, Marines, 434] One Benjamin Catlin, of Connecticut, was a corporal in the Lexington Alarm in April 1775 and was a sergeant in one Captain Chester’s Company in the same year. Shortly after, he was a quartermaster in Arnold’s expedition to Canada and was taken prisoner at Quebec, 31 December 1775. He was exchanged 10 January 1777.  If this Benjamin Catlin is one and the same, he was ex­changed in time to serve in Continental Navy Ship Trumbull (Captain DUDLEY SALTONSTALL). Congress ordered two frigates to be built in Connecticut and, early in 1777, the Council of that stale directed Trumbull to be built at Chatham, on the Connecticut River. She was commis­sioned in 1780. Meanwhile officers and crew were being recruited by her commander, Saltonstall. Appended to a muster roll in the Connecticut State Archives, in the main body of which all naval rates were specified. was “A List of Names Entered on Board the Trumbull, by Benjamin Catlin.” Eleven men were recruited by him between 5 March and 20 April 1777, but none were actually named as Marines. If indeed Benjamin Catlin was one of the earlier lieu­tenants of Marines of Trumbull, further service of his is unknown. He was not on hoard her during the engagement of the frigate in the stand-off battle with the Watt on 1 June 1780. [Smith, Marines, 435] According to NOAR he was a Marine Lieutenant in 1781. [NOAR, 52]


CATON, ISAAC

Merchant Captain


Isaac Caton proposed a powder voyage to South Carolina on 4 January 1776, but apparently it had not taken place by 24 January. Freight was to be 18p. per pound. Caton was at St. Eustatius in May 1776, in command of a ten gun sloop, where he shipped 14,300 pounds of powder for Virginia. He was bound for Charleston. The powder was shipped by Abraham Van Bibber. Caton sailed about 24 May 1776. He established a trading house at Cape Francois in July 1777, which was recommended to South Carolina privateers.


CATTELL, WILLIAM

Captain, 1st South Carolina Regiment


As a militia Captain, William Cattell guarded the transport Success, containing powder from the Betsey, during a voyage to Charleston from Beaufort in August 1775. He was a Captain in the 1st South Carolina Regiment of Foot in January 1776.


CATTON, GEORGE

[see COTTON [CATTON], GEORGE]


CAULFIELD, ROBERT

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Robert Caulfield was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brig Burling on 18 August 1778. [NRAR, 245] On 26 July 1779 he was again commissioned, to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Baltimore. [NRAR, 232] About 15 July 1780 Baltimore was returning to Baltimore from Hispaniola, Spanish West Indies. Near Cape Henry, Virginia Baltimore was chased by the blockading British vessels and was driven ashore. Both Baltimore and her cargo were lost. [see Baltimore] His third commission was to the Maryland Privateer Brig Duke of Leinster, on 20 January 1781. [NRAR, 278] In May 1781 he was captured by the British, along with the brig. [NOAR, 52]


CAZNEAU, ISAAC

MA/(A)

Captain, Continental Navy


Isaac Cazneau was commissioned on 17 April 1776 as a Captain in the Continental Navy. He was to have command of one of the two frigates being built in Massachusetts. On 12 June 1776 Cazneau was assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Boston. Three days later, 15 June, the frigate's command was re-assigned to Captain Hector McNeill. Cazneau evidently never accepted his commission. [NOAR, 52]


CHACE, EPHRAIN [EPHRAIM]

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Ephrain Chace (Ephrain or Ephraim Chase) was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Neashquowoite on 7 May 1779. [NOAR, 52]


CHACE, JOHN

NC

Commander, North Carolina Privateers


John Chace was commissioned to the North Carolina Privateer Sloop Polly on 21 October 1776. [NOAR, 52]


CHACE, SAMUEL

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Samuel Chace, Jr. (sometimes spelled Chase) was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Ship Oliver Cromwell on 21 November 1776 which was outfitting in the Taunton River. He was again commissioned to the same vessel on 4 August 1777. A few days later, on 27 August Oliver Cromwell attempted to run the blockade and get to sea. She was engaged by HM Sloop Kingsfisher, driven ashore and destroyed. Chace lost “all he hade in the World.” [See Oliver Cromwell]


CHACE, SAMUEL

See CHASE, SAMUEL


CHACE, WILLIAM

RI

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


William Chace was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Diamond on 6 July 1776. In the Diamond Chace captured seven prizes in the summer of 1776. [See Diamond] On 28 May 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Marlborough. [NOAR, 52]


CHADWICK, GEAR

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Gear Chadwick was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 435] He was in command of the Pennsylvania Privateer Boat Recovery in 1778. In her he captured the schooner William and Polly, the Betsey, and a whaleboat, a barge, and a pettiaugre. On 26 October 1780 he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Fountain. [NRAR, 299] Chadwick was back in Philadelphia on 22 May 1781, when he witnessed the bond for the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Fair American (Commander PHINEAS ELDRIDGE). [NRAR, 286] He was recommissioned to the Recovery on 25 May 1781, [NRAR, 435] listing his age as 30. [NOAR, 52-53]


CHALOCHE, RENE

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Rene Chaloche was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to command of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Betsey on 10 June 1779. [NOAR, 53] His second privateer vessel was the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Little Vincent, commissioned 27 April 1781. [NRAR, 376] Chaloche's final privateer was the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Aurora, commissioned 2 November 1781. [NRAR, 231]


CHALONER, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Chaloner was a native of Machias, Massachusetts (now Maine). He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Vulture on 19 October 1782. [NRAR, 488]


CHAMBERLAIN, JAMES

[see CHAMBERLAINE, JAMES]


CHAMBERLAINE [CHAMBERLAYNE], BYRD [BURD]

[See CHAMBERLAYNE, BYRD]


CHAMBERLAINE [CHAMBERLAYNE], EDWARD PYE

[See CHAMBERLAYNE, EDWARD PYE]


CHAMBERLAYNE [CHAMBERLAINE], GEORGE

[See CHAMBERLAYNE, GEORGE]


CHAMBERLAINE [CHAMBERLAIN], JAMES

MD

Owner, Maryland Privateers


James Chamberlaine was a resident of Talbot County, Maryland. He was associated with MATHEW TILGHMAN, THOMAS RUSSELL, EDWARD NOEL, THOMAS NOEL, THOMAS DAWSON, WILLIAM HINDMAN and WILLIAM PERRY in privateering. Vessels associated with Chamberlaine were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/25/78

MD

Sloop Richardson (6/10)

Nathaniel Cooper

Thomas Russell, Edward and Thomas Noel, Thomas Dawson, William Hindman, William Perry, James Lloyd Chamberlain & Co.

Nathaniel Cooper, Thomas Dawson

Jacob H. Hindman, William Frazier [NRAR, 443]

9/25/79

MD

Brigantine Talbot (20/25)

Solomon Frazier

James Chamberlaine et al

Solomon Frazier, Mathew Tilghman

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 472]


CHAMBERLAYNE [CHAMBERLAINE], PHILIP

[See CHAMBERLAYNE, PHILIP]


CHAMBERLAYNE [CHAMBERLAINE], BYRD [BURD]

VA

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Byrd (Burd) Chamberlayne (Chamberlaine) was a resident of King William County, Virginia, and a brother of EDWARD PYE CHAMBERLAYNE. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 164-165] He was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy and assigned to Virginia Navy Galley Henry. On 21 November 1776 he was transferred to the Virginia Navy Brig Musquetto (Captain JOHN HARRIS). When Musquetto was captured by the British Chamberlayne was sent to Fortun Prison, being committed 8 August 1777. He escaped. [NOAR, 53] Returning to Virginia he was ordered to take command of the brig Jefferson. He married Elizabeth Dandridge and had several children. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 164-165]


CHAMBERLAYNE [CHAMBERLAINE], EDWARD PYE

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Edward Pye Chamberlayne (Chamberlaine) was born in 1750, and was a resident of Prince William County, Virginia. He was a brother of BYRD CHAMBERLAYNE. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 165-167] He served as a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy aboard the Virginia Navy Brig Musquetto (Captain JOHN HARRIS). He was captured with the vessel in 1777. [NOAR, 53] Later he served as a Second Lieutenant in 1777 and 1778. In 1781 he was involved in capturing two British vessels off South Carolina, and went with one of them as supercargo into North Carolina. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 165-167]


CHAMBERLAINE [CHAMBERLAYNE], GEORGE

VA

Second Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


George Chamberlaine (Chamberlayne) was born about 1755, a native of Warwick County, Virginia. He was the brother of PHILIP CHAMBERLAINE. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy and assigned to the Virginia Navy Galley Henry.  [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 162-163] On 2 December 1776 [NOAR, 53] he was assigned to the Virginia Navy Galley Manley. On 3 February 1777 he was transferred to the Virginia Navy Brig Musquetto (Captain JOHN HARRIS). [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 162-163] Chamberlaine was captured with the vessel and commited to Fortun Prison on 8 August 1777. He escaped, but was recaptured on 12 October 1777. Chamberlayne again escaped. [NOAR, 53] Meanwhile he had been recommended for promotion to First Lieutenant on 12 August 1777. He returned to Virginia and, in 1778, was in command of the pilot boat Molly. He was a lieutenant on the boat Liberty in 1779 and 1780. He married Anne Harlow Lewis of Warwick County and had several children. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 162-163]


CHAMBERLAINE [CHAMBERLAYNE], PHILIP

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Philip Chamberlayne was a resident of Elizabeth City Couny, Virginia, and was the brother of GEORGE CHAMBERLAINE. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 163-164] He was appointed First Mate in the Virginia Navy on 27 March 1776 [NOAR, 53] and assigned to the Virginia Navy Galley Hero (Captain GEORGE MUTER). [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 163-164] He was commissioned a Lieutenant on 19 August 1776, stll aboard the Hero. [NOAR, 53] Chamberlaine was later a Captain and personally resigned his command to the Virginia Navy Board in December 1777. He later died on the Dolphin, sunk in 1779. He married Elizabeth Cooper and had one child who died young. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 163-164]


CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Ephraim Chambers was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Raven on 23 October 1778. On 24 February 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Tiger. [NOAR, 53]


CHAMBERS, JAMES

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


James Chambers was, possibly, a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Brig Ross on 20 April 1782. [NRAR, 447]


CHAMILLARD, PAUL DE

[See DE CHAMILLARD, PAUL]


CHAMPION, HENRY

CT

First Lieutenant, Continental Army Boston Squadron


Henry Champion served as First Lieutenant aboard the Continental Army Boston Squadron Schooner Harrison (Captain WILLIAM COIT). [NOAR, 54]


CHAMPLIN, ELIJAH, JR.

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Elijah Champlin, Jr. was in command of the Connecticut Privateer Boat Revenge in October 1778. [NOAR 54] She sailed with Connecticut Privateer Boat Refugee (Commander JESSE BRUSH), who was commissioned to both boats. [NOAR, 39] Brush more particularly seems to have commanded the Refugee. Champlin assisted in recapturing the British brig Venus, [NOAR, 54] and, with the Refugee, the sloop Success on 1 December 1778. [NOAR, 39, 54] In April 1779 the sloop Polly was captured. [NOAR, 54]


CHAMPLIN, GEORGE

(A)

Second Lieutenant, Continental Navy


George Champlin was a resident of New London, Connecticut. [Paullin, 165] He was commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the Continental Navy, probably in July 1777, and assigned to the Continental Navy Brigantine Resistance (Captain SAMUEL CHEW). Resistance cruised in the West Indies. On 26 December 1777 she captured a valuable prize bound from Scotland to the West Indies. [NOAR, 58] She got to sea again early in 1778, steering for the West Indies. [Allen, i, 314] Off Martinique, [Peckham, 118] on 4 March 1778, Chew fell in with a 20-gun British letter of rnarque. After a hard-fought battle, [Allen,i, 314; Paullin, 165] in which both Chew and Second Lieutenant Champlin were killed [Paullin, 165] as well as two other Americans; and twelve were wounded, [Peckham, 118] the vessels parted and the Resistance returned to Boston. [Allen, i, 314] She had arrived there by 28 April 1778. [NRAR, 71. Well before, or not to Boston] His death was reported on 28 April 1778 in a letter from the Marine Committee to Continental Agent John Bradford at Boston. [NRAR, 71]


CHAMPLIN, ISAAC

CT

Second Prize Master, Connecticut Privateers


Isaac Champlin was appointed Second Prize Master on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Revenge (Commander JOSEPH CONKLING), commissioned 23 October 1776. [NRAR, 439; NDAR, VI, 1004-1005 and 1005 note; VII, 995-997] He was on the entire time of her first cruise, 22 January 1777-22 May 1777, and for her second cruise, perhaps July-September 1777. Two actions were fought, one resulting in the loss of HM Schooner Tender Admiral Parker, on 23 September. [see Revenge]


CHAMPLIN, JOSEPH

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


Joseph Champlin was a Midshipman in the Connecticut Navy and served aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain TIMOTHY PARKER) in 1778-1779. On 5 June 1779 Oliver Cromwell was captured by the British. [NOAR, 54]


CHAMPLIN, LODOWICK

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Lodowick Champlin was born in 1745, a native of New London, Connecticut. Champlin was described as 5'9" tall, with grey eyes, dark brown short hair, a dark complexion, and “middling” well set, and 35 years old in 1781. [Middlebrook, MCR, 108-109] In 1779 he commanded the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hancock, capturing the British schooner Little William and the brig Strumpet. Strumpet was bound from Jamaica with a cargo of rum. On 28 March 1780 Champlin was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Richard. [NRAR, 443] She was captured by the British and Champlin was not released until May 1781. [NOAR, 54] On 30 October 1781 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Hancock. [NRAR, 324; Middlebrook, MCR, 108] In the Hancock Champlin captured the brigantine Thetis and schooner Mercury in June 1782. [Middlebrook, MCR, 108-109]


CHAMPLIN, SAMUEL

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Samuel Champlin, possibly the “Sr.” to the “Jr.” below, was a resident of New London, Connecticut. He was described as age 44, 5'8½” tall, with light hair and his face pitted from smallpox. [NOAR, 54] Champlin was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Fair American on 18 July 1781. [NRAR, 286] On 7 October 1781 he captured the sloop Chance, bound from Ireland.  [NOAR, 54] In October 1781 the Fair American, sailing in company with the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Holker (Commander Roger Keane), [Possibly the Holker in question was the Maryland Privateer Schooner commanded by Robert Montgomery. NRAR, 339] captured four British vessels. [Maclay, History of American Privateers, 214. Maclay refers to the Fair American as the Fair America, and to her skipper as S. Chaplin.]


CHAMPLIN, SAMUEL (JR.)

CT

Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Samuel Champlin, Jr. was a resident of New London, Connecticut. [NRAR, 225; NDAR, 1303-1304 and 1304 note] He returned to New London from an adventurous powder voyage on 6 April 1776, having fought his way in. [NDAR, IV, 784-786] On 28 January 1776 he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Connecticut Navy and assigned to the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain COIT). [NOAR, 54. Here going by the “Champlin” entry] Samuel Champlin, Jr. was appointed, on 31 July 1776, by the Governor and Council of Safety of Connecticut as Third Lieutenant on the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell. [NDAR, 5, 1303-1304 and note] Champlin did not stay long for he was in command of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop American Revenue by 4 October 1776. [NDAR, 6, 1128-1130] He was commissioned to command American Revenue on 9 October 1776. [NRAR, 225] On Champlin's first cruise ship Mary, brig Athol, and schooner Two Brothers were captured. Champlin then called at Suriname for replenishment, and sailed again. Sailing again, Champlin took brig Sally and arrived in Charleston, South Carolina on 8 March 1777. By 10 April 1777 American Revenue was in Bedford, Massachusetts. Sailing again in June 1777, Champlin and the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop United States (Commander BENJAMIN PEARCE) captured brigantine Mary, schooner Nancy, and ship Rebecca. Champlin was back in Bedford by early August 1777. He sailed again, in company with Connecticut Privateer Sloop Revenge (Commander JOSEPH CONKLING) about April 1778 and captured ship Lovely Lass. American Revenue returned to port in May 1778. Champlin now left the privateer for a time. On 9 June 1779 Champlin resumed command of the American Revenue. He sailed soon after and took the British privateer Sheelah, her prize sloop Betsey, and schooner Carolina. He was back in port by mid-July 1779. Sailing again with Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hancock (Commander LODOWICK CHAMPLIN) he was captured by HM Frigate Greyhound on 6 August 1779. He was taken into New York, but was quickly exchanged, on 12 August. [See American Revenue for references] Champlin died in December 1780 at New London, [Middlebrook, II, 52-53]


CHAMPLIN, THOMAS

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Thomas Champlin, of Bristol, Rhode Island, was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop George on 20 April 1781. [NRAR, 316]


CHANDLER, THOMAS

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


According to NOAR, 55.


CHANNING, J.

[See CHANNING, T.]


CHANNING, JOHN

RI/(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


John Channing was commissioned as Second Lieutenant of Marines aboard the Continental Navy Ship Providence on 8 July 1776, on the condition of his enlisting thirty-three good men. On 2 September 1776 he was transferred to the Continental Navy Sloop Providence. [NOAR, 55]


CHANNING, T. [J.]

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


T. Channing was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Havana on 14 March 1781. [NOAR, 55] A “J. Channing,” of Baltimore, Maryland, probably the same person as “T. Channing,” was commissioned on 27 September 1782 to command the Maryland Privateer Brig Ceres. [NOAR, 55]


CHAPEL, FREDERICK

[See CHAPPEL, FREDERICK]


CHAPELL, WILLIAM

[See CHAPLE, WILLIAM]


CHAPIN [CHAPLIN], BENJAMIN

MA

Surgeon, Virginia Navy


Benjamin Chapin (Chaplin) was born in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1736. He entered the Virginia Navy in April 1776, and served as Surgeon aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Protector from 1776-1777. He transferred to the Virginia Navy Ship Tartar and served as her Surgeon until his death in Alexandria, Virginia in 1781. Tartar was captured by the British in August 1781, but these two events may be unrelated. [NOAR, 55]


CHAPIN [CHAPING], SETH

MA (P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Seth Chapin was born 31 March 1746 in Mendon, Massachusetts, the son of Ebenezer and Abigal Chapin. He married twice before the war. Chapin was a corporal in Captain John Albee's 1st Company, which answered the Lexington alarm and marched from Mendon to Lexington on 19 April 1775. On 22 June 1776 [Smith, Marines, 80. On p. 435 he says the appointment was 24 June. NOAR, 55, says 24 June.] Chapin was appointed a Second Lieutenant of Marines by the Rhode Island Frigate Committee. He was ordered to Plymouth and elsewhere to recruit and supplied with funds for that purpose. He was assigned to Continental Navy Ship Providence (Captain ABRAHAM WHIPPLE). On 14 September 1776 he was sent recruiting again, for the Providence. About December 1776 or January 1777 Chapin was reported to have been "broke," and replaced by STEPHEN EARL. However, another source states Chapin with being a member of the court-martial of Navy Lieutenant Richard Marvin, held aboard the Providence, off Field's Point in the Providence River, on 3 April 1777. Chapin was definitely gone by 19 July 1777, when he was appointed a first lieutenant in Sherburne's Rhode Island battalion. Chapin's second wife died in 1778. In July 1780 he was appointed a captain in a three-month Rhode Island regiment. Chapin died in Mendon, 15 November 1833. [Smith, Marines, 435]


CHAPING, SETH

[See CHAPIN, SETH]


CHAPLE, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Chaple (Chapell) was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 25 May 1782 as commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Dolphin. [NRAR, 275]


CHAPLIN, BENJAMIN

[See CHAPIN, BENJAMIN]


CHAPMAN, BENJAMIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Chapman was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned, on 14 April 1778, to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Viper. [NOAR, 55]


CHAPMAN, GIDEON

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


Gideon Chapman entered the Connecticut Navy as a Surgeon’s Mate aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain TIMOTHY PARKER), serving from 1777-1778. In 1778 he was promoted to Midshipman and served in that post from 1778-1779. On 5 June 1779 the Oliver Cromwell was captured by the British. [NOAR, 55]


CHAPMAN, JOHN

CT

Captain, Connecticut Navy


John Chapman was a resident of New London in 1776. He was appointed as Second Lieutenant of the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain WILLIAM COIT) on 27 August 1776 by the Council of Safety. [NDAR, 6, 316] He succeeded DAVID HAWLEY. He was aboard on 25 February 1777, according to the crew list. [NDAR, 7, 1283-1287] On 10 April 1777 he was sent by Captain Coit, along with Marine Captain ELIPHALET ROBERTS to present his accounts to the Council of Safety at Lebanon. [NDAR, 8, 310-311] The next day the entire crew and officers of the Oliver Cromwell were dismissed by the Council, and Chapman was reappointed as Second Lieutenant. [NDAR, 8, 319] From December 1777 to September 1778 he served as First Lieutenant under TIMOTHY PARKER. He was commissioned on 25 May 1782 to command the Connecticut Navy Ship Retaliation, a prison ship, at New London. [NOAR, 56]


CHAPMAN, JONATHAN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Jonathan Chapman [NOAR, 56] (Chipman), possibly of Boston, Massachusetts,  was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Lively (Commander NATHANIEL GOODWIN), commissioned 23 August 1781. She had previously been a Massachusetts commissioned vessel. [NRAR, 377]


CHAPMAN, JOSEPH

MA

Master (Trading Vessel), Massachusetts Navy


Joseph Chapman was appointed as Master of the Massachusetts Navy Trading Ship Versailles about January 1777. He sailed in her to Nantes, France, about 6 February 1777, with a cargo of mahogany and logwood. Versailles arrived at Nantes on 18 March 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 694] The vessel was scheduled to be sold there. When some of his crew enlisted in the Continental Navy, Chapman was reluctant to release them to Agent Jonathan Williams, Jr. Williams said Chapman was "very timid" about disobeying orders (he was supposed to bring the men home). [NDAR, IX, 770-771]


CHAPMAN, SAMUEL

CT

Second Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy


Samuel Chapman was appointed, in May 1777, to serve as Second Lieutenant on the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain WILLIAM COIT). [NOAR, 56]


CHAPPEL [CHAPEL, CHAPPELL], FREDERICK

CT

Captain, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Frederick Chappel (Chapel, Chappell) was a native of Connecticut. [Bird, Navies, 173: New Hampshire] When the crisis on Lake Champlain developed, Chappel was one of two captains (see DAVID HAWLEY) appointed by Governor Jonathan Trumbull to recruit sailors for the Lake. Chappel enrolled on 9 August 1776, and recruited two lieutenants and forty-two sailors by 25 August 1776, [NDAR, 5, 984-985] mostly from the Connecticut regiments at New York. [NDAR, 5, 203-204] Chappel's recruits arrived at Fort Ticonderoga by 19 September 1776.[NDAR, 6, 902] Chappel commanded the Gates [Navies, 173] Chappel was probably assigned to the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Galley Congress soon after. [unattributed] Gates in static line of defense in late October [Bird, Navies, 217] Chappel was ordered, on 15 January 1777, by General Schuyler, to proceed to Connecticut and recruit a company of sailors totaling forty-nine, for service on the lakes. Chappel was allowed two lieutenants and a master. Chappel was to offer the lieutenancies to STEPHEN G. THATCHER and LITTLE, if they chose not to accept he could appoint any one he wished. The officers rations were to be the same as those of the Continental Army. [NDAR, 7, 961-962] Chappel was at Fort Ticonderoga on 26 June 1777, in command of Continental Army Lake Champlain Galley Gates. [NDAR, 9, 174] When the British attack began on Fort Ticonderoga, Chappel and Gates escorted the fleeing convoy to Skenesborough, where Gates was burned and blown up to prevent capture on 6 July 1776.[NDAR, 9, 225] Chappell was listed as Second Lieutenant aboard the large Connecticut Privateer Ship Deane (Commander ELISHA HINMAN), commissioned on 6 June 1780. At least one prize was captured on the following cruise. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 66-67]


CHAPPELL, FREDERICK

[See CHAPPEL, FREDERICK]


CHASE, EPHRAIN]

[See CHACE, EPHRAIN]


CHASE, JOSEPH

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Chase was a resident of Nantucket, Massachusetts when he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Adventure on 15 October 1782. [NRAR, 222]


CHASE, JOSHUA

MA

Surgeon, Continental Navy


According to NOAR, 56, through the Society of the Cincinnatti. He served until 1781.


CHASE, MOSES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Moses Chase was a resident of "Sheapsnet" [Sheepscot], Massachusetts [Maine]. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Catchall on 10 November 1782. [NRAR, 247]


CHASE, N.

[See CHACE, WILLIAM]


CHASE, SAMUEL, Jr.

[See CHACE, SAMUEL, Jr.]


CHASE [CHACE, CHISTE], SAMUEL

[MD]

Commander, [Maryland] Privateers


Samuel Chase [Chace, Chiste] was in command of the Privateer Ship St. Peter in the West Indies in late 1777, supposed to be a vessel from Maryland. About 1 October 1777 she captured the brigantine Black Prince (John Cook) and the ship Darby on 7 October. Both were taken into Martinique. She refitted in the fall at Fort Royal. [NDAR, 9, 10; see St. Peter] St. Peter was captured by HM Frigate Aurora, 28 guns, on 13 January 1778. [Jamieson, Alan G., “American Privateers in the Leeward Islands, 1776-1778,” in The American Neptune, [volume unknown], 26-27, reprinting a list of Admiral Young’s in ADM 1/310, and 28-29]


CHATFIELD, JOHN

CT

Pilot, Connecticut Navy


John Chatfield was a Pilot in the Connecticut Navy, aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain TIMOTHY PARKER) in 1778-1779. He was captured with the ship on 5 June 1779. [NOAR, 56]


CHATFIELD, THOMAS

CT

First Mate, Connecticut Navy


Thomas Chatfield was aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell as First Mate on 25 February 1777, according to the crew list. [NDAR, 7, 1283-1287]


CHATHAM, JOHN

PA

Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Chatham was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 19 September 1775, and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Burke. He was commissioned as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig General Lee on 3 October 1776. [NOAR, 56] He later commanded Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Rebecca, being commissioned on 17 September 1779. Rebecca was owned by James Vanuxem and Lardner Clark & Co. of Philadelphia, where Chatham listed his residence. [NRAR, 433] He was succeeded in command of Rebecca by JOHN BURROWS on 21 April 1780. [NRAR, 434] On 23 December 1780, a John Chatham was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Hope (Commander WILLIAM HAYMAN). [NRAR, 341] On 5 October 1781 this John Chatham was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Fame (Commander GEORGE CURWIN). When Fame was recommissioned under Commander DAVID CAMPBELL on 22 December 1781, Chatham stayed aboard as First Mate. [NRAR, 289]  On 6 May 1782 he was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship George (Commander Curwin again). [NRAR, 317] At the time of the last appointment he listed his age as 52. [NOAR, 57] It is difficult to tell if these are the same individual.


CHEEVER, JAMES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


James Cheever was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Hazard on 24 August 1781. [NOAR, 57]


CHENEY, DANIEL

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Daniel Cheney, of Chatham, Connecticut, was commissioned, on 18 July 1781, to the Connecticut Privateer Boat Humbird. [NRAR, 346] This commission also covered the Connecticut Privateer Galley Regulator (Commander SETH OVERTON), on which Cheney was listed as First Mate. [NRAR, 435]


CHENEY, THOMAS

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


Thomas Cheney was commissioned as a Commander of the South Carolina Privateer Schooner (Sloop) Peggy, on 23 November 1776. He sailed for St. Eustatius with a cargo of indigo and rice. On 19 December 1776 Cheney and Peggy were captured by HM Frigate Galatea.


CHESHIRE, JOHN

NC

Captain, North Carolina Navy


John Cheshire was a “Captain” in the “North Carolina Navy in Continental service.” [NOAR, 57]


CHESTER, JASON

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Jason Chester was a resident of Wethersfield, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Enterprise in June 1777. He captured the British sloop Nova Scotia, the schooners Experiment, Friendship, and Greyhound, and the sloop Hazard. He was captured by the British in March 1782 and sent to New York. He was exchanged and commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer [unknown] Caroline in August 1782. He was captured again, still in August 1782, and sent to Bermuda. [NOAR, 57]


CHESTER, THOMAS, JR.

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Thomas Chester, Jr. was a resident of Groton, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Two Brothers on 18 July 1776. [NRAR, 479] Chester sailed in June 1777. [NOAR, 57] Two Brothers, in 34°N engaged a British Transport Ship, a much superior vessel, and suffered much damage to her rigging. Chester had two men killed and three wounded. Two Brothers arrived at New London, Connecticut on 12 October 1777. [NDAR, X, 192 and note] Later he took custody of two ships which had foundered in Rhode Island and was awarded a favorable decree by the admiralty courts in 1778. On 22 September 1778 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hancock. [NRAR, 323] In March 1779 he fought an action with a British vessel, and Hancock was back in port by 1 April. Chester then left the vessel for a time. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 106-107] He seems to have resumed the command after September 1780. In March 1781 he was captured by the British in the Iquebo River and sent as a prisoner to the West Indies. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 106-107]


CHEVER, ABIJAH

MA

Surgeon, [Massachusetts Navy]


Abijah Cheever was born in 1760, and died in 1843. He was “Naval Service, Surgeon” according to the DAR. [NOAR, 57]


CHEW, BENJAMIN

MD

Captain, Continental Navy

Master, Maryland Privateers


Benjamin Chew was commissioned in the Continental Navy through the expedient of taking out a privateer bond for the Continental Navy Ship Chase on 28 April 1777. [NRAR, 252] On 5 August 1777 a Benjamin Chew was (Sailing) Master on the Maryland Privateer Brigantine (Commander JAMES CAMPBELL). [NDAR, IX, 713-714. See also NRAR, 465. In NOAR, 48, her date of commission is given as 3 August.] Sturdy Beggar made a voyage to Europe in the fall and winter of 1777-1778. At least one prize was captured and Chew and Prize Master GABRIEL SLOCOM went aboard. The prize was re-captured by the British and both men were committed to Forton Prison on 23 January 1778. Chew escaped on 23 July 1778 and had worked his way to Virginia by December 1778. He took passage to the Chesapeake on a schooner commanded by one Deane. The schooner wrecked on the Tangier Islands and fourteen people died. Chew was among them. He was said to be “… a brave and worthy young gentleman, who had but lately escaped from Forton Prison in England …” [The Pennsylvania Packet or the General Advertiser [Philadelphia], Saturday, January 2, 1779, datelined Baltimore, December 22, 1778. See Sturdy Beggar]


CHEW, JOHN

VA

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


John Chew was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy on 11 December 1776 and assigned to the Virginia Navy Sloop Defiance (Captain WILLIAM GREEN]. [NOAR, 58]


CHEW, NATHANIEL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Nathaniel Chew was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Washington on 20 September 1779. [NRAR, 489]


CHEW, SAMUEL

VA/(P)

Captain, Continental Navy


Samuel Chew was a resident of New London, Connecticut, although he was a native of Virginia. [Paullin, 165] On 17 June 1777 the Marine Committee informed Samuel Chew, then in Philadelphia, that he had been appointed as Captain of the Continental Navy Brigantine Resistance. He was ordered to New London to take command. His under officers would be appointed by John Deshon [of the Eastern Navy Board] to whom blank commissions and instructions were sent the same day. The Committee also took Continental Agent Nathaniel Shaw, Jr. to task for purchasing the vessel, but decided to keep her. The Marine Committee informed Shaw of Chew's appointment and ordered him to prepare Resistance for a four months' cruise. [NRAR, 48. In NOAR, 58, his date of commission is given as 12 October 1776. This however, is the date of the Lieutenant's List.] Chew cruised in the West Indies. On 26 December 1777 he captured a valuable prize bound from Scotland to the West Indies. [NOAR, 58] Chew got to sea again early in 1778, steering for the West Indies. [Allen, i, 314] Off Martinique, [Peckham, 118] on 4 March 1778, Chew fell in with a 20-gun British letter of marque. After a hard-fought battle, [Allen,i, 314; Paullin, 165] in which Chew and Second Lieutenant GEORGE CHAMPLIN were killed [Paullin, 165] and two other Americans were killed and twelve wounded, [Peckham, 118] the vessels parted and the Resistance returned to Boston. [Allen, i, 314] She had arrived there by 28 April 1778. [NRAR, 71. Well before, or not to Boston] His death was reported on 28 April 1778 in a letter from the Marine Committee to Continental Agent John Bradford at Boston. [NRAR, 71]


CHEW [THEW], THEUNIS

NY

First Lieutenant, New York Navy


Theunis Chew (or Thew) was First Lieutenant aboard the New York Navy Sloop Montgomery (Captain WILLIAM ROGERS) from May 1776 to June 1777, participating in all her cruises between those dates, including the action of 11 August 1776. He traveled from Fire Island Inlet to New York for supplies for the sloop, returning on 17 June 1776. [NDAR, 5, 661 and note] He was aboard the sloop during her brief career in Continental service, from 9 February-2 March 1777, at a salary of $20 per month. [NDAR, 8,] He was presumably paid off with the vessel, between 5 June and 1 July 1777. [NDAR, 9, 23-24]


CHICHESTER, HUGH

MA

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Hugh Chichester [NRAR, 287] (or Chisholm) [NRAR, 286] was a resident of Kittery, Massachusetts [Maine].[NRAR, 287]  On 23 December 1780 he (as Chisholm) was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Brigantine Diana. [NRAR, 268]  He (as Chichester) was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Brig Fair American on 1 September 1781. [NRAR, 287]


CHILCOTT, RICHARD

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Richard Chilcott was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned as commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Diana on 6 March 1780. [NOAR, 58]


CHILD, THOMAS

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Thomas Child was commander of the Rhode Island Privateer [unknown] Industry. On 7 October 1776 it was reported that he had captured a brig loaded with sugar and rum. [NOAR, 58]


CHILTON, JOHN

PA (P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


John Chilton was commissioned a first lieutenant of Marines before 20 January 1776. On that day, he wrote to the Committee of Safety at Philadelphia, thanking them for the appointment: “I apprehend the best return I can make for this Honour conferred on, and Trust reposed in me, is, to perform my Duty, which I hereby promise to do to the utmost of my abilities, and that no Earthly consideration shall make me swerve from it, ever keeping in view the Glorious cause of Liberty, that cause I now take up arms to defend.” Chilton’s duties for the following three years are uncertain. On 31 July 1778, one John Chilton, a midshipman in the Continental Navy Ship Raleigh, was reported to have attempted to recruit British soldiers from Prospect Hill at Cambridge, Massachusetts, for the ship. The matter was reported by Town Sergeant John Rice to Major General William Heath on the following day. Lieutenant Chilton was apparently on board Continental Navy Sloop Providence, (Captain HOYSTED HACKER), when the vessel was ordered by the Massachusetts Council in April 1779 to c:ruise the hay for small enemy cruisers. Following this duty, Providence was sent to Delaware Bay to take on a supply of bread. En route, on 7 May, Providence engaged the British brig Diligent, 12 guns, off Sandy Hook. Providence had twelve wounded and two killed, among the latter Lieutenant of Marines John Chilton. Shortly after, he was replaced by Lieutenant Robert Davis. [Smith, Marines, 435]


CHIPMAN, JONATHAN

[See CHAPMAN, JONATHAN]


CHISHOLM, HUGH

[See CHICHESTER, HUGH]


CHISTE, SAMUEL

[See CHASE, SAMUEL]


CHOWNING, WILLIAM

VA

Surgeon’s Mate, Virginia Navy


According to NOAR, 58.


CHRISTIAN, NILES [MILES]

RI

First Mate, Continental Navy


Niles [Miles] Christian was appointed as Second Mate on the Continental Navy Ship Warren (Captain JOHN BURROUGHS HOPKINS) on 20 June 1776 by the Rhode Island Frigate Committee. [NDAR, V, 637-638] On 8 July 1776 he was promoted to First Mate. [NOAR, 59]


CHRISTIAN, WILLIAM

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


According to NOAR, 59.


CHRISTIE, JOHN

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Christie was commissioned as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy on 8 October 1776, [NOAR, 59] and assigned to Pennsylvania Navy Fire Brigantine Vesuvius, succeeding EDWARD BINGLEY. On 1 January 1777, she had a crew of five men, plus  two officers. [NDAR, VII, 834-835] On 13 March 1777, Christie received four blankets for the crew. [NDAR, VIII, 102-103] Vesuvius was part of the mixed Continental Navy-Pennsylvania Navy fleet at Marcus Hook in the late summer of 1777, watching the British shipping in the Delaware River. [NDAR, IX, 942 and note, IX, 973-974] Christie was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Sally on 11 August 1781. [NRAR, 452] He listed his age as 35. [NOAR, 59] He was re-commissioned to the Sally on 20 December 1781. [NRAR, 453]


CHRISTIE, THOMAS

VA

Surgeon, Virginia Navy


Thomas Christie was appointed as a Surgeon in the Virginia Navy on 30 July 1776 and assigned to the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty (Captain THOMAS LILLY). [NOAR, 59]


CHRISTOPHER, ALLEN

[See CHRISTOPHERS, JOHN ALLEN]


CHRISTOPHER, JOHN

[See CHRISTOPHERS, JOHN ALLEN]


CHRISTOPHERS [CHRISTOPHER], [JOHN] ALLEN

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


[John] Allen Christophers was aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell as a Midshipman on 25 February 1777, according to the crew list. [NDAR, 7, 1283-1287] A John Christopher was First Mate on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Dolphin (Commander ASHBELL BURNHAM), commissioned 18 November 1779. [NOAR, 59. NRAR, 272, indicates she was commissioned on 25 December 1779.]


CHRISTOPHERS [CRISTOPHERS], JOSEPH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Christophers (or Cristophers) was a resident of Kennebunkport, Massachusetts [Maine]. On 27 May 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Ranger. [NOAR, 59; NRAR, 431]


CHURCH, CONSTANT

RI

First Mate, Continental Navy


On 10 February 1777, Constant Church was First Mate on the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain HOYSTED HACKER). [NOAR, 59]


CHURCH, GEORGE

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


George Church was a resident of Hartford, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop John Michael on 12 July 1781. [NRAR, 360]


CHURCH, SAMUEL

MD

Surgeon’s Mate, Maryland Navy


Samuel Church was a Surgeon’s Mate in September 1776, serving aboard Maryland Navy Ship Defence (Captain GEORGE COOK). [NOAR, 59]


CHURCHILL, JOHN

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


John Churchill was appointed on 26 September 1776 as First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hope (Commander WALTER HATCH). [NDAR, VI, 998] Hope sailed about 10 October 1776 and was captured off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia on 1 November 1776 by HM Sloop Hope (Lieutenant George Dawson). The prisoners were taken to Halifax, arriving on 2 November. [NDAR, VII, 2 and note] Hope and Hope arrived at Halifax in the afternoon of 2 November. [NDAR, VII, 14]


CLAGHORN, GEORGE

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


George Claghorn was born in Chilmark, Massachusetts in 1748. He served in various military posts until 1780. On 20 April 1781 he was commissioned to command a boat, with a crew of ten men, and armed only with small arms. He soon after served in other military posts. After the war he became the second naval constructor of the United States, supervising the construction of the USS Constitution. He died at Seekonk, Rhode Island in 1824. [NOAR, 59]


CLAGHORN, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Claghorn was born in 1733. He was a resident of New Bedford, Massachusetts. On 6 September 1778 the British raided the town and burned Claghorn's house and nine others on South Water Street. [NOAR, 60] On 12 February 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Virginia. [NRAR, 488] Claghorn died in 1793. [NOAR, 60]


CLARK, CHRISTOPHER

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


Christopher Clark was commissioned, on 30 November 1781, to command an unnamed Virginia Privateer Brig. [NRAR, 227]


CLARK, JAMES

(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


According to NOAR, 61, he served in 1781.


CLARK [CLARKE], JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Clark (Clarke) was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship James on 14 May 1781. [NRAR, 355]


CLARK, JOHN

VA

[First] Lieutenant of Marines, Virginia Marines


John Clark was appointed as a Lieutenant of Marines in the Virginia Marines and assigned to the Virginia Navy Ship Cormorant (Captain JAMES MAXWELL), [Stewart, 169] presumably about May 1782. [Conclusion, see Hardyman] He was in Captain of Marines JOHN HARDYMAN’s company. Clark was assisting to recruit Marines for the Cormorant, then lying at Hampton. [Stewart, 122] Clark was presumably in service until the Cormorant was ordered sold in October 1782. [Cross, 79; Stewart, 126]


CLARK, JOSEPH

Commander, [unknown] Privateers


Joseph Clark commanded the [unknown Privateer unknown] Luke. Before December 1780 he was captured by the Farmer. [NOAR, 60]


CLARK, JOSEPH

CT

Surgeon’s Mate, Connecticut Navy


Joseph Clark was a Surgeon’s Mate in the Connecticut Navy. He served aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Protector, which was captured by the British. About 21 July 1781 Clark was committed to Mill Prison. [NOAR, 60]


CLARK, LARDNER

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


Lardner Clark was co-owner of Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Rebecca with fellow Philadelphia resident James Vanuxem. Rebecca was commissioned, under John Chatham, on 17 September 1779, [NRAR, 433] and again, under John Burrows, on 21 April 1780. [NRAR, 434]


CLARK, LEMUEL

MA

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Lemuel Clark was born about 1755. His parentage is unknown, but he was living in Quincy, Massachusetts when the Revolution began. His first service was in the troops of Massachusetts. He enlisted in May 1775 with a company of troops guarding the shores south of Boston. In May 1776, he commanded a unit that guarded stores at Watertown, Massachusetts. Between October 1776 and April 1777, he was first a sergeant and later adjutant in another state regiment. Following this tour, he served three months in the regiment of one Colonel Titcomb, And, finally, he was a lieutenant for a short period of time in the Massachusetts regiment of a Colonel Gill. Clark’s service as a lieutenant of Marines is qualified only in his pension application, in depositions dated 6 April 1818 and 19 June 1820. His written recollections in these two accounts vary by one year. The second declaration c:onforms most closely to the movements of the Continental vessels concerned.  Clark certified that he received his lieutenant’s commission in January 1777, and was ordered to put himself under the command of Cap­tain of Marines SETH BAXTER, then recruiting for the Continental Navy Ship Hancock (Captain JOHN MANLEY). It is interesting to note that Baxter himself was a resident of both Quincy and Braintree, Massachusetts. He may have been instrumental in the commissioning of Clark. Before Hancock and Continental Navy Ship Boston sailed on 21 May 1777, the deposition continues, he purportedly took command of the Marines on the Boston, in the place of Captain of Marines RICHARD PALMES, who Clark reported “was left sick.” If so, he would have been senior to Marine lieutenants John Harris and Robert McNeill. It is possible, although no muster roll has been found for the Boston in that period, that he served in some other capacity at the time. [Smith, Marines, 435] However, Captain Palmes did sail on the cruise. When the British frigate Fox was captured on 7 June 1777, Lieutenants Harris and McNeill were part of her prize crew, but were recaptured and carried prisoners into Halifax. At this time, Palmes or the captain of the ship may have elevated Clark to lieutenant of Marines for the remainder of the cruise. Clark’s personal knowledge of the events on board Boston that followed—cited 41 years later—leads one to believe that he was indeed aboard the vessel. Clark further deposed that on the return of the frigate to Boston in November 1777, he was ordered to recruit men for the Continental Navy Ship Deane. However, because of a surplus of Marine officers for Deane, he was transferred to the sloop Providence in which he served until February 1779. Reverting to his first deposition, he asserted that in March 1779 he became lieutenant of Marines of the Massachusetts Navy Brig Tyrannicide, which was subsequently destroyed at the fiasco of Penobscot (14 August 1779). Later, as a lieutenant of Marines of the privateer Essex, he was captured in June 1780 and imprisoned in England. He was released and returned to America shortly before the end of the war. The Secretary at War ordered him to settle his accounts with the Continental agent at Boston and to hold himself in readiness to go on board another vessel. He never received further orders, nor was he discharged. Clark was placed on the federal pension roll in 1821 at the sum of $240.00 per annum, retroactive to 6 April 1818. The amount of his pension was increased to $320.00 on 4 March 1831. Clark wrote to the Honorable Lewis Cass in 1832 from his residence in Barre, Washington County, Vermont, asking for his back pay. Lemuel Clark died 12 April 1834. [Smith, Marines, 436]


CLARK, MARK

MA

Master, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Mark Clark was aboard the Massachusetts Navy Brig Massachusetts (Captain DANIEL SOUTHER) on 10 September 1776. On 10 May 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Saratoga, [NOAR, 60] and, on 12 June 1781, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Rattlesnake. [NRAR, 432]


CLARK, PETER

MA

Captain of Marines, Massachusetts Marines


Peter Clark was commissioned on 16 March 1776 as Captain of Marines in the Massachusetts Marines, and assigned to the Massachusetts Navy Schooner Diligent (Captain JOHN LAMBERT). [NOAR, 60]


CLARK [CLARKE], SETH

MA/(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Seth Clark (Clarke) was born in Harwich, Massachusetts in 1736. He later resided in Newburport, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 60] He served as a Second Lieutenant in the Massachusetts Navy, aboard the Massachusetts. [NDAR, IX, 708-709] He commanded the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Unity and was captured on 17 September 1776 by HM Schooner Porcupine. [NOAR, 60. This may have been a prize.] Clark, now of Salisbury, Massachusetts, was appointed as commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Congress on 6 June 1781, a vessel of six guns and fourteen men, owned by Samuel Nye and others of Salisbury. [NRAR, 259] He died in Salisbury in 1787. [NOAR, 60]


CLARK, UZZIEL

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Uzziel Clark was a resident of Canaan, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Elizabeth on 21 September 1777. [NRAR, 280] On 1 December 1779 Clark was Master aboard the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Dolphin (Commander EDWARD LATHAN). [NOAR, 60]


CLARK, WILLIAM

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


William Clark was commissioned as a [First] Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 1 July 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Fire Sloop Aetna. On 9 April 1777 he was promoted to Captain, and took command of the Aetna. [NOAR, 60]


CLARKE, ICHABOD

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Ichabod Clarke was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts [NOAR, 61] or possibly, of Salem, Massachusetts. On 31 July 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Elizabeth. [NRAR, 281]


CLARKE, JAMES

[See CLARK, JAMES]


CLARKE, JOHN

[See CLARK, JOHN]


CLARKE, JONATHAN

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Jonathan Clarke was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was commissioned, on 30 July 1778, to the Maryland Privateer Sloop Eclipse. [NRAR, 279]


CLARKE, SETH

[See CLARK, SETH]


CLARKE, WILLIAM

NH

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


William Clarke was a resident of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was commissioned, on 29 June 1780, to the New Hampshire Privateer Brigantine Jolly Tarr (Jolly Farr, according to NOAR, 61]. [NOAR, 61]


CLARKSON, LEVINUS

SC

Continental Agent (South Carolina)


Levinus Clarkson was appointed as Continental Agent for South Carolina at the same time as DORSIUS.


CLARKSON, MATTHEW M.

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Matthew M. Clarkson was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 228] He was born about 1761. [NOAR, 61] He was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine L'Antoinette (Commander William Smith), commissioned 30 March 1782. [NRAR, 228] He listed his age as 21. [NOAR, 61]


CLAY, JOSEPH

GA

Naval Constructor, Georgia Navy


Joseph Clay was trying to obtain sail cloth from Thomas Young for six galleys being constructed in the Savannah area by July 1776. In 1777 he was the Continental paymaster for the Army. [103]


CLAY, STEPHEN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Stephen Clay was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. On 8 November 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Lucy. [NRAR, 379] In December 1781 he arrived at Salem, Massachusetts after a passage of forty-one days from Cadiz, Spain, in the Phoenix. With him on the Phoenix [NOAR, 61] were Commander JOHN ADAMS of the George and Fanny, from Boston, [NRAR, 317; NOAR, 61] and Hopkins of the Virginia, from Philadelphia. [NOAR, 61] On 28 June 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Iris. [NRAR, 353]


CLEAR, MATTHEW

Acting Third Mate, Continental Navy


Matthew Clear was born in England. He enlisted on the Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain JOHN BARRY) on 17 March 1776, just a few days after her acquisition by the Continental Navy. [NDAR, IX, 502-507] He served throughout her career until her capture on 19 September 1777 by HM Cutter Alert (Lieutenant John Bazely) after a long, hard battle. [NDAR, IX, 657]


CLEAVELAND, SETH

Prize Master, [unknown] Privateers


Seth Cleaveland was prize master of the Lucretia, from South Carolina. She was captured by the Americans in July 1778. On 18 July 1778 she was re-captured by HM Sloop Grasshopper, and Cygnet and Seaford. On 20 October 1778 Cleaveland was committed to Forton Prison. He was pardoned for exchange on 11 December 1779. [NOAR, 61]


CLEAVES, PUTNAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Putnam Cleaves was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned, on 4 August 1779, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Harlequin. He was captured by the British in the St. Lawrence River and taken to Quebec. [NOAR, 61, citing a news report dated 14 September 1780.]


CLEMENTBEEN, STEPHEN

[Prize Master], [unknown] Privateers


Stephen Clementbeen was apparently the prize master of the Samuel and Elizabeth, a British vessel captured by the Americans. About November 1779 she was re-captured by the British and Clementbeen was jailed in England. [NOAR, 62]


CLEVELAND

RI

Prize Master [Mate], Rhode Island Privateers

Cleveland was aboard the Rhode Island Privateer Ship Marlborough (Commander GEORGE WAIT BABCOCK) in December 1777. He participated in her first cruise, from December 1777 to June 1778, along the African coast. During the cruise, two small actions were fought and many prizes were captured.[see Marlborough for references]


CLEVELAND, STEPHEN

MA

Captain, Continental Navy


Stephen Cleveland was commissioned on 30 July 1776 as a Captain in the Continental Navy and assigned to the Continental Navy Brig Dispatch, a packet vessel. Dispatch, 250 tons,  was the former prize Hannah. He sailed from Salem, Massachusetts on 22 September 1776 and arrived at Bordeaux, France on 10 November 1776 with dispatches for Silas Deane in Paris. [NOAR, 62]


CLIFTON, JAMES

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers

Commander, Maryland Privateers


James Clifton was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 20 October 1779 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Venus. [NRAR, 485] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brig Hawke on 14 August 1780, [NRAR, 329] and, on 13 December 1781 to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Charming Molly. [NRAR, 251] On 2 April 1782, [NRAR, 262] listing his age as 36, [noar, 62] he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Dandy. [NRAR, 262]


CLOAK, EBENEZER

Commander, [unknown] Privateers


Ebenezer Cloak was born in 1740 and died in 1781. According to NOAR, 62 (citing the DAR) he was a privateer commander.


CLOON, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Cloon was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. On 14 July 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Nimble Shilling. [NRAR, 406]


CLOUGH, THOMAS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Clough was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Washington (Commander JOSEPH STOCKMAN) as First Lieutenant on 22 April 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 399-400]  For some reason Stockman disappeared again and a new commission was requested and issued on 3 June 1777 for Thomas Clough. [NDAR, IX, 10-11] Under Clough at least one capture was made. The schooner Betsey (Tryon Listers) was stopped and plundered of “divers Wares and Merchandize.” These goods were libeled on 18 September 1777, with trial set for 7 October 1777. [NDAR, X, 15-16] After this Clough left the Washington. [NDAR, X, 804-805 and 805 note]


CLOUSTON, THOMAS

MA

Captain, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Clouston, of Newburyport, Massachusetts, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Antelope on 29 October 1781. [NRAR, 228] [See NOAR, 62. See his own cautionary note; violated in this entry.]


CLOUTMAN, HENRY

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Henry Cloutman was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. The privateers with which Cloutman was associated were:

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/3/80

MA

Brigantine Cutter (10/45)

George Ashby, Jr.

Edward Norris et al

George Ashby, Jr., Edward Norris, Henry Cloutman

[NRAR, 261]


CLOWNISH, JAMES

PA

[Second] Mate, Pennsylvania Navy


James Clownish was a [Second] Mate aboard the Pennsylvania Navy Floating Battery Arnold on 15 March 1776. [NOAR, 62]


CLUNN, CHARLES

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Clarles Clunn was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 350, 372] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Independence on 24 August 1778. [NRAR, 350. NOAR, 62-63, gives the date as 4 August 1776.] On 23 September 1778 [NOAR, 62-63] (or 24 December 1778) he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Susanna (or Susannah). [NRAR, 468] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Liberty on 28 August 1779, and, again, on 11 December 1779, to the same vessel. [NRAR, 372] On 29 April 1780, he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Governor Livingston. [NOAR, 62-63]


COAS, WILLIAM

MA

Captain, Continental Army Boston Squadron

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Coas (sometimes referred to as William Coas, Jr.), was born in 1725, [NOAR, 63] and was a resident of Gloucester, Massachusetts. John Winthrop, Jr., owner of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Warren, petitioned the Massachusetts Council for a commission for Coas on 2 August 1776. [NDAR, VI, 12-14 and 14 note] Warren probably sailed soon after her commission was granted. Three prizes were captured, the 300 to 400 ton ship Picary, [NDAR, VI, 626-627 and 627 note, 952, 1002-1003; VII, 4 and note, 593-594] the 70 to 120 ton brig Swallow, [NDAR, VI, 899 and note, 952 and note, 1002-1003, 1053-1055 and 1055 note; VII, 299-300, 809-810], and the ship Sarah and Elizabeth. [NDAR, VI, 1053-1055 and 1055 note, 1113-1114 and 1114 note,; VII, 593-594, 749-750, 750-751, 1274-1275; VIII, 164-166 and 166 note, 250] Warren was back in port by about 1 October 1776, when Coas left the privateer. [NOAR, 62, 75] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship General Stark (or General Starke) on 14 August 1778. [NOAR, 63] On 9 January 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Polly, [NRAR, 417] and, on 3 July 1781, he was re-commissioned to the General Stark. [NRAR, 314] Coas’ second time in the General Starke ended on 8 October 1781, in Boston Bay, when the ship was captured by HMS Chatham. Coas either died in captivity or in the capture; his date of death being 1781. [NOAR, 63]


COATES [COATS], DAVID

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


David Coates (or Coats) was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was commissioned, on 14 September 1779, to the New Hampshires Privateer Brig Mary. On 10 April 1780 Coates was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Brigantine Phoenix.  [NOAR, 63] Coates was again commissioned, on 12 December 1780, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Grand Monarque (or Grand Monarch). [NRAR, 320]


COATS, DAVID

[See COATES, DAVID]


COBB, ISAAC

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Isaac Cobb was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Bunker Hill on 4 May 1778. [NOAR, 63]


COBURN, THOMAS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Coburn was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Viper on 30 September 1782. [NRAR, 487] On 1 January 1783 Coburn was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Gamecock. [NOAR, 63]


COCHRAN, EDWARD

PA

[First] Mate, Pennsylvania Navy


On 15 March 1776 Edward Cochran was [First] Mate aboard the Pennsylvania Navy Floating Battery Arnold. [NOAR, 63]


COCHRAN, JOHN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Cochran was born about 1761 [NOAR, 63] and was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He served aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Jolly Tar as First Mate under Commander David Thomson. Jolly Tar was commissioned on 3 August 1781. [NRAR, 361] Cochran listed his age as 20 on this occasion. [NOAR, 63] He then served as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Admiral Zoutman (Commander William McFaden), commissioned 14 January 1782. [NRAR, 220]


COCHRAN, ROBERT

SC

Captain, South Carolina Navy


Robert Cochran was Public Ordnance Store Keeper in December 1775. He was commissioned as a Captain in the South Carolina Navy on 31 December 1775, and sent to the North to recruit sailors, with detailed instructions and letters for the South Carolina delegates in the Continental Congress. He sailed in the South Carolina Navy Schooner Hawke about 5 January 1776 for the Delaware Capes, with £350 expense money and a $10000 letter of credit. . He was in Philadelphia by 16 January 1776, and in Massachusetts by early February. He visited New Hampshire during this mission. Cochran dispatched at least three vessels with recruits, one from Philadelphia and two from Rhode Island (unknown brigantine; General Washington, Diana). He was back in Charleston by May 1776. On 16 August 1776 he was placed in command of the South Carolina Navy Brigantine Notre Dame. Cochran soon sailed for France, arriving at Nantes about 6 November 1776. Cochran sailed for home after 19 December. He captured the British Transport Mackeral on the return voyage, after a brief fight (she was recaptured by HM Frigate Camilla on 8 February 1777). Cochran made Charleston on 19 February 1777 and was ordered to prepare for sea on 23 February. Sometime between 10 March 1777 (when he was ordered to furnish a pay bill) and 6 May 1777 Cochran left the service. This was probably a reflection of the fact that Cochran had managed to lease his shipyard (complete with five black laborers) to the South Carolina Navy Board on 7 April 1777. The lease was for five years at £1400 per year.


COCKE, JAMES

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


James Cocke was commissioned in June 1776 to command the Virginia Navy Brig Raleigh. [NOAR, 64]


COCKE, JOHN CATESBY

VA

Captain, Virginia Marines


John Catesby Cocke was born about 1730. [NOAR, 64] Cocke was among the company that marched with Patrick Henry to Williamsburg in April 1775, and was at the Battle of Great Bridge. He was appointed as a Captain of Marines on 29 August 1776 [Stewart, 170-171. NOAR, says he was commissioned on 14 June 1776.] and was still in that rank on the disbandment of the Navy. He had an estate on the Chickahominy that was burned by the British in 1781. He commanded a flotilla on the York River, but was driven off by the British; he later served at Yorktown. He died in 1807 [NOAR, 64] in Culpeper County. [Stewart, 170-171]


CODMAN, JOHN

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Partnership with William Smith dissolved on 31 December 1782. [The Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser [Boston], January 2, 1783]


COFFIN, ABEL

RI

Third Mate, Continental Navy


Abel Coffin was Third Mate on the Continental Navy Sloop Providence on 26 August 1776. [NOAR, 64]


COFFIN, ABNER

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


He commanded the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Favourite about August 1776. Coffin captured the ship Peggy and the schooner Hannah in September-October 1776. [NDAR, VII, 113-114, 165-168, 642-647, 1079-1080]


COFFIN, ALEXANDER

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Alexander Coffin was a residence of Nantucket, [NRAR, 335; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 176] and Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Alexander on 29 March 1780. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 69] He was commissioned, on July 11, 1782 to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Hero. [NRAR, 335; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 176]


COFFIN, ENOCH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Enoch Coffin was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Betsey on 10 October 1777. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 80] Coffin was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hazard on 5 February 1781. [NRAR, 330; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 172]


COFFIN, HENRY

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Henry Coffin commanded the sloop Industry, which was captured about August 1777 by the British. Coffin was sent to Newport, and detained there as a prisoner. One Cochran offered to be exchanged for Coffin in January 1778. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 187] This may not be a privateer vessel.


COFFIN, JAMES

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


James Coffin was commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Schooner Non Pareil on 10 May 1782. [NRAR, 406]


COFFIN, SAMUEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Coffin was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts.  He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Fancy on 28 December 1780. [NRAR, 289; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 127] On 30 May 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hazard, [NRAR, 330; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 172] and, on 2 December 1782, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Ranger. [NRAR, 431; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 251]


COFFIN, TRISTRAM

MA

Captain, Massachusetts Navy


He commanded the ship PARIS, a Massachusetts owned vessel. On December 26, 1776 he was ordered by the Massachusetts Board of War to proceed to the West Indies to obtain Military Stores. At [NOAR, 64]  Guadeloupe his ship was loaded with arms and ammunition, but on his return trip to Massachusetts he was captured by HMS DIAMOND and the GREYHOUND. [NOAR, 65]


COFFIN, WILLIAM

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Coffin was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship America on 12 October 1780. [NRAR, 224] In February 1781 the America was captured by the British. [NOAR, 65]


COGGESHALL, JOHN

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


John Coggeshall was a resident of Newport, Rhode Island. On 6 January 1781 he was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Schooner Marianna. [NRAR, 383]


COGGESHALL, WILLIAM

CT

First Mate, Connecticut Navy


William Coggeshall. Connecticut Navy, Mate on the armed sioop GUILFORD commanded by William Nott and later by David Hawley, 1779. [NOAR, 65]


COGSWELL, MOSES

NH


b.1757. d.1811 Navy Lieutenant, according to DAR. [NOAR, 65]


COlT, BENJAMIN, JR.

CT


b.1759. d.1841 Navy Captain, according to DAR. [NOAR, 65]


COIT, SOLOMON

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Solomon Coit was a resident of Saco, Massachusetts [Maine]. [NRAR, 450] He was in command of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner William on 3 May 1781 when the schooner Halifax Bob was captured. Coit brought her into Pepperelborough, Massachusetts [Maine]. [NOAR, 65] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Saco Bob on 22 May 1781, [NRAR, 450] which was probably the re-named prize.


COIT, THOMAS

CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers


Thomas Coit was a resident of Norwich, Connecticut. As Howland & Coit he was involved with JOSEPH HOWLAND in a number of privateers.

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/3/82

CT

Brigantine Thetis (6/20)

William Wattles

Howland & Coit

William Wattles, Joseph Howland, Thomas Coit

[NRAR, 391]

9/16/82

CT

Brigantine Thomas (6/20)

Elisha Lathrop, Jr.

Howland, Coit & Co.

Elisha Lathrop, Jr., Hezekiah Perkins, John Alden

[NRAR, 474]


COIT, WILLIAM

CT

Captain, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Coit was a native of Norwich, Connecticut. [NOAR, 65] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop America on 22 September 1777. [NDAR, IX, 944 and note; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 70-71] In 1778 Coit was cruising in the West Indies, where he captured a British brig and a ship, both being sent into Martinique. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 49] He was wounded and taken prisoner on 6 September 1781. He died in North Carolina in 1802. [NOAR, 65]


COKELY [COAKLEY, COKELEY], JAMES

PA/(P)

First Lieutenant, Continental Marines


James Cokely was presumably a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1776. On 1 July 1776 he enlisted in Captain of Marines ROBERT MULLAN's company as a Sergeant. Mullan's company was intended for service aboard the Continental Navy Ship Delaware (Captain CHARLES ALEXANDER). Early in December 1776 Mullan's Marines boarded row galleys of the Pennsylvania Navy and were ferried up the Delaware River to Trenton to reinforce Washington's army. In the middle of December, Robert Morris, acting for the Marine Committee, wrote to Washington, asking that the captain and sailors of the Delaware be returned to Philadelphia. Major of Marines Samuel Nicholas assembled a twenty-man Marine detachment from the three Marine companies with Colonel Cadwalader. This detachment was placed under Lieutenants David Love and Daniel Henderson. Cokely was temporarily promoted to Lieutenant to replace Love, and apparently accompanied Washington's army in the battles of Trenton and Princeton, and into winter quarters at Morristown. In February 1777 Mullan's company was relieved pf artillery duty at Morristown and returned to the Philadelphia barracks, to await completion of the Delaware. Cokely was reassigned to the Continental Navy Ship Effingham (Captain JOHN BARRY). Effingham was far from completion. Cokely reported aboard in September 1777 with his detachment. Effingham was moved to a new berth at Burlington, New Jersey, just before the fall of Philadelphia to the British. On 2 November 1777 she was scuttled off Whitehill. Cokely and his Marines remained in the area of Bordentown, New Jersey, where the Navy Board of the Middle District had its headquarters. He sat on a court-martial held on several prisoners of the ship Repulse, 25 November 1777. The court sat on the Pennsylvania Navy [unknown] Lion.  On or about 8 March 1778 Cokely was placed under Barry. Barry commanded a boat detachment of twenty-eight men which was going down the Delaware to raid the British shipping. Barry took command of one barge, First Lieutenant LUKE MATTHEWMAN the other. Cokely served as mate in Barry's barge. They made a spectacular capture of a British schooner off Port Penn, south of Philadelphia. The schooner was carried by boarding, with 116 prisoners being reported. Cokely supposedly resigned his commission. Nothing further is known of him. [Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 436]


COLE, BENJAMIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Benjamin Cole was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. Om 30 June 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Surprize. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 293] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Thrasher on 4 June 1781. [NRAR, 475; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 301] A ship Oliver Cromwell was reported to be in service under Commander Nathaniel West of Salem, at some point in the latter part of the war, about 1781. This same ship was under the command of Benjamin Cole at one time. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 232] Cole was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine (but the same vessel as the schooner) Surprize on 18 April 1782. [NRAR, 468; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 293]


COLE, CHARLES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Charles Cole was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. In the Boston Gazette of 27 May 1782 there is mentioned the [Massachusetts Privateer] Schooner Poppet, commanded by Charles Cole. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 242] Rhis may be a different person, or a prior command. Cole was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Industry on 25 May 1782. [NRAR, 352; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 188]


COLE, JACOB

MA

Captain, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Jacob Cole was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned, on 8 March 1777, to the Massachusetts Navy Trading Vessel Ship General Lincoln. [NOAR, 66] Cole was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Thetis on 3 November 1779. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 297] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Minerva on 20 January 1783. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 222]


COLE, MATTHEW

CT



b.1735. d.1807. Privateer Captain, according to DAR. [NOAR, 66]


COLE, NATHAN

SC

Second Lieutenant, South Carolina Navy


South Carolina Navy, commissioned March 25, 1777 as 2d Lieutenant on the brigantine DEFENCE commanded by Thomas Pickering. On April 2, 1777 the DEFENCE was taken by the British. [NOAR, 66]


COLE, THOMAS

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Thomas Cole was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Felicity on 20 January 1781. [NRAR, 292] Felicity sailed for Guadeloupe, French West Indies with Maryland Privateer Schooner Antelope (Commander Frederick Folger) En route they captured the British ship Resolution. After calling at Guadeloupe, the two sailed for home. Off the Patuxent River (Maryland) they fell in with the powerful British  Privateer [unknown] Jack-o'-Lantern, armed with six guns and manned by 136 men. The Americans captured the British vessel. [NOAR, 111-112] Cole was commissioned, on 29 March, 1782, to the Maryland Privateer Ship Iris. [NOAR, 66]


COLE, WILLIAM

[see COLES, WILLIAM]


COLEMAN, SILVANUS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Silvanus Coleman was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Dispatch on 20 August 1779. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 115]


COLEMAN, THOMAS

VA

Pilot, Virginia Navy


Thomas Coleman was a Pilot in the Virginia Navy, assigned to the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty (Captain THOMAS LILLY). He was aboard from 18 May 1776 to 30 July 1776, and was listed as being aboard on 30 July 1777. [Stewart, 171] Coleman was one of the officers who complained about Lilly on 11 October 1776 to the Virginia Navy Board. [Stewart, 44-45]


COLES [COLE], WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Coles [Cole] was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. [NDAR, VIII, 465 and note; X, 354-355 and 355 note] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner True Blue on 30 August 1776. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 307] Coles was then commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Oliver Cromwell on 29 April 1777. Oliver Cromwell sailed about 20 July 1777 from Boston, Massachusetts on a cruise to Bilbao, Spain. The cruise was a spectacular success: ten prizes were captured, including one French vessel (a neutral) which should have been left alone. An action was fought on 6 August 1777 against two British brigs, the Rawlinson and the Sally, which was inconclusive. After refitting at Bilbao, Oliver Cromwell sailed for home about 1 October 1777. Four prizes had been taken by [25 October] and a short action had been fought with the sloop Fly, resulting in her capture. [See Oliver Cromwell] On 10 July 1781 Coles was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Junius Brutus (called Brutus in her bond). [NRAR, 242; Allen, MPR, 88] Some violation of the privateering regulations took place, for her $20000 bond is missing, with only a receipt existing for it. It was used to prosecute the owners. [NRAR, 242] On 11 March 1783, Coles was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Conclusion. [NRAR, 257]


COLFAX, ROBERT

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Robeert Colfax was, possibly, a resident of New London, Connecticut. He sailed out of New London, Connecticut on 20 February 1783 in command of the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Thetis. On 27 February Thetis captured the schooner Honest Endeavour. On 6 March 1783 the schooner Trimmer was re-captured off Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Both prizes made port safely. [Middlebrook, II, 232]


COLGAN, DANIEL

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Daniel Colgan was born about 1745. [NOAR, 67] He was, possibly, a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Colgan was aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Financier (Commander JOHN HARR), commissioned 11 August 1781, as First Mate. [NRAR, 293]


COLIER, ISAAC

[see COLLYER, ISAAC]


COLLAS [COLLIS], PETER

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Peter Collas [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 226] [Collis] [NOAR, 67] was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Nancy on 13 October 1779. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 226] In No­vember 1780 the Nancy was captured by the British. [NOAR, 67]


COLLIER, ISAAC

[see COLLYER, ISAAC]


COLLIER, THOMAS

[see COLLYER, THOMAS]


COLLINGS [COLLINS], CHARLES

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Charles Collings [Collins] was a resident of Cape Ann, Massachusetts. He was First Lieutenant (or Second Captain) on the Massachusetts Privateer Black Princess. He was captured and about October 20, 1781 was com­mitted to the Mill Prison near Plymouth, England. [NOAR, 67] [could be Franklin’s Black Princess?]


COLLINGS [COLLINS], ISAAC

MA

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Isaac Collings [Collins] was a resident of Cape Ann, Massachusetts. He was Second Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Black Princess. He was captured by the British and on October 20, 1781 was committed to the Mill Prison near Plymouth, England. [NOAR, 67] [could be Franklin’s Black Princess?]


COLLINGS, JAMES

PA

First, Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Collings was born about 1753. [NOAR, 67] He was aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Franklin (Commander JOHN ANGUS), commissioned 18 December 1780, as First Mate. [NRAR, 303]


COLLINGS, MARK

[see COLLINS, MARK]


COLLINGS [COLLINS], ROBERT

PA-MD


Robert Collings [Collins] was born about 1747. [NOAR, 67]He was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 337] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Friendship on 13 November 1776. [NDAR, VII, 130] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Hibernia on 10 February 1779. [NRAR, 337] Hibernia, under Collings, met a British warship with fourteen guns and eighty men. An engagement followed, with several killed on either side, before the vessels mutually separated. [Maclay, History of American Privateers, 134] Collings was next commissioned, on 31 August 1779, to the Pennsylvania Privateer Xebec or Brig General Wayne. [NRAR, 315] On 3 June 1780 he was again commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Hibernia. [NOAR, 67] Collings was listed as the part owner of Pennsylvania Privateer Boat Governor Clinton (Commander WILLIAM MORNYER), commissioned 24 July 1781. [NRAR, 319] On 8 September 1781 Collings was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine St. Patrick, [NRAR, 465] listing his age as 35. Finally, on 12 April 1782, he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Letitia. [NOAR, 67]


COLLINS, CHARLES

[see COLLINGS, CHARLES]


COLLINS, CHARLES

RI


b.1743. d.1818 Navy Captain, according to DAR. [NOAR, 67]


COLLINS, DANIEL

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Daniel Collins, presumptively of Rhode Island, was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer [unknown] Baton on 5 August 1782. [see Baton]


COLLINS, ISAAC

[see COLLINGS, ISAAC]


COLLINS, ISAAC

[see COLLYER, ISAAC]


COLLINS, JAMES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


James Collins was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Cumberland on 12 September 1777. Collins was still in command of the Cumberland in September 1778. [Allen, MPR, 106]


COLLINS, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Collins was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Resolution on 31 October 1777. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 255] On 22 March 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hasket and John. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 167] Collins, on 7 August 1780, served as a bonder for Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Humbird (Commander SAMUEL INGERSOLL), [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 183] and, on the same date, for the new commander of the Hasket and John, BENJAMIN CROWINSHIELD. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 167] Collins, on 6 March 1781, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Exchange. [NRAR, 283; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 123] Collins served again as a bonder for Massachusetts Privateer Ship American Hero (Commander WILLIAM FAIRFIELD), on 27 April 1782. [NRAR, 225]


COLLINS, JOHN

RI

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers


John Collins is listed as the owner of the privateer Batchelor.

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/27/76

RI

Sloop Batchelor

William Ladd

John Collins

 

[Sheffield, 59]


COLLINS, MARK

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Mark Collins was born about 1754 [NOAR, 68]and was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 351] He was described as 5'8" tall, with dark brown hair and a fresh complexion. [NOAR, 68] Collins was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Industry on 16 August 1779. [NRAR, 351] On 21 May 1780 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Pallas. [NOAR, 67] On 10 August 1782 a Mark Collins was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Industry (Commander SAMUEL YOUNG). [NRAR, 352]


COLLINS [COLLINGS], MARK

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Mark Collins [Collings] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 389] He was born about 1745 or 1746. [NOAR, 68] On 5 December 1780 he was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Governor De Graff (Commander HUGH LISLE). [NRAR, 319] Collins listed his age as 35, and was listed as 5'7" tall, with sandy hair. [NOAR, 68] On 2 July 1781, Collins was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Navarro (Commander WILLIAM KEELER). [NRAR, 401] He listed his age as 35. [NOAR, 68] On 27 January 1782 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Mayflower. [NRAR, 389] Collins was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Fox on 28 March 1782. [NRAR, 302] He listed his age as 37. [NOAR, 68]


COLLINS, ROBERT

[see COLLINGS, ROBERT]


COLLIS, PETER

[See COLLAS, PETER]


COLLYER [COLLINS, COLLIER, COLIER], ISAAC

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Isaac Collyer [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 239] [Collins, [NDAR, VII, 906-907] Collier, [NDAR, VII, 560-561] Colier [NDAR, VII, 1023-1024]] was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was in command of the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Polly by at least 2 December 1776, when he was mentioned in the Boston Gazette. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 239] Collyer captured at least one prize, the British Transport Ship Garland, perhaps in December 1776. [see Polly] Collyer and Polly were mentioned again in the Boston Gazette of 13 January 1777. [ Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 239]


COLLYER [COLLIER], THOMAS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Thomas Collyer [Collier] was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts.  He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Monmouth on 9 February 1779. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 224] He was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Ship Aurora on 16 December 1779. In the Aurora Collyer captured the ship Elizabeth about May 1780. On 26 June 1780 Collyer, evidently fitting out in Massachusetts, requested leave to proceed on his cruise, despite the current embargo on privateer sailings. This petition was granted on 10 August 1780. [for references see Aurora]


COLMAN, BENJAMIN

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Colman was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was associated with ELIAS HASKET DERBY and WILLIAM COLMAN in privateering. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/25/81

MA

Brig Nancy (4/14)

Litchfield Luce

William Colman, Benjamin Colman

Litchfield Luce, Benjamin Colman, William Colman

Samuel Welles, Stephen Wales [NRAR, 400]

As witness:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/29/81

MA

Brig Revolt (8/20)

Henry Phelps

Elias Hasket Derby et al

Henry Phelps, Elias Hasket Derby, William Colman

Benjamin Colman [NRAR, 442]

9/23/82

MA

Ship Good Luck (8/20)

Jonathan Neall

Elias Hasket Derby

Jonathan Neall, Elias Hasket Derby, William Colman

Benjamin Colman [NRAR, 318]


COLMAN, WILLIAM

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


William Colman was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, He was usually associated in his privateering ventures with ELIAS HASKET DERBY and BENJAMIN COLMAN. Vessels associated with Colman were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/25/81

MA

Brig Nancy (4/14)

Litchfield Luce

William Colman, Benjamin Colman

Litchfield Luce, Benjamin Colman, William Colman

Samuel Welles, Stephen Wales [NRAR, 400]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/18/80

MA

Sloop MorningStar (8/12)

Francis Roch

Elias Hasket Derby

Francis Roch, Elias Hasket Derby, William Colman

Joseph Chandler [NRAR, 397]

10/29/81

MA

Brig Revolt (8/20)

Henry Phelps

Elias Hasket Derby et al

Henry Phelps, Elias Hasket Derby, William Colman

Benjamin Colman [NRAR, 442]

9/23/82

MA

Ship Good Luck (8/20)

Jonathan Neall

Elias Hasket Derby

Jonathan Neall, Elias Hasket Derby, William Colman

Benjamin Colman [NRAR, 318]

12/19/82

MA

Ship Astrea (20/50)

John Derby

Elias Hasket Derby

John Derby, Elias Hasket Derby, William Colman

David Sears [NRAR, 230]

As witness:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/13/81

MA

Ship Grand Turk (28/140)

Thomas Simmons

Elias Hasket Derby et al

Thomas Simmons, Elias Hasket Derby, Robert Stone

Thomas Saunders, William Colman [NRAR, 320]

5/9/82

MA

Brig Lexington (14/50)

Benjamin Crowinshield

Elias Hasket Derby et al

Benjamin Crowinshield, Elias Hasket Derby, Thomas Saunders

Elias Hasket Derby, William Colman [NRAR, 372]


COLONY [CONNOLLY, CONOLLY], THOMAS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Colony [Connolly, Conolly] was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Trenton on 9 May 1777. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 305] Trenton was apparently at sea in August 1777.[NDAR, X, 15-16] Two prizes were libeled on 18 September 1777: the brigantines Mary and Elizabeth. [NDAR, X, 15-16] On 20 April 1778 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Franklin, listing his residence as Beverly, Massachusetts. [Howe, Beverly Privateers in the Revolution, 410, 433; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 136]


COLVEN, JAMES

[see COLVIN, JAMES]


COLVIN [COLVEN], JAMES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


James Colvin [Colven] was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Freedom on 5 May 1776. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 138; NDAR, VIII, 914-915]


COLYER, JOHN

MA

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


John Colyer was appointed as Second Lieutenant, on 29 April 1777, aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Oliver Cromwell (Commander WILLIAM COLES). He was aboard during her cruise to Bilboa, Spain, from about 20 July 1777 to about 20 August 1777. During this cruise ten prizes were captured and there was a fight with two British brigs, the Sally and Rawlinson, on 6 August. He was aboard Oliver Cromwell when she sailed from Bilboa about 1 October 1777. At least four prizes were captured and there was a short fight with the British sloop Fly by about 25 October. [NDAR, see Oliver Cromwell]


COMERAIS [CORMERAIS], ARNOLD [ARNOTT]

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Arnold [Arnott] Cormerais was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Sarah on 10 November 1780. Although he listed his address as Philadelphia, part of the ownership resided in Boston. [NRAR, 454] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer  Brigamtine Marquis De Lafayette on 3 January 1783. [NRAR, 385; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 217]


COMSTOCK, ETHAN

MA

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Navy


Commissioned September 1779, Second Lieutenant on the DILIGENT schooner of war commanded by John Lambert. [NOAR, 68]


COMSTOCK, WILLIAM

RI

Midshipman, Continental Navy


Continental Navy, June 26, 1776 Midshipman on the sloop WARREN. On August 26, 1776 the WARREN was taken by the LIVER­POOL. [NOAR, 68] [Washington’s Fleet]


CONANT, DANIEL

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


Daniel Conant was a resident of Richmond, Virginia. of Richmond. He was commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Schooner Hazzard on 25 April 1782. [NRAR, 331]


CONANT, SAMUEL, JR.

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Conant, Jr. was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was associated with the following privateers: As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/29/79

MA

Ship Thames (10/30)

Madett Engs

Madett Engs et al

Madett Engs, Thomas Russell, Samuel Conant, Jr.

Chambers Russell, John Cogswell [Allen, MPR, 297]


CONAWAY, JOHN

[see CONWAY, JOHN]


CONKLIN, TITUS

NY

Commander, New York Privateers


Titus Conklin was commissioned to the New York Privateer [unknown] Refugee in 1776. [NOAR, 69] There were two Connecticut Privateer Boats later mentioned with the same name; all three may be the same vessel. This Titus Conklin may be the same man as Dr. TITUS CONKLING.


CONKLING, BENJAMIN

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Benjamin Conkling was a resident of Lyme. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Boat John on 8 May 1779. [NRAR, 359]


CONKLING, EDWARD

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Edward Conkling was a resident of Groton, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Eagle on 20 November 1778. [Middlebrook, II, 73] On 29 January 1779 he participated in a raid on Sag Harbor, Long Island, with the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Beaver (Commander WILLIAM HAVENS) and other American forces. Brigantine Peter and brig Thomas and William were captured, as was brig Ranger. [Middlebrook, II, 54-55, 73] Another brig Ranger (possibly the same) was captured on 4 March 1779. An unnamed brig was captured in April 1779. In early May 1779 the schooner Hero, sloop Phebe, sloop John and the Three Friends were captured. [Middlebrook, II, 73]

On 8 May 1779, [[Middlebrook, II, 73] off Stonington, Connecticut, [NOAR, 69] the prisoners aboard the Eagle rose and captured the sloop. [Maclay, History of American Privateers, 115] All the crew were murdered except for two boys. [Maclay, History of American Privateers, 115; Middlebrook, II, 73. All the crew were killed, says Middlebrook.] The British headed out to sea to make for New York. [Allen, Naval History of the Revolution, ii, 415, from the Boston Gazette of 17 May and 31 May 1779, and the Boston Post of 22 May 1779] They were recaptured, off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, on 6 June 1779, [Middlebrook, II, 107] by the Hancock. [NOAR, 69] According to other accounts the Eagle was taken into Newport by the prisoners. [Allen, Naval History of the Revolution, ii, 415, from the Boston Gazette of 17 May and 31 May 1779, and the Boston Post of 22 May 1779] In fact, the captors probably made Newport before sailing for New York later. Richards reported her, however, as a twelve gun sloop, bound from New Providence to New York. [Middlebrook, II, 107] Still other accounts say the Eagle was taken into New York. Here she was blown up near City Island, killing the prize crew who captured her. [Middlebrook, II, 73]


CONKLING, JOSEPH

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Joseph Conkling was born about 1739 [Middlebrook, II, 108] and was a resident of Groton, Connecticut. [NOAR, 69] He was described as 5'10" tall, with gray eyes and a brown complexion in 1783. [Middlebrook, II, 108] He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Revenge on 23 October 1776. In March 1777 he captured an un-named schooner and, about April 1777, the schooner Adventure. In August and September 1777 he captured the ship Amherst, brigantine William, and the schooner Halifax. Revenge was the main participant in the affair that led to the destruction of HM Schooner Tender Admiral Parker on 23 September. [see Revenge] On 1 May 1778 he assisted in the capture of the Lovely Lass. On 16 June 1780 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Whim, and, on 6 September 1781, to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Venus. Venus was burned during the New London coastal raid conducted by Benedict Arnold. [NOAR, 69] Conkling was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Hancock on 30 December 1782. On 2 April 1783 he captured the brigantine Lyon. [Middlebrook, II, 108]


CONKLING, TITUS

Surgeon, New York Navy


Dr. Titus Conkling was Surgeon aboard the New York Navy Sloop Montgomery (Captain WILLIAM ROGERS) from May 1776 to June 1777, participating in all her cruises between those dates, including the action of 11 August 1776. He was aboard the sloop during her brief career in Continental service, from 9 February-2 Narch 1777, at a salary of $15 per month. [NDAR, VIII, 207-208] He was presumably paid off with the vessel, between 5 June and 1 July 1777. [NDAR, IX, 23-24] [see also CONKLIN, TITUS]


CONN, ROBERT

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Robert Conn was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Two Friends on 12 October 1781. [NRAR, 480]


CONNAWAY, JOHN

[see CONWAY, JOHN]


CONNELL, WILLIAM

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Connell was born about 1743, [NOAR, 69] and was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner General Thompson on 5 October 1776. [NOAR, 69] A William Connell, possibly the same, served as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Boat Hooker (Commander HENRY MARTIN), commissioned 4 June 1781. [NRAR, 340] Connell listed his age as 38. [NOAR, 69] A William Connell is listed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Vengeance (Commander STEPHEN BEZENET), commissioned on 23 July 1781, six weeks later. [NRAR, 484] On 3 November 1781, William Connell was listed, at age 38, [NOAR, 69] as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Betsey (Commander GEORGE DAMES). [NRAR, 237]


CONNER, BENJAMIN

NH

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Conner was born in 1748. He was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Brigantine Hibernia on 8 August 1780. Later he listed his residence as New Haven, Connecticut. [NOAR, 69]On 4 May 1782, listing his residence as Newburyport, Massachusetts, he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Galley Heyder Ally. [NRAR, 336; Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 185] Conner died in 1833. [NOAR, 69]


CONNER, JAMES

[see CONNOR, JAMES]


CONNER, PATRICK

MA

Acting Master, Continental Navy


Patrick Conner was aboard Continental Navy Ship Boston (Captain HECTOR McNEILL) as Acting Master in 1777. [NOAR, 69-70]


CONNER, WALTER

[see CONNOR, WALTER]


CONNOLLY [CONNELLY], JAMES

CT /(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


First Lieutenant of Marines James Connolly [Connelly] served aboard the Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain HENRY JOHNSON). He was supposed to be from Connecticut, but was born in Ireland. [NOAR, 70] He entered the Lexington at Baltimore, Maryland on 19 February 1777, receiving an advance wage of £40.0.0. [NDAR, IX, 502-507] Connolly served aboard the Lexington during her voyage to France (Baltimore to Nantes, 26 February 1777 to 3 April 1777). Two prizes were captured en route. He was aboard during the stunning cruise of Captain LAMBERT WICKES' squadron in the Irish Sea, 28 May 1777 to 27 June 1777, during which eighteen British vessels were captured and destroyed. Lexington sailed for home from Morlaix, France in September 1777. It is worth mentioning that Connolly's company of Marines never exceeded one or two men. [NDAR, IX, 502-507]  On 19 September 1777 Lexington was captured after a long and hard fought battle by HM Cutter Alert (Lieutenant John Bazely). During the battle Connolly was killed. [NDAR, IX, 657]


CONNOLLY, THOMAS

[see COLONY, THOMAS]


CONNOR [CONNER], JAMES

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Connor [Conner] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 423] Connor was born about 1752. [NOAR, 70] He was at sea in the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Providence in 1778 and 1779. Providence captured the ship Nancy, the brigs Chase and Bella, and the schooner Friendship. In the case of the Nancy, Conner put a prize crew aboard with orders to head for an American port. With Providence out of sight the British crew rose and recaptured the ship. But this was but a temporary conquest: the Nancy fell in with Providence again and was again captured. [Maclay, History of American Privateers, 119] Providence was commissioned on 23 July 1782, again under Connor. [NRAR, 423] He listed his age as 30. [NOAR, 70]


CONNOR, WALTER

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Walter Connor [Conner] was born about 1757. [NOAR, 70] Connor was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine St. John Nepomuceno on 3 June 1782. [NRAR, 464] He listed his age as 25. [NOAR, 70]


CONOLLY, THOMAS

[see COLONY, THOMAS]


CONSTANTINE, JOHN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Constantine born about 1753, [NOAR, 70] and was, possibly, a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He served as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Dolphin (Commander JOHN BRICE), commissioned 3 November 1781. [NRAR, 273] He listed his age as 28. [NOAR, 70]


CONVERS, JOSHUA

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Joshua Convers was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/11/82

MA

Schooner Tartar (10/18)

Thomas Dexter

Joshua Convers et al

Thomas Dexter, Joshua Convers, Jonathan Winship

Laban Bates, John Howard [NRAR, 391]


CONWAY, ARTHUR

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Navy


Arthur Conway was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Navy Ship Montgomery on 1 October 1776. About July 1777 the Montgomery was captured by the British. [NOAR, 70]


CONWAY [CONAWAY, CONNAWAY, CORNAWAY], JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Conway [Connaway, Conaway, Cornaway] was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Terrible on 28 November 1777. [NDAR, X, 354-355 and 355 notes; Allen, MPR, 296] Terrible was at sea well before her date of commission, sailing with Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Cutter (Commander Silas Smith). On 6 November 1777 the Boston paper reported on the two small craft. Terrible was “a boat” of only 18 tons. The privateer had eighteen men, and concerted with another small boat (the Cutter), in her cruise. [NDAR, X, 415 and notes] In conjunction with Cutter four prizes were captured. The first was an unknown sloop laden with rum and sugar. The next prize was the 50-ton schooner John (John Willis), laden with hay. She was libeled on 30 October 1777 (well before Terrible’s commission date), with her trial set for 25 November 1777. [NDAR, X, 354-355 and 355 notes, 415 and notes] The sloop Hope, with a cargo of flour, was captured and sent in to Plymouth, Massachusetts. brig James (Joseph Pierpoint) arrived at Boston on 4 November. She had been captured by Cutter and Terrible. [NDAR, X, 354-355 and 355 notes, 414-415, 415 and notes] Conway was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Free Mason on 27 July 1778. [Allen, MPR, 138-139] On 14 October 1778 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Vagrant. [Allen, MPR, 313] Conway was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer  Brigantine Terrible on 12 May 1779.  Terrible was supposed to sail on the Penobscot Expedition to escort troop transports, but probably did not go. [Allen, MPR, 296-297] Conway was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Lee on 25 March 1782. [Allen, MPR, 204]


CONWAY, RICHARD

MD

Captain, Maryland Navy


[see Molly]


CONWAY, ROBERT

MD

Captain, Maryland Navy


[see Molly]


CONWAY, THOMAS

Captain, Maryland Navy

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Thomas Conway was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. [NRAR, 223] His first command was the Maryland Navy  Sloop Molly, commissioned on 12 September 1776, with a privateer commission. [see Molly] He was appointed to command the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Alexander, commissioned on 18 November 1779. [NRAR, 223] His final command, on 28 December 1782, was the Maryland Privateer Schooner Sally. [NOAR, 71]


CONYNGHAM, GUSTAVUS

(P)

Captain, Continental Navy


Gustavus Conyngham was born in County Donegal, Ireland in 1747. In his early youth Conyngham’s father emigrated to America, taking young Gustavus with him. [NDAR, “Deposition of John Hutchason, Prize Master of the Brig Venus,” X, 197-199 and 200 notes] He was soon apprenticed to Captain Henderson, a ship master in the Antigua trade. Conyngham continued with Henderson as sailor, and then as mate. When Henderson died, Conyngham was appointed as master of the vessel. In 1773 Conyngham married Anne Hockley, daughter of a Philadelphia merchant. In 1775 he sailed from Philadelphia as master of the Charming Peggy, bound for the Netherlands to obtain saltpeter, clothing, and war munitions. Just after entering the channel Charming Peggy was captured by a British cruiser, but Conyngham and his crew soon rose and recaptured the vessel, taking her into the Texel. Considerable difficulties prevented the Charming Peggy’s return voyage [Neeser, Gustavus Conyngham, xxix] so Conyngham was soon looking for employment. Through a friend named Ross, Conyngham was introduced to William Hodge, a merchant and agent for the American Commissioners in France. Hodge apparently recommended Conyngham to the American Commissioners as a suitable commander for vessels he was in the process of acquiring for the American Commissioners. Franklin filled out a blank commission for Conyngham, as a “Commander” in the Continental Navy, dating it 1 March 1777 (at “Baltimore”). On 17 April 1777 Hodge purchased a lugger of English build, which was re-named the Surprize, and Conyngham took command. [Neeser, Gustavus Conyngham, xxx]

Sailing around the British Isles and operating off Spain and in the West Indies, he took 29 prizes in the ensuing two years, but he was finally captured, carried to England, and threatened with death as a pirate. Amid threatened reprisals on the part of the Continental Congress, Conyngham escaped to The Netherlands, where, in 1780, he joined John Paul Jones in a cruise in the frigate Alliance.

On 4 January 1779 the Marine Committee reported on the memorial of Josiah Smith and others. The Committee recommended that Gustavus Conyngham present himself before Congress and give an account of himself. The memorial was delivered to the Marine Committee on 10 February 1779, but was rendered "Obsolete." by the Committee report. [NRAR, 93] On 10 March 1779 the Marine Committee wrote to Jackson, Tracy & Tracy of Newburyport, requesting an accounting of all prizes received by them from Conyngham when he commanded the Revenge. The same day the Marine Committee wrote to Joseph Reed, President of Pennsylvania, regarding sale of the cutter Revenge. [NRAR, 99] On 2 June 1779 the Marine Committee wrote to Colonel John Beatty (in Middlebrook, NJ) enclosing certificates from Silas Deane and others, showing that Conyngham was regularly commissioned to the Surprise, and asking Beatty to inquire into his treatment by the British commissary of prisoners. [NRAR, 107] On 5 July 1779 the Marine Committee again wrote to Beatty (at New Windsor NY) as to Conyngham's condition. [NRAR, 110] On 14 July 1779 a petition on behalf of Conyngham was presented to Congress by residents of Philadelphia. The petitioners wished Congress to protest against the severity of his treatment, as many signers were masters of vessels and feared like treatment in case of capture. Seventy-nine signers. [NRAR, 110-111] On 31 August 1779 the Marine Committee informed Col. Beatty (at West Point NY) that the rigorous treatment of Captain Porterfield at Boston be discontinued. Lt. Christopher Hele was selected to be treated the same as the enemy's treatment of Conyngham. [NRAR, 114] On 11 October 1783 Conyngham (at Princeton NJ) memorialized Congress for the same rank in the Navy as that given him by Franklin's commission on 1 March 1777. He sent along a copy of a certificate of 7 August 1782 from Franklin. [NRAR, 197] On 5 January 1784 Congress heard a committee report on Conyngham's memorial. The committee found that the Paris commissions were temporary only and did not confer rank in the Navy. Congress accepted the report. [NRAR, 200]

From the end of the war in 1783 until his death in Philadelphia in 1819, he waged a hopeless fight to gain recognition by Congress of his rank in the Navy. Almost a century after his death the commission that the French had confiscated and that could have substantiated his claim was found in the collection of a Parisian autograph dealer. Conyngham died on 27 November 1819 in Philadelphia.

Conyngham: Conyngham lives in Philadelphia, married, wife and family in Philadelphia. Born in 1747 in County Donegal. Emigrated with his father while still young. [NDAR, “Deposition of John Hutchason, Prize Master of the Brig Venus,” X, 197-199 and 200 notes]


COOK [COOKE], DAWSON

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Dawson Cook (or Cooke) was a Midshipman aboard Virginia Navy Brig Liberty (Captain THOMAS LILLY) from 18 May 1776 to 30 July 1776. He was still aboard, listed as an Acting Midshipman, on 30 July 1777. He later served aboard the Virginia Navy Ship Gloucester. He died on 14 November 1828. [Stewart, 172]


COOK, JOHN

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


John Cook was a resident of New London, Connecticut when he was appointed as First Lieutenant aboard the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Young Cromwell (Commander WILLIAM REED) on 5 June 1781. Cook evidently participated in all her cruises under Reed, and served as prize master of the British Transport Ship Achilles, captured 3 September 1781. When Reed left the schooner, Cook was commissioned as her commander, 6 November 1781. [NRAR, 495; Middlebrook, MCR, 246, 248-250] The British captured the Young Cromwell on 14 December 1781 and the prize and crew were taken into New York. The crew were sent to the prison ships. Seventeen died of a violent fever. Cook escaped by swimming ashore at night. He returned to New London on 11 May 1782. Cook sailed for Demerara as master of the merchant vessel Turn of Times, but was captured again and sent to Bermuda. [[Middlebrook, MCR, II, 248]


COOKE, WILLIAM

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Cooke of Dartmouth, Massachusetts, was commissioned to an unnamed Massachusetts Privateer Boat on 20 April 1781. [NRAR, 227]


COOLIDGE, JONATHAN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Jonathan Coolidge was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Virgin on 20 December 1780. [NRAR, 487]


COOPER, NATHAN

First Lieutenant, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Nathan Cooper was First Lieutenant aboard the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Gondola New York on 15 February 1777, when he drew items of clothing. By 4 March he had transferred to the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Galley Gates. He was aboard the Gates until at least 12 May 1777, and perhaps longer, [NDAR, 8, 954] but was gone from her by late June 1777. [NDAR, 9, 174]


COOPER, WILLIAM

MA (P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


The birth and parentage of William Cooper are unclear. He may have been the son of William Cooper, Town Clerk of Boston from 1761 to 1809, and of Katharine (Wendell) Cooper. They had a son who was born in February 1750 and who drowned in Passamaquoddy Bay, 7 February 1788. There may be some substance in the assumption that William Cooper of Boston was an acquaintance of Captain of Marines MATTHEW PARKE. If so, he may have been a brother [Smith, Marines, 436] of Judith Cooper, who married Parke on 15 August 1781. Cooper entered (as Second Lieutenant of Marines) Continental Navy Ship Boston on 28 March 1779. On 6 June she sailed with Continental Navy Ship Confederacy. Several prizes were taken soon after, including ship Pole, schooner Betsey, and sloop William. Cooper was sent aboard the Pole as a member of her prize crew and Confederacy escorted the prizes to port. No further service is known from Cooper. On 23 March 1780 one William Cooper married Rebecca Jenkins. [Smith, Marines, 437]


COPLEY,

MA

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


One Copley was appointed as Second Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop America (Commander WILLIAM COIT), commissioned on 22 September 1777. [NDAR, IX, 944 and note]


CORMERAIS, ARNOLD

[See COMERAIS, ARNOLD [ARNOTT]


CORNAWAY, JOHN

[see CONWAY, JOHN]


CORRIER, GEORGE

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


George Corrier [NRAR, 226] (or Corrie, Currie) [NOAR, 74] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 226] He was born about 1739 or 1740. [NOAR, 74] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Matilda on 5 December 1781. [NRAR, 388] Corrier listed his age as 42. [NOAR, 74] He was appointed as First Mate [NRAR, 226] on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Los Amigos del Pays (Commander Juan Joseph de Arbula), [NOAR, 6] commissioned 9 May 1782. [NRAR, 226]


CORTER, HARMAN [HERMAN, HARMON, HAMMON, MERMAN]

[see COURTER, HARMAN]


COTTINEAU DE KERLOGUEN, DENIS-NICOLAS

(A)

Captain, Continental Navy


Denis-Nicolas Cottineau de Kerloguen was born in 1745. He received a commission in the Continental Navy in 1779, to accompany Captain John Paul Jones in his famous expedition. Cottineau commanded the Continental Navy Ship Pallas. During the Battle of Flamborough Head he captured HMS Countess of Scarborough. He was subsequently wounded in a duel with another officer, Pierre Landais, against whom Commodore Jones made serious charges after the battle. Cottineau later settled in the French West Indies. During the slave insurrection in San Domingo he fled to Pennsylvania where he joined several fellow French refugees in establishing a colony. Suffering from a “lingering illness,” he came to Savannah, Georgia early in 1808. Cottineau died there on 29 November 1808, at the residence of the Abbé Carles. Cottineau’s widow was the sister of the Marquis de Montalet who once owned the Hermitage plantation near Savannah. [From the Capt. Denis N. Cottineau State Historical Marker, Located along the west fence within Colonial Park Cemetery, Savannah
 http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/gahistmarkers/captcottineauhistmarker.htm]


COTTON [CATTON], GEORGE

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


George Cotton [Catton] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to command the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Olive Branch on 16 November 1781. His First Mate, WILLIAM LYELL, is sometimes listed as co-commander. [NRAR, 408; NOAR, 75, 191]


COURTER [CORTER], HARMAN [HERMAN, HARMON, HAMMON, MERMAN]

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Harman Courter seems to have been a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 29 June 1776 he was appointed as Second Mate on the New York Brig Enterprize (Commander JOSEPH DWIGHT). Courter was commissioned to command the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Oliver Cromwell on 7 February 1777. The Oliver Cromwell sailed for the West Indies on 17 February. For the next three months Courter made a number of short cruises out of Martinique in the French West Indies, taking at least seven prizes. He fought an inconclusive action with a British transport, the Lady’s Adventure, on 13 April 1777. About 1 May 1777 Courter managed to get a salute from a French sloop-of-war at a bay near St. Pierre, Martinique.

Courter’s luck ran out on 19 May when he engaged HM Sloop Beaver in a one-sided bloody fight and was captured. Courter later stated he lost thirty-one killed and more than twenty wounded. A letter from the West Indies describes the action: “No doubt you will have heard of the Oliver Cromwell being taken by the Beaver sloop of war of fourteen guns, intirely owing to the dastardly behaviour of the crew, who were principally Europeans, and at whose request the Captain carried the Oliver along side, contrary to his own opinion. After the first broadside was exchanged, they never made a regular fire, but ran from their quarters, and several times jumped upon the quarter-deck, attempting to strike the colours, which the Captain, notwithstanding his First Lieutenant and pilot were killed, bravely prevented, by cutting several of them down. He was alongside the Beaver three quarters of an hour, making a shew of fighting, and endeavouring all in his power to encourage his men, though to little purpose, till common humanity moved him to strike. . . .”

Courter was well treated by his captors. He was “treated . . . with the utmost politeness, and even caressed him, and acknowledge to every body that he behaved on the occasion like a brave and good officer. - This information we have from a gentleman, who was on board the ship after she was carried into Grenada, and may be depended upon. The people, who would not enter into the Kings service, were confined in goal. But the Captain had his quarters in the fort, the pleasantest situation in Grenada.” Courter was sent to England and committed to Forton Prison on 13 October 1777. Courter was in prison on 1 December 1777, when he signed a petition seeking better conditions. A list of prisoners at Forton Prison on 29 December 1777 lists ten members of Oliver Cromwell’s crew. By 13 February 1778 Courter had escaped to France, with a companion, where he met Silas Deane. Deane referred to him as a man of “approved Fidelity & Courage” in giving him a mission as a courier to America. [see Oliver Cromwell for references]

Courter successfully performed the courier mission, delivering his dispatches to Congress. He was reimbursed for his expenses and for his time and trouble. Courter applied for a commission in the Continental Navy but this was rejected by Congress. On 5 August 1779 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Jay, [NOAR, 75] in which he made a voyage to France. The ship was lost in the harbor during a storm.


COWARD, WILLIAM

MD

First Lieutenant, Maryland Privateers


William Coward was probably a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was appointed as First Lieutenant on the Maryland Privateer Brig Sturdy Beggar (Commander JAMES CAMPBELL) on 5 August 1777. Coward was presumably aboard during the brig’s voyage to Europe. The Sturdy Beggar was wrecked on the French coast about March 1778 with the loss of all hands. [see Sturdy Beggar]


COWPER, WELLS

VA

Owner, Virginia Privateers


As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

4/13/82

VA

Schooner York (14/40)

Isaiah Keel

Wells, Cowper & Co., Henry and Thomas Brown

Bristol Brown (for Keel), James Hunter

Archibald Blair [NRAR, 494]


COWPLAND, JONATHAN

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


Jonathan Cowpland was commissioned as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy on 17 October 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Fame. On 1 February 1777 he was transferred to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Basilisk. [Jackson, 342] He was apparently unable to raise a full crew for the Basilisk, [Jackson, 340] and, on 1 April 1777, he and his crew were transferred to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Hawk. [Jackson, 340, 342. NOAR, 78, indicates the date was 1 March 1777.] Cowpland was transferred back to his original command, the Fame, on 1 October 1777. [NOAR, 78] In the Hawk and the Fame Cowpland participated in the Delaware River campaign of September-November 1777. Fame and Hawk were both among the craft that escaped up river on the morning of 21 November 1777.


CRAFTS, NATHANIEL

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Nathaniel Crafts was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. Vessels associated with Sargent were:

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/12/77

MA

Ship Cumberland (20/180)

James Collins

Paul Dudley Sargent et al

James Collins, Paul Dudley Sargent, Nathaniel Crafts, Job Prince

Elisha Turner, Thomas Snowden, Nathaniel Barber [Allen, MPR, 106]


CRAIG, ISAAC

PA (P)

Captain, Continental Marines


Born in Hillsborough, County Down, Ireland about August 1741, Isaac Craig is reported to have moved to America in 1765 or 1767. Although he was reported to have had only two brothers—Robert and Joseph Patterson— a James Craig was an occupant of the same house and had the same occupation as Isaac in 1775. On his arrival in Philadelphia, he carried on the trade in which he had served his apprenticeship in Ireland and became a master carpenter and cabinetmaker. He resided in the south part of the Dock Ward. One source asserted that he had had a militia command early in the Revolutionary War, but this has not been verified. At the organization of the Continental Marines, Craig was commissioned a First Lieutenant on 29 November 1775, for service on hoard the converted Continental Navy Brig Andrew Doria, (Captain NICHOLAS BIDDLE). He entered her with his Marines in December and sailed 17 February 1776 for the Bahamas, where he participated in the first raid on New Providence in March. On the return voyage, Andrew Doria and the fleet fell in with HMS Glasgow and assisted in beating her off in a sharp engagement on 6 April 1776. Two days later, she reached port at New London where she was blockaded by a British squadron. Craig remained on hoard Andrew Doria until at least 21 September 1776 when, as a first lieutenant, he sat on the court martial of Navy lieutenant Luke Matthewman of the brig Lexington. He was commissioned a captain of Marines for the Continental Navy Galley Champion on 22 October 1776. On board her, he made only one short cruise, returning in November. General Washington’s desperate need for troops in his New Jersey campaign led to the sending of a small battalion of Marines under the command of Major Samuel Nicholas, with Captain Craig as adjutant. On 27 December the Marines joined Colonel John Cadwalader at Burlington, New Jersey. As a member of the battalion, Craig participated in the battles of Assunpink (second battle of Trenton) and of Princeton, 2 and 3 January 1777. When Army artillery units departed from Washington’s forces in February 1777, Captain Craig and his Marine company were ordered to serve the artillery pieces at Morristown. On 1 March, Craig accepted a commission of captain in Colonel Thomas Proctor’s Pennsylvania Regiment of Artillery —later 4th Continental Artillery). He asked to vacate his, Marine commission, and his resignation was accepted.

With the Army, he participated in the battles of Brandywine on 11 September 1777 and Germantown on 4 October 1777. Shortly after, he was selected to he one of a small group of officers who were ordered to Carlisle, Pennsylvania for instruction in munitions laboratory techniques. He was on this assignment from 1 February to 1 August 1778. He was back in Philadelphia on 18 March 1779, writing a letter to General Washington in support of his claim for promotion. In April he was located at Billingsport, in command of a fort on the Delaware River. He also served in Proctor’s Artillery with General John Sullivan’s army in the campaign against the Six Indian Nations in the Genesee River country of New York. That campaign lasted from July into September. Craig was back with Washington’s army at Morristown by January 1780. About 20 April he was ordered to Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) with artillery and military stores, arriving there 29 May. The next year, between July and November, he accompanied George Rogers Clark down the Ohio River to the Falls of the Ohio (now Louisville, Kentucky). It was during this time that he received his promotion to major, dating from 7 October 1781. He returned to Fort Pitt on 26 December 1781. Between 13 November and 2 December 1782, he commanded a scouting party to Cayahoga and the Grand River. His military service in the Revolution concluded when he left the military on 17 June 1783.

Craig had cast his lot with the development of Pittsburgh. In 1782, while still in the Army, he had become the Worshipful Master of his Masonic Lodge, Military No. 19, which had moved to Pittsburgh. He bought the first land sold in the city on 22 January 1784, together with Stephen A. Bayard, who became his business partner. A year later, in February 1785, he married Amelia Neville, daughter of John Neville and the only sister of Pressley Neville. His son, Neville B. Craig, was horn 29 March 1787 in the Redoubt (the blockhouse built by Colonel Henry Bouquet), located near the Point in Pittsburgh. Unexpected recognition came in May 1787 when he was elected a member of the prestigious American Philosophical Society. Born and reared a Presbyterian, it was also fitting that he became a trustee of the newly incorporated Presbyterian Congregation of Pittsburgh in September 1787. In February 1791, Craig was offered the post of deputy quartermaster and military storekeeper at Pittsburgh by the infant American Army. A retaliation attack by a Captain Brady and some of his Virginia Rangers on a party of Indians near Fort Pitt received Craig’s support in a letter to the Secretary of War on 16 March 1791. He declined an appointment in November 1794 as Commissary General in the Army of Major General Anthony Wayne tor a campaign against the Indians of the Northwest Territory. Continuing his business ventures, in 1797 he joined with James O*Hara in establishing the first glass works erected west of the Allegheny Mountains. Troubles with France in 1798 led to steps directed against Spain, ally of France. The Federal Government began preparations for control of the lower Mississippi. Issac Craig was appointed superintendent for the construction of two row galleys, the President Adams and Senator Ross, at Pittsburgh. Although now quite elderly, Craig served during the War of 1812, preparing munitions for the Northwestern Army, a technique he had learned at Carlisle in 1778. Isaac Craig died 14 May 1826 at his home on Montour’s Island in the Ohio River, at the age of 85i. First buried in the First Presbyterian Graveyard, Pittsburgh, his remains were moved to the Allegheny Cemetery on 23 October 1902. [Smith, Marines, 437]


CRAIG, JAMES

PA

Commissioner of Naval Stores, Continental Navy

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Craig was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was appointed one of the Continental Navy Commissioners of Naval Stores on 9 January 1776. [NRAR, 10] He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/6/79

PA

Schooner Tartar (6/30)

John Craig

James Craig, John Craig

John Craig, James Craig, Jr.

James Trimble [NRAR, 472]

8/7/80

PA

Boat Friendship (1/20)

John Badcock

Philip Moore, James Craig & Co.

Philip Moore, James Craig, Jr.

James Trimble, John Badcock [NRAR, 305]

12/12/80

PA

Brigantine Active (10/18)

John Craig

John Patton, James Craig

John Patton, James Craig, Jr.

James Trimble [NRAR, 218]

2/23/81

PA

Brig Schuykill (10/35)

John Souder

James Craig, Philip Moore & Co.

John Souder, James Craig, Jr.

James Trimble [NRAR, 455]

3/9/81

PA

Boat Friendship (4/25)

John Badcock

James Craig, Jr., Philip Moore & Co.

John Patton, James Craig, Jr.

James Trimble [NRAR, 306]

5/25/81

PA

Brigantine George (10/50)

William Campbell

Philip Moore, James Craig, Jr. & Co.

William Campbell, James Craig, Jr.

James Trimble, Robert Graham [NRAR, 316]

6/9/81

PA

Boat Friendship (1/18)

Henry Murfits

James Craig, Jr., John Patton

John Patton, James Craig, Jr.

James Trimble [NRAR, 306]

9/20/81

PA

Brigantine Schuykill (8/35)

John Burrows

James Craig, John Patton, Philip Moore et al

John Burrows, James Craig, Jr.

William Campbell [NRAR, 456]

2/27/82

PA

Brigantine George (6/16)

Robert French

James Craig, Jr., Philip Moore et al

James Craig, Jr., Philip Moore

James Trimble [NRAR, 316]


CRAIG, JOHN

PA

Owner, Maryland Privateers

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Craig was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [NRAR, 218] born about 1740. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Congress on 15 June 1776. [NOAR, 77] On 9 December 1778 he was appointed to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Addition, [NRAR, 219] and, on 3 May 1779, to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Rattlesnake. [NRAR, 431] On 6 July 1779 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Tartar, a vessel of which he was a part-owner. [NRAR, 472] On 12 December 1780, [NRAR, 218] listing his age as 40, [NOAR, 77] he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Active. [NRAR, 218] Active and Craig were captured by the HM Frigate Stag on 5 March 1781. [see Active] Craig was associated in privateering with JAMES CRAIG, HUGH McBRIDE, WILLIAM McBRIDE, and CHARLES PHILLYSHILL. Vessels associated with Craig were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/22/78

MD

Schooner Two Sallys (4/7)

Custis Kellum

John Craig et al

Custis Kellum, John Craig

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 480]

6/22/78

MD

Schooner Beggar’s Benison (0/7)

Thomas Stiles

John Craig, Hugh McBride, William McBride, Charles Phillyshill

  

7/6/79

PA

Schooner Tartar (6/30)

John Craig

James Craig, John Craig

John Craig, James Craig, Jr.

James Trimble [NRAR, 472]


CRAIGE, JOHN

[see CRAIG, JOHN]


CRAIGE, ROBERT

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Robert Craige was a resident of Annapolis, Maryland. He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Bennington on 18 August 1779. [see Bennington]


CRARY, HUMPHREY

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Humphrey Crary was a resident of Stonington, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Snow Black Princess on 7 February 1781, [Middlebrook, II, 61] and again on 2 March 1781. [NOAR, 78] Black Princess made a cruise to the West Indies and suffered a long chase by a British frigate on her return. [Middlebrook, II, 61] Crary was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Pilgrim on 10 April 1782. [NOAR, 78]


CRAWFORD, ARTHUR

RI

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Arthur Crawford was a resident of Providence, Rhode Island. He was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Hawke on 14 August 1776. Crawford captured the ships Thomas and Union in the summer of 1776. [see Hawke] Prize money from this cruise was still being distributed on 7 June 1777. [NDAR, IX, 47] On 10 July 1777 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Zanga. [Allen, MPR, 330] Zanga was still in port on 11 September 1777, fitting out. [NDAR, IX, 909 and note, 1147]


CRAWFORD, GIDEON JR.

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Gideon Crawford, Jr., was a resident of Providence, Rhode Island. [NRAR, 223] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Alexander on 9 October 1781. [NRAR, 223]


CREED, WILLIAM

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/6/80

MA

Brigantine Active (10/24)

Benjamin Ellinwood

Job Prince, Jr., William Creed

Benjamin Ellinwood, Job Prince, Jr., William Creed

[Allen, MPR, 66; Howe, 405]


CRINNAL, WILLIAM

[See GRINNELL, WILLIAM]


CRISTOPHERS, JOSEPH

[See CHRISTOPHERS, JOSEPH]


CROCKETT, BENJAMIN

MD

Owner, Maryland Privateers


Benjamin Crockett was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was associated with JOHN CROCKETT and  JOHN STERETT in privateering. Vessels associated with Crockett were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/15/79

MD

Schooner Baltimore Hero (14/30)

John Earle

Benjaimin and John Crockett, John Sterett et al

John Earle, John Crockett

[NRAR, 232]


CROCKETT, JOHN

MD

Owner, Maryland Privateers


John Crockett was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He is associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/16/76

MD

Sloop Baltimore Hero (6/20)

Thomas Waters

Abraham Van Bibber, John Crockett, Thomas Ringgold,  Robert T. Hooe

Thomas Waters, Robert T. Hooe, Thomas Ringgold, John Crockett

[NRAR, 232]

12/31/76

MD

Sloop John (6/20)

Richard Somervell

John Crockett et al

Richard Somervell, John Crockett

[NRAR, 359]

5/31/77

MD

Brig Buckskin Hero (16/200)

Edward Booker

John Crockett et al

Edward Booker, John Crockett, James Nicholson

[NRAR, 244]

10/9/78

MD

Sloop Lady Washington (6/12)

Nathaniel Cooper

Isaac and Abraham Van Bibber, John Crockett, John Muir

Nathaniel Cooper, John Muir

[NRAR, 367]

1/9/79

MD

Ship Buckskin (28/100)

Aquila Johns

John Crockett et al

Johns, John Davidson

William Hyde [NRAR, 243]

5/15/79

MD

Schooner Baltimore Hero (14/30)

John Earle

Benjaimin and John Crockett, John Sterett et al

John Earle, John Crockett

[NRAR, 232]


CROEL [CROWEL, CROW], SAMUEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Croel (Crowel, [Allen, MPR, 107] Crow) [NOAR, 78-79] was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Greyhound on 13 October 1779. [NOAR, 78-79] On 13 March 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Cutter. Croel was again commissioned to the Cutter, now described as a brigantine, on 25 July 1780. [Allen, MPR, 107] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Tiger on 16 April 1781. Croel captured a prize in August 1781. On 15 May 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Genera Greene. In this ship he captured the brig Olive Branch about May 1782. On 30 August 1782 Croel was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Porus. In April 1783 he arrived at St. Kitts with a slave vessel with two hundred slaves aboard. This vessel was captured before the cessation of hostilities. [NOAR, 78-79]


CROOKSHANKS, CHARLES

MA

Owner, Maryland Privateers


Charles Crookshanks was a resident of Talbot County, Maryland. The following privateer was associated with Crookshanks:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/23/80

MD

Schooner Oxford (6/10)

Hugh Sherwood

Charles Crookshanks & Co.

Hugh Sherwood, Charles Crookshanks

[Arch. MD, 43:180, NRAR, 408]


CROSS, CHARLES

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


Charles Cross was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Brig Bellona at an unknown date. [Coker, 300]


CROSS, GEORGE

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


George Cross was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Brigantine Amity in 1777. [Coker, 300] Perhaps he is the same man as CHARLES CROSS. Either George or Charles commanded the South Carolina Privateer Brig Bellona in late 1777. She sailed for France with a cargo of rice and arrived at Paimboeuf on 22 September 1777. She sailed from Paimboeuf on 1 October 1777, ran into a Jamaica convoy and captured, on 5 October, the brig Jenny and Betty and the ship Manners. The brig was recaptured but the ship was escorted into Paimboeuf on 10 October. Bellona sailed from Nantes, France on 13 November 1777. Another prize, the Glorious Memory, was taken off Bermuda. Bellona made Charleston on 5 January 1778 after a brush with patrolling British frigates. [see Bellona]


CROSS, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Cross was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Buckram 21 August 1777. [NRAR, 243; Allen, MPR, 89] Buckram sailed about mid-September. [Allen, MPR, 89] On 16 September Buckram was eighteen miles northwest of Cape Cod. At 2100 she was seen and chased by HM Frigate Diamond. The British chased and Cross ran. After firing fourteen guns Diamond got close enough to fire a volley of musketry into Buckram, whereupon Cross struck. [NDAR,  IX, 931 and note] She was sent to Halifax on 22 September 1777. [NDAR, IX, 950] Cross went to Halifax jail on 25 October 1777. [NDAR, X, 347-349]


CROSS, RALPH

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Ralph Cross was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with Ralph Cross, Jr. And MOSES LITTLE and JOSEPH MOULTON, Jr. Vessels associated with Cross were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/28/78

MA

Ship Behmus (4/13)

Benjamin Hill

Ralph Cross et al

Benjamin Hill, Samuel Bayley, Ralph Cross, Jr.

 [Allen, MPR, 78]

8/7/79

MA

Ship Behmus (8/20)

Samuel Bayley

Ralph Cross et al

Samuel Bayley, Moses Little, Joseph Moulton, Jr.

[Allen, MPR, 79]


CROW, SAMUEL

[see CROEL, SAMUEL]


CROWEL, SAMUEL

[see CROEL, SAMUEL]


CULLAM, DAVID

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Listed in Allen, ii, 708, as a Lieutenant in the Continental Navy. Allen, ii, 712 also lists him as Marine Lieutenant.


CUMMIN, THOMAS

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Thomas Cummin served aboard Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Venus (Commander WILLIAM RADDON) as First Mate, appointed 13 July 1776. [NDAR, V, 1063 and 1064 note] Venus made a powder voyage to St. Eustatius between about August 1776 and October 1776.


CUMMINGS, ROBERT

[PA] (P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


The parents, birth and birthplace of Robert Cummings are unknown. According to the papers of Commodore ESEK HOPKINS, Robert Cummings was a lieutenant of Marines in the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain ABRAHAM WHIPPLE) when she departed Philadelphia in February 1776 for the expedition to New Providence. His senior officer was Captain JOSEPH SHOEMAKER and JOHN TREVETT was Columbus’s First Lieutenant of Marines. When Columbus returned to Providence, Rhode Island in April 1776, Lieutenants Cummings and Trevett appealed to Commodore Hopkins for permission to “get our cloathes, etc., from on board the ship Columbus.” Hopkins addressed a short note to Whipple directing him to allow the Marines to obtain their property. A muster roll of Columbus, dated from her commissioning to 14 December 1776, asserted that Cummings had “deserted,” but it is believed that he resigned his commission. Captain Shoemaker and Lieutenant Trevett were also listed as deserters, but Shoemaker also resigned, and Trevett transferred to the Continental Navy Brig Andrew Doria. [Smith, Marines, 438]


CUNNINGHAM, JOSEPH

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Cunningham was a resident of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with JAMES MUGFORD. Vessels associated with Mugford were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

4/29/77

MA

Brig Bellona (14/90)

Thomas Stephens

James Mugford et al

Thomas Stevens, James Mugford, Joseph Cunningham.

[Allen, MPR, 314]


CURTIS, WILLIAM

MA

Captain of Marines, Massachusetts Privateers


William Curtis was, on 14 August 1780, aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Pilgrim (Commander JOSEPH ROBINSON) as “master of marines” (Captain of Marines). [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 414]


CURWIN [CURWEN], GEORGE

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


George Curwin was born about 1751 [NOAR, 81] and was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Industry on 24 December 1778, owned by Blair McClenachan. [NRAR, 351] On the same day he witnessed a bond for another of McClenachan’s privateers. [NRAR, 340] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Fame on 16 August 1779. [NRAR, 288] Curwin next commanded the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship St. Clair, commissioned 18 July 1780. [NRAR, 463] He was captured in January 1781 and was committed to Mill Prison in England (as George Curwen). He escaped on 4 June 1781 and successfully got to Ostend. Curwin (as Curwen) [NOAR, 81] was back in Pennsylvania by 5 October 1781 when he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Fame again. [NRAR, 289 He listed his age as thirty. [NOAR, 81] On 6 May 1782 Curwin (as Curwen) was commissioned to Pennsylvania Privateer Ship George. [NRAR, 317] He still listed his age as thirty. [NOAR, 81]


Revised 23 August 2014 © awiatsea.com