B




BABBIDGE, CHRISTOPHER
MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Christopher Babbidge was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Joseph on 23 July 1777. [NRAR, 361] In the Joseph he captured a schooner in ballast in September 1776 and a valuable ship in November 1776. [Maclay, HAP, 71] Babbidge’s next command was the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Jonathan, commissioned in October 1780. [Allen, MPR, 194] On 12 February 1782 he commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Fly. [NRAR, 297]


BABCOCK, ADAM
CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

Adam Babcock, of New Haven, Connecticut, [NRAR, 307) and later of Norwich, Connecticut [NRAR, 416] and Boston, Massachusetts, [NRAR, 393] was listed as owner, co-owner, or security of the following privateers:
As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/13/76

CT

Schooner Gamecock (6/50)

Lemuel Brooks

Adam Babcock

Lemuel Brooks, Adam Babcock

[NRAR, 307]

11/-/76

CT

Brig Fanny (14/)

Azariah Whittlesey

Adam Babcock, Thomas Mumford, William Hart,  Samuel Brown, Thomas Hazard, John Grenell, Archibald Blair

 

[NDAR, VII, 503]

5/26/77

MA

Brigantine Fanny (18/100)

John Kendrick

Adam Babcock, Archibald Blair

John Kendrick, Adam Babcock, Archibald Blair

[Allen, MPR, 127-128]

6/27/77

CT

Sloop Polly (12/100)

Eliphalet Roberts

Adam Babcock & Co.

Eliphalet Roberts, Charles Bulkley, Adam Helme

[NRAR, 416]

8/23/78

MA

[unknown] Angelica

William Dennis

Adam Babcock et al

 

[Allen, MPR, 75]

2/29/80

MA

Schooner Harry (4/12)

William Cowell

Adam Babcock

William Cowell, Daniel Hubbard, Adam Babcock

[Allen, MPR, 167]

8/11/80

MA

Sloop Patty (8/20)

Francis Moore

Adam Babcock

 

[Allen, MPR, 233]

5/21/81

CT

Brigantine Minerva (16/120)

Dudley Saltonstall

Adam Babcock & Co.

Dudley Saltonstall, Thomas Mumford, John Chenevard

[NRAR, 393]

2/28/82

MA

Brigantine Minerva (16/35)

John Allen Hallet

Babcock & Broome

John Allen Hallet, Adam Babcock, Samuel Broome

[NRAR, 394]

5/4/82

CT

Schooner Eliza (8/40)

William Leeds

Adam Babcock, Samuel Broome

William Leeds, Joseph Howland, Giles Mumford

[NRAR, 280]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/7/82

MA

Ship St. Mary’s Packet (12/30)

John Leach, Jr.

Samuel Broome et al

John Leach, Jr., Samuel Broome, Adam Babcock

[NRAR, 464]


BABCOCK, GEORGE WAITH
RI

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


George Waith Babcock was a native of Exeter, Rhode Island. Babcock was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Ship Marlborough on 11 December 1777. [NDAR, X, 805] She sailed from Swansea, Massachusetts on 23 December and anchored for the night at Fall River.  On the Christmas Eve night she ran the British blockade in Narragansett Bay and got to sea. After recruiting sailors, Babcock sailed on his cruise on 2 January 1778. [See Marlborough for references] In June 1778, Babcock arrived in a friendly port [Providence, Rhode Island or Boston, Massachusetts] from a successful cruise. Twenty-eight vessels were taken as prizes. Six of these were manned and sent into port, but only three had arrived. Among the six was a large Guineaman with three hundred slaves aboard, which was sent into South Carolina. A ship with dry goods, wine and porter was brought in, as was a brig withe provisions. The remaining prizes were sunk or destroyed. [Allen, MPR, 215, from the Providence Gazette of 23 June 1778] Marlborough was re-commissioned 8 September 1778 with a Massachusetts commission. On 24 December 1778 the Independent Chronicle reported that Marlborough had returned from a cruise on 20 December, having captured three prizes. [Allen, MPR, 215]

Babcock was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Mifflin (or General Mifflin) on 31 March 1779. Babcock listed his address as Boston. [Allen, MPR, 220] Mifflin was soon at sea, heading for Europe. On 5 August 1779 the Independent Chronicle reported that a prize ship, the Tartar, mounting twenty-six guns, besides cohorns and swivels, had arrived in port on 31 July 1779. This Tartar had a crew of 130 men and had been fitted out in Ireland for the purpose of capturing an American frigate. She fell in with the Mifflin, twenty guns and 100 men. In the following action the Tartar had her captain and twenty-two men killed, while the Mifflin lost only two men killed. Mifflin had taken four other prizes before her capture. [Allen, MPR, 220] The Boston Gazette (25 October 1779) reported that the General Mifflin had arrived on 23 October 1779 after a  ten week passage from France. On the way Babcock took two prizes and re-captured another. On 7 September 1779 he fell in with a sloop of war and fought her for three glasses (an hour and a half). The Americans had three killed and seven wounded and were much shot up in the masts and rigging and so bore away. [Allen, MPR, 149] Babcock was back in Boston on 7 August 1780. On that day Babcock and Mungo Mackay and Samuel Dunn, Jr., for the owners, gave a £2000 Massachusetts bond not to enlist any man in New England outside Massachusetts. The ship is called the General Mifflin here. On 11 September 1780 Mackay petitioned the Massachusetts Council to allow the General Mifflin to proceed to sea despite the embargo and the petition was granted. On 16 January 1781 the Salem Gazette reported a story from New York, datelined 18 December 1780, that the General Mifflin had been captured off Charleston, South Carolina by HM Frigate Raleigh, along with two prizes that she had in company, taken out of the Cork convoy. [Allen, MPR, 149]

He was part owner (with James Eldred and Nathan Brown of North Kingston, Rhode Island) of the Rhode Island Privateer Schooner Happy Return (Commander JAMES ELDRED), commissioned 17 March 1781, [NRAR, 326] and the Rhode Island Privateer Schooner Betty (Commander ELIJAH LEWIS) commissioned 7 April 1781 (other owners were Jonathan Bates, Jr; Peter Guire, and Ichabod Hollow). [NRAR, 238] On 11 June 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Venus. [NRAR, 486] Venus was captured on 16 July 1781 by HM Frigate Danae. [Allen, MPR, 316]

Babcock’s final privateering command of the war was the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hero, commissioned 28 May 1781. [NRAR, 335] Babcock, in the Hero, was one of the participants in the capture of Luenburg, Nova Scotia in July 1782. Babcock served as a bonder for the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Tryall (Commander SAMUEL ROGERS), commissioned 20 August 1782. He may have been a part owner. [NRAR, 479]









As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

3/17/81

RI

Schooner Happy Return (10/20)

James Eldred

George Waith Babcock, James Eldred, Nathan Brown

James Eldred, Nathan Brown

[NRAR, 326]

4/7/81

RI

Schooner Betty (4/25)

Elijah Lewis

Georgw Waith Babcock, Jonathan Bates, Je., Peter Guire, Ichabod Hollow

Elijah Lewis, Jonathan Bates, Jr.

[NRAR, 238]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/20/82

MA

Schooner Tryall (6/20)

Samuel Rogers

Samuel Rogers, John M. Gower et al

Samuel Rogers, Joshua Davis, George Waith Babcock

[NRAR, 479]


BABION, PHILIP

NH

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Philip Babion, a resident of Exeter, New Hampshire, was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Schooner Muskites on 4 August 1778. [NOAR, 11]


BABSON, JAMES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


James Babson was commissioned on 30 April 1777 to command the Massachusetts Privateer Brig General Mercer [Allen, MPR, 148]. Babson made an adventurous cruise to Europe in 1777 during which several prizes were captured. He commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Phoenix, sailing out of Newburyport, Massachusetts, on 2 September 1778. [Allen, MPR, 235]


BABSON, JOHN

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Babson was a native of Amesbury, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Gloriosa on 22 July 1777. [NRAR, 317] His next command was the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Ruby, commissioned 12 November 1779. [Allen, MPR, 270] He was succeeded in the Ruby by SOLOMON BABSON, with John listed as her owner and bonder, on 9 August 1781 and 16 September 1782. [NRAR, 449] He was listed as an owner and bonder of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Diamond (Commander ZEBULON BABSON), commissioned on 29 December 1781. [NRAR, 267]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/9/81

MA

Brigantine Ruby (6/20)

Solomon Babson

John Babson et al

Solomon Babson, John Babson, Ebenezer Lane

[NRAR, 449]

12/29/81

MA

Ship Diamond (16/45)

Zebulon Babson

John Babson

Zebulon Babson, John Babson, Joseph Tyler

[NRAR, 267]

9/16/82

MA

Brigantine Ruby (6/21)

Solomon Babson

John Babson et al

Solomon Babson, John Babson, John Tyler

[NRAR, 449]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/21/76

MA

Schooner Phoenix

William Card

Solomon Babson, Francis Low

Solomon Babson, John Babson, Joseph Tyler

[Allen, MPR, 235]


BABSON, SAMUEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Babson was a resident of Cape Ann, Massachusetts when he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Ranger on 19 October 1780. [NRAR, 430] On 4 April 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Dolphin. [NRAR, 274]


BABSON, SOLOMON

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Solomon Babson resided in Cape Ann or Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was listed as an owner and bonder of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Phoenix (Commander WILLIAM CARD) on 21 November 1776. [Allen, MPR, 235] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Success on 11 December 1778. [Allen, MPR, 291] On 9 April 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Ruby, sailing out of Newburyport. Babson was re-commissioned to the Ruby on 16 September 1782. [NRAR, 449]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/21/76

MA

Schooner Phoenix

William Card

Solomon Babson, Francis Low

Solomon Babson, John Babson, Joseph Tyler

[Allen, MPR, 235]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/20/82

MA

Schooner Tryall (6/20)

Samuel Rogers

Samuel Rogers, John M. Gower et al

Samuel Rogers, Joshua Davis, George Waith Babcock

[NRAR, 479]


BABSON, ZEBULON

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Zebulon Babson of Newburyport, Massachusetts was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Diamond on 29 December 1781. [NRAR, 267]


BACHELDER, SAMUEL

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Bachelder, of Newburyport, Massachusetts, was listed as a co-owner (with William Nichols) of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship General Titcomb (Commander JEREMIAH PEARSON, JR.) commissioned 27 February 1781. [NRAR, 314]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

2/27/81

MA

Ship General Titcomb (18/50)

Jeremiah Pearson, Jr.

Samuel Bachelder, William Nichols

Jeremiah Perason, Jr., William Nichols, Abner Greenleaf

[NRAR, 314]


BACK, FRANCIS

[See BECK, FRANCIS]


BACON, EDWARD JR.

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Edward Bacon Jr. was a resident of Barnstable, Massachusetts. He was commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Adeventure, commissioned 30 November 1781. [NRAR, 222] Very soon after the commission was issued Adventure was at sea. She was captured by the British on 19 December 1781, probably while en route to Europe, and was listed as the Adventurer. Her crew was committed to Mill Prison on 21 January 1782. [Information courtesy of Buddy Jackson in emails of 5/2/2007 and 5/3/2007, citing the NEHGS Register, 19:213, Kaminkow, Mariners of the American Revolution; “A List of the Americans Committed to Old Mill Prison Since the American War,” in New England Historical and Genealogical Register, vol. XIX, p. 213, Boston: The New England Historical-Genealogical Society, 1865.] Bacon apparently did not wait for exchange, however. He managed to get to Amsterdam, The Netherlands, where he became master of the brigantine General Green, owned by a prominent merchant named Peter Le Poole [Lapool, Le Pool]. General Green sailed for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania but was captured by HMS Renown on 7 October 1782 and sent into Halifax, Nova Scotia. [Information courtesy of Buddy Jackson in email of 11/16/2007 citing Historical Collections of the Essex Inst.-Jan. 1909-- p. 174---Records of the Vice -Admiralty Court at Halifax, Nova Scotia [Condemnation of Prizes and recaptures of the Revolution and the War of 1812]


BACON, JACOB

Surgeon, Massachusetts Privateers


Jacob Bacon was the Surgeon on the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Jason (Commander CHARLES HAMILTON), captured by the British on 22 October 1781. He was not sent to prison. [Kaminkow, 9]


BACON, WILLIAM

MA

Surgeon, Massachusetts Privateers


William Bacon was a resident of Salem. He served as Surgeon on the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Franklin (Commander JOHN TURNER), commissioned 2 December 1780. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424] However, other sources indicate he was aboard on 23 March 1780. [Allen, MPR, 137, date of Turner’s commission; Howe, Beverly Privateers, 410-411]


BADCOCK, JOHN

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Badcock, possibly a resident of Philadelphia,  was commissioned on 7 August 1780 to command the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Friendship (described as an armed boat). [NRAR, 305] He was re-commissioned to the Friendship on 9 March 1781. [NRAR, 306]


BADCOCK, JOSEPH

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Badcock of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Boat Quicktime on 11 September 1781. [NRAR, 425]


BAILEY, BENJAMIN

[Prize Master], Continental Navy


Benjamin Bailey enlisted aboard the Continental Navy Cutter Revenge (Captain GUSTAVUS CONYNGHAM) at Dunkerque, France about May 1777. He sailed with the Revenge on 17 July 1777. On 21 July Revenge captured the brig Northampton (Thomas Hall or William Gray), from Wyburgh in the Baltic bound to her home port of King’s Lynn, England, with a cargo of deals, boards and battens. The master and crew were removed and Bailey was assigned as her prize master and ordered into Bilbao, Spain, consigned to the Continental factors there, Gardoqui and Company. Bailey, was given a mixed crew of five English or Irish “outlawed smugglers” and sixteen French sailors. Conyngham gave his orders to Bailey in the name of James Smith, and the letters to Gardoqui included an introduction to “Captain Smith.” Bailey was also given copies of Conyngham’s two commissions, one, the “true” one, in the name of Gustavus Conyngham (commanding the Revenge). The other was for Richard Allen, commanding the Pegasus of North Carolina. Bailey was to pass Northampton off as a prize of the Pegasus at Bilbao. Bailey was ordered to take special care of his papers, to sink them if captured, except for the two commissions. He was only to produce the “true” one in the “last Extremity.” After these careful warnings it is a surprise to find Bailey, in his journal entries, casually identifying his vessel as the Revenge and his commander as “G. Cunningham.” Bailey turned his coat on 23 July. Among the prize crew was one Francis Mulligan, acting as Bailey’s mate. These two drew up an agreement, at 0800 on the 23rd, stating that they were “Enforced through Necessity” aboard the Revenge. The two agreed to take the prize into King’s Lynn, or to turn her over to a British warship if one were found first. There are many professions of loyalty in this document; one gathers it was more a cover for what they were about to attempt. In the afternoon of 26 July Bailey brought Northampton into the harbor of Great Yarmouth, England. He found a young Midshipman, one Edwards, commanding a press boat. When the midshipman boarded the Northampton Bailey obligingly surrendered her to him. The astonished midshipman informed his superior, Captain Francis Richards. All the men, including Bailey and Mulligan, were taken prisoner and secured on the tender Kitty (Lieutenant John Moore) in the press room. Richards asked for further orders on the prisoners and vessel, not forgetting to claim his salvage rights. Lieutenant Moore obtained the two commissions, Bailey’s orders from Conyngham, and Bailey’s journal, and forwarded all to the Admiralty. The prisoners were ordered sent to Fortun Prison on 1 August 1777. On 11 August Bailey was committed to Fortun Prison, but subsequently was released to enter the Royal Navy. No doubt attempting to get out of prison, Bailey wrote a letter to one Hogg, the owner of the Northampton, on 19 September 1777. [All references in Revenge]


BAILEY, EDWARD

Commander, [unknown] Privateers


Edward Bailey was commander of the brig Providence, which captured the schooner Good Fortune (George Hardwick) in company with the privateer brig Unity (Edward Coffin). The Rhode Island delegates to the Continental Congress appealed to Congress concerning this capture on 5 August 1783. Charles Thomson at Philadelphia wrote to Hugh Williamson on the same matter on 19 August 1783. [NRAR, 196] A committee of Congress reported on this matter on 22 September 1783. [NRAR, 197]


BAILEY, JOHN

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


John Bailey was aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain WILLIAM COIT) as a Midshipman on 25 February 1777, according to the crew list. [NDAR, 7, 1283-1287] Bailey was one of those officers who roomed and boarded ashore during the time the ship was fitting out, from about 7 August 1776 to 12 December 1776. [NDAR, 7, 459] On 5 June 1779 the Oliver Cromwell was captured by the British. [NOAR, 12]


BAILEY, JOHN

MA

[Prizemaster], Massachusetts Privateers


John Bailey served aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Viper (Commander JONATHAN NEALL). [NOAR, 218; NRAR, 487] Viper captured a ship with a cargo of salt, about May 1782, which was given a prize crew under John Bailey. The prize was recaptured by two British privateers bound for Quebec. Bailey and the prize crew were taken to Quebec, where Bailey and three of the men signed on to a British snow bound to London to escape imprisonment. Two days after leaving the St. Lawrence River, Bailey, his three men, and one of the snow’s crew, rose and took the vessel from the master and the other five crew members. They arrived in Marblehead aboard her on “Tuesday last,” nine days after capturing her. [Allen, MPR, 318, from the Salem Gazette of 4 July 1782]


BAILEY [BAYLY], LABAN

VA

Master, Virginia Navy


Laban Bailey (Bayly) of Accomac County, Virginia, was Quartermaster and then Master aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Diligence (Captain JOHANNES WATSON). He married Mary on 25 May 1790. He died at sea. [Stewart, 142]


BAILEY, SAMUEL

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Bailey, of Newburyport, Massachusetts, was listed as a co-owner of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Ranger (Commander SAMUEL COFFIN), on 2 December 1782. Other owners were Samuel Coffin, Anthony Davenport and Joseph Moulton, all of Newburyport. [NRAR, 431]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/2/82

MA

Ship Ranger (6/15)

Samuel Coffin

Samuel Coffin, Anthony Davenport, Joseph Moulton, Samuel Bailey

Samuel Coffin, Joseph Moulton, Jr., Anthony Davenport

[NRAR, 431]


BAILY, SAMUEL

[see BAYLEY, SAMUEL]


BAIRD, JAMES

MA

Master, Massachusetts Privateers


James Baird of Boston, Massachusetts served aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Wolfe (Commander NATHANIEL FREEMAN), commissioned 4 September 1776. [NDAR, VI, 674 and note; VII, 984-985] Wolfe got to sea soon after on her first cruise. On 30 September she stumbled upon a convoy, escorted by HM Frigate Unicorn (Captain Charles Fielding), who quickly captured the sloop. [NDAR, VI, 1439 and note] The crew was sent to New York, and twenty-five sailors and Marines, and the five officers, were sent aboard the Grand Duke of Russia and exchanged at Newport, Rhode Island, on 17 January 1777. [NDAR, VII, 984-985]


BAKER, BENJAMIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Baker was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts when he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Dolphin on 10 September 1782. [NRAR, 275]


BAKER, BLOW & CO.

VA

Owners, Virginia Privateers


A merchant firm, headquartered in Richmond, Virginia. The principals were evidently Richard Baker and Richard Blow. Vessels associated with Baker, Blow & Co. were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/12/81

VA

Schooner Non Pareil (14/80)

John Addison

Baker & Blow

John Addison, Baker & Blow

A. Wyth [NRAR, 406]

9/20/81

VA

Galley Tartar (5/30)

Levin Trippe

Baker, Blow & Co.

Levin Trippe, Henry Banks for Baker, Blow & Co.

Archibald Blair [NRAR, 473]

10/30/81

VA

Schooner Count de Grasse (14/80)

Alexander Stockdale

Baker & Blow

Alexander Stockdale, William Armistead

Charles Hay [NRAR, 260}

11/30/81

VA

Brig Rising Srares (14/70)

James Pasteur

Baker & Blow

James Pasreur, Richard Baker

A. Wyth [NRAR, 444]

11/30/81

VA

Brig [unknown] (14/65)

Christopher Clark

Baker & Blow

Christopher Clark, Richard Baker

Archibald Blair [NRAR, 227]

3/82

VA

Schooner Venus (14/75)

Thomas Ogborne

Baker & Blow

George Nicolson, Thomas Ogborne

Charles Hay for Nicolson [NRAR, 486]

5/10/82

VA

Ship Wolf (16/60)

Samuel Butler

Baker & Blow

Samuel Butler, George Nicolson

Hector McNeill, Henry Miller [NRAR, 494]

5/10/82

VA

Schooner Non Pareil (14/30)

James Coffin

Baker & Blow

James Coffin, George Nicolson

Hector McNeill, Thomas Tans Verrill [NRAR, 406]

7/25/82

VA

Brig Tartar (18/120)

William Gibbons

Baker, Blow & Co.

William Gibbons, George Nicolson

Andrew Nicolson [NRAR, 473]

9/2/82

VA

Schooner Protector (14/30)

John Anderson

Baker, Blow & Co.

Richard Blow for John Anderson, George Nicolson

Archibald Vlair [NRAR, 422]


BAKER, FREDERICK

[see BARKER, FREDERICK]


BAKER, HEZEKIAH

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


Hezekiah Baker served aboard the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain WILLIAM COIT) as a Midshipman in 1776-1777. [NOAR, 12]


BAKER, JOHN

MA

Prizemaster, [Massachusetts] Privateers


John Baker was a native of Beverly, Massachusetts. He was a privateer officer and prizemaster of the Black Princess, a "French" prize. He was captured by the British and confined to Mill Prison on 20 October 1781. [NOAR, 12]


BAKER, JOSHUA

NJ

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joshua Baker, presumably of Egg Harbor, New Jersey, was co-owner and commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Terrible, commissioned on 18 August 1779. [NRAR, 473] However, Terrible is credited with a prize in June 1779. [Maclay, 136] Terrible was captured by the British in September 1780. [NOAR, 13]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/18/79

PA

Schooner Terrible (4/14)

Joshua Baker

Henry Thorne and Joshua Baker & Co.

Henry Thorne, John Morrell

James Trimble [NRAR, 473]


BAKER, MILES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Miles Baker commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Snow Royal African, of fourteen guns. He was captured near Antigua in February 1777. [Allen, MPR, 269]


BAKER, SAMUEL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Samuel Baker, possibly of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Jackall on 4 August 1779. [NRAR, 354]


BAKER, THOMAS

PA

Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Privateers


Thomas Baker, possibly a resident of Philadelphia, was aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Holker (Commander JOHN QUINLAN) as Lieutenant when she was commissioned on 30 June 1782. [NRAR, 339] On 2 March 1783 Holker was patrolling between St. Lucia and Martinique when she was pursued by HM Frigate Alcmene. The weather was dark and squally and Quinlan set all sail to escape. When a rain squall hit the Holker she capsized. Forty-seven survivors were rescued, but it is not known if Baker was among them. [Miller, Sea of Glory, 280-281]


BAKER, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, [Massachusetts Privateers]


William Baker commanded the [Massachusetts Privateer unknown] King Herod, of ten guns. He was captured by the British and taken into Antigua before 22 February 1777. [NOAR, 13]


BALDWIN, JEDUTHAN

Colonel, Chief Engineer, Northern Army, Naval Constructor


Constructed Continental Army Lake Champlain Schooner Revenge at Fort Ticonderoga in the summer of 1776, perhaps to a plan of Captain Jacobus Wynkoop’s. [Bird, Navies, 171]


BALDWIN, JOHN

[PA]/(P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Lieutenant John Baldwin was apparently commissioned as First Lieutenant on the Continental Navy Schooner Wasp about 18 April 1776. He became lieutenant commanding about 6 June 1776 when CHARLES ALEXANDER was promoted. Baldwin commanded her during the Action at Cape May on 2 July 1776. [xx] On 23 August 1776 the Marine Committee issued him sailing orders for a cruise, [NRAR, 16] to Bermuda. He took several prizes and sent them into Egg Harbor, New Jersey. [NOAR, 13] Baldwin was ranked as the senior lieutenant in the Continental Navy on 12 October 1776. [NOAR, 13] He was ranked ninth on the lieutenant’s list of 12 October 1776. [xx] On 1 November he was ordered to patrol off the New Jersey coast. [NOAR, 13] On 11 November 1776 he was patrolling off the New Jersey coast, with Captain ELISHA WARNER in the Continental Navy Fly, watching for a suspected British embarkation of 15000 men. [NRAR, 28] On 30 December 1776 Baldwin and the Wasp were stationed on the outside of Delaware Bay, watching British vessels in the Bay. [NRAR, 33] On 1 January 1777 the Marine Committee ordered Baldwin to make an indent of stores needed for a three month cruise to Europe, and assured him that the prizes at Egg Harbor would be cared for. [NRAR, 33] He fought an action with the Worcester, perhaps in February 1777. [xx] The Wasp was lost in a storm off the Delaware Capes in March 1777. Baldwin was court-martialed and acquitted of her loss on 20 April 1777. [xx] On 14 December 1778, a John "Baldwyn" was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Lively. [NRAR, 336]


BALDWIN, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Baldwin of Salem, Massachusetts, was commissioned on 30 May 1782 to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Heyder Ally. [NRAR, 337] She was captured on 31 October 1782 by HMS Chatham on George’s Bank and taken into Halifax. [NOAR, 13] Baldwin was exchanged, and was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Thrasher on 31 December 1782. [NRAR, 475]


BALL, JOHN

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Ball of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Friendship on 3 December 1779. [NRAR, 305. In NOAR, 13, she is called the schooner Elizabeth.] Ball was re-commissioned to the Friendship, now called a brigantine, on 6 September 1780. [NRAR, 306] On 6 September 1780 he was appointed to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Little Molly. [NOAR, 13]


BALL, SAMUEL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Samuel Ball was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania when he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Rattlesnake on 1 February 1779. [NRAR, 431] On 20 September 1780 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Little Molly, [NRAR, 375] succeeding JOHN BALL. [NOAR, 13]


BALL, THOMAS

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Thomas Ball was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer [unknown] Comet. He was captured by the British and confined in Mill Prison, near Plymouth, England on 16 January 1781. [NOAR, 14]


BALLARD, EDWARD

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Edward Ballard was a Pilot in the Virginia Navy. He “rendered important services” during the war and was promoted to “a lieutenancy for his patriotism, shortly before the close of the war.” [Stewart, 143]


BALLENTINE, ANDREW

VA

Surgeon, Virginia Navy


Andrew Ballentine was recommended to serve aboard the Virginia Navy Brig Raleigh (Captain JAMES COCKE) on 29 July 1776. [Stewart, 143]


BANKES, JAMES

[See BANKS, JAMES]


BANKHEAD, JAMES

VA

Second Lieutenant, Virginia Marines


James Bankhead was a resident of Westmoreland County, Virginia, the son of Dr. James Bankhead. He was appointed as a Second Lieutenant of Virginia Marines in Captain ALEXANDER DICK’s company, replacing THOMPSON. [Stewart, 143-144] Perhaps on Musquetto?


BANKHEAD, JOSEPH

VA

Captain of Marines, Virginia Marines


Joseph Bankhead was a Captain of Marines in the Virginia Marines, aboard Virginia Navy Brig Raleigh (Captain EDWARD TRAVIS). When Raleigh was captured in May 1777 by HM Frigate Thames, he was imprisoned at New York, where he died after twelve months. [Stewart, 144]


BANKS [BANKES], JAMES

VA

Master, Virginia Navy


James Banks [Bankes] was a Master in the Virginia Navy, perhaps aboard the trading brigantine Liberty. Banks died about 1795 in Elizabeth City County, Virginia. [Stewart, 144]


BANKSON, BENJAMIN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Navy


Benjamin Bankson was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Navy Brig Convention in 1777. On 1 April 1778 he was appointed First Mate on the Pennsylvania Navy Sloop Sally. [NOAR, 14]


BANNING, JEREMIAH

MD

Public Official, Maryland


Jeremiah Banning was appointed as Naval Officer for the 7th District of the State of Maryland on 28 March 1777. [NOAR, 14]


BANNO, MICHAEL

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Navy


Michael Banno was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Navy Brig Volcano, a fire vessel, on 13 May 1777. [NOAR, 14]


BARBAROUS, JOHN

[see BARBAROUX, JOHN]


BARBAROUX [BARBAROUS], JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Barbaroux (or Barbarous) [NOAR, 14] of Salem, Massachusetts, was appointed to command the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hawk on 2 May 1782. [NRAR, 329]


BARBER, GEORGE

MD

First Mate, Maryland Privateers


George Barber was appointed as First Mate on the Maryland Privateer [unknown] Fly (Commander EATON RANDOLPH) on 11 August 1779. [NOAR, 14]


BARBER, NATHANIEL

MA

Public Official, Massachusetts


Nathaniel Barber was appointed as Naval Officer for Boston, Massachusetts on 26 December 1776. [NOAR, 14]


BARDER, MICHAEL

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Michael Barder commanded the Maryland Privateer [unknown] Governor Johnson. About July 1780 she was captured by HMS Ceres. [NOAR, 14]


BARKER [BAKER], FREDERICK

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Frederick Barker [NOAR, 14] (or Baker) was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Sloop Hero on 10 May 1779. [NRAR, 334]


BARKER, ROBERT

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Robert Barker was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Diana on 12 December 1781. [NRAR, 268]


BARKER, SAMUEL

CT

Captain, Connecticut Navy


Samuel Barker was a native of Branford, Connecticut. In 1779 he commanded the Connecticut Navy Galley New Defence in Long Island Sound. [NOAR, 14]


BARLOW, JOHN

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


John Barlow was a native of New Haven, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Boat Betsey. On 18 December 1780 he captured the British sloop Tartar in Oyster Bay on Long Island. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 61] Betsey was captured by the British in March 1781. [NOAR, 15]


BARLOW, LEVI

NH

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Levi Barlow was a resident of Nottingham West, New Hampshire. [NRAR, 461] He was commissioned on 12 April 1782 to the Massachusetts Privateer Boat Speedwell, sailing out of Barnstable, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 461] Barlow had an adventurous career. He was driven into Nantucket by a large British privateer, but he eluded the privateer and arrived at Falmouth. He joined with [NOAR, 15] Commander Lot Dimick [NRAR, 430] (or Dimmick, [NOAR, 15] Dimuck) [NOAR, 91] of the Massachusetts Privateer Boar Ranger [NRAR, 430] and other men. With their boats these men went out and boarded an anchored British privateer, capturing the skipper and twenty-seven men, who were taken to Falmouth. [NOAR, 15] On 6 November 1782 Barlow was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Sloop Speedwell. [NRAR, 461] This was probably the same vessel as the "boat."


BARLOW, WYATT

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Wyatt Barlow was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Warren on 21 August 1781. [NDAR, VI, 248-250 and 250 note]


BARNABY, RICHARD

MD

Owner, Maryland Privateers


Richard Barnaby was a resident Maryland. He was associated with the following vessels:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/20/77

MD

Schooner Adventure (0/7)

Thomas Robinson

James Williams, Joseph Williams, Richard Barnaby, David Robinson, William Avery

Thomas Robinson, James Williams

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 221]


BARNARD, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Barnard, a resident of Boston, Massachusetts, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Lizard on 31 July 1778. [NOAR, 15]


BARNARD, SAMUEL

MA

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Samuel Barnard was a resident of Haverhill, Massachusetts. On 9 November 1779 he was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Brigantine Felix. [NOAR, 15]


BARNARD, THOMAS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Barnard, residing in Boston, Massachusetts, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Poppet on 11 March 1782. [NRAR, 419]


BARNARD, TRISTRAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Tristram Barnard was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 11 February 1782 to command the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Queen of Spain. [NRAR, 425]


BARNES, CORBAN [CORBIN]

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Corban (or Corbin) Barnes was a native of Plymouth, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 17 December 1775 [NDAR, III, 602-603] to the 75-ton [NDAR, IV, 84-85 and 85 note] Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Yankee. Yankee made several short cruises out of Plymouth in December 1775 and January 1776. On one of these she probably recaptured the brig Peter (Thomas Egger) about 20 December. [NDAR, II, 1255-1256 and 1256 note; III, 214, 214-215, 274 and note] On 30 January 1776 Barnes sailed on a cruise with Continental Army Schooner Hancock (Captain John Manley). [NDAR, III, 1031-1033] She was at sea with Continental Army Schooner Harrison (Captain Charles Dyar) on 23 February 1776 when the pair met and engaged HM Brig Hope (Lieutenant George Dawson). After a three hour battle the Americans retired into Plymouth harbor. Observers ashore noted that Barnes had saved Harrison from capture and that he deserved the "thanks of the public." [NDAR, IV, 47, 84-85 and 85 note] Barnes left the Yankee after this action. He was reported as master of the Julia, in the Delaware River, on 26 April 1776. [NDAR, IV, 1267]


BARNES, NATHANIEL

CT

First Mate, Connecticut Navy


Nathaiel Barnes was reported as the [First] Mate on the Connecticut Navy Schooner Spy (Captain Robert Niles) on 8 January 1777. [NOAR, 15]


BARNES, SAMUEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Barnes was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hazard on 10 February 1783. [NRAR, 332]


BARNES, WILLIAM

PA/(P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy


William Barnes was commissioned on 17 August 1776 (NOAR, 15 says 13 August). He was First Lieutenant on the Continental Navy Ship Randolph (Captain NICHOLAS BIDDLE) on 1 September 1777 when he joined with other officers in a signed petition against Lieutenant of Marines Panatiere de la Falconniere. He was given high praise by Biddle for his conduct during the cruise of the Randolph from 1-7 September 1777, including the action with the True Briton on 4 September. Barnes sailed with Randolph on her last cruise on 14 February 1778, and was killed in action when the Randolph blew up while engaging HMS Yarmouth on 7 March 1778.


BARNETT, JONATHAN

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Jonathan Barnett was a Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy and served until the close of the war, according to NOAR, 16.


BARNEY, JOSHUA

MD/(P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joshua Barney was born on 6 July 1759, one of fourteen children of William and Frances Barney of Patapsco Neck, Maryland. [Smith, Marines, 430] He was [Acting Second Lieutenant] on the Continental Navy Schooner Wasp from about 7 April 1776 to about 10 May 1776, when he was ordered aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Sachem (Captan ISAIAH ROBINSON) at Philadelphia to oversee her outfit. Barney was commissioned as First Lieutenant sometime in June 1776. He was aboard the Sachem during her action with the British Privateer Brig Three Friends on 12 August 1776. On 20 September 1776 he transferred to the Continental Navy Brig Andrew Doria with Captain Robinson. Barney was ranked 13th on the Lieutenant’s List of 12 October 1776. [xx] Barney was later captured and spent five months on a British prison ship in New York harbor before being exchanged. [NOAR, 16] On 26 July 1780 a letter from Joshua Barney was read in Congress, reviewing his career in the Continental Navy and requesting that his rank be fixed and his pay determined. Barney’s request was, in essence, not to be reduced in pay by being transferred from a vessel of over twenty guns to one of less than twenty guns (there being a pay differential). The letter was referred to the Board of Admiralty. [NRAR, 153] The Board of Admiralty reported on 1 August 1780, recommending that any officer serving on a ship of war of twenty guns or more not be reduced in pay by reason of service on a smaller boat. Congress accepted this report on 7 August. [NRAR, 154]  After being captured and exchanged a second time he was commissioned as commander of the Maryland Privateer Brig Ponoma. He was captured a third time by HM Frigate Rosebud. On 16 January 1781 he was imprisoned in Mill Prison. Barney escaped, was recaptured, and escaped again on 18 May 1781. [NOAR, 16]  On 2 April 1782 Barney was appointed to command the famous Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Hyder Ally, sixteen guns and 100 men. [NRAR, 348] On 2 April 1782, in a notable fight, he captured the British ship General Monk. [NOAR, 16] On 27 April 1782, Barney was appointed as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship [unknown], with eighteen guns and a crew of 120 men. [NRAR, 227] The General Monk was taken into the Continental Navy as the General Washington, with Barney as lieutenant commanding. [NOAR, 16] He remained with her until she was sold out of service in 1784.  On 6 March 1784, in a letter to Thomas Mifflin, President of the Continental Congress, Barney requested promotion from Lieutenant to Captain. [NRAR, 202]


BARNEY, WILLIAM STEVENSON


MD/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


William Stevenson Barney was born on 28 December 1754, one of fourteen children of William and Frances Barney of Patapsco Neck, Maryland. Barney’s younger brother, Joshua, served in the Continental Navy as a First Lieutenant and later in the USN as Commodore. Barney’s commission date is uncertain, but he is reputed to have been a Lieutenant of Marines aboard Continental Navy Brig Andrew Doria when the crew of that vessel evacuated the fort at Billingsport on 2 October 1777, during the Delaware River campaign. After the fall of Philadelphia and the loss of the Andrew Doria, First Lieutenant Joshua Barney took the crew of the Andrew Doria from Bordentown to Baltimore to help man Continental Navy Ship Virginia. William Barney was assigned as Virginia’s Second Lieutenant of Marines. On 30 March 1778 Virginia attempted to run the British blockade and get to sea, but was run aground in the night. Abandoned by her captain, the Virginia surrendered the next day. William was sent to Baltimore for exchange on 11 April 1778. Barney apparently had no further Marine service. He reputedly kept an inn in Georgetown, District of Columbia after the war and served during the War of 1812. [Smith, Marines, 430-431]


BARNEY, WILLIAM

(P)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


William Barney is listed twice in Paullin, as if he is unsure whether two different William Barneys are involved. [Paullin, 513] If there are two, this may be the one who claims to be a Marine Lieutenant in 1781. [NOAR, 16]


BARNWELL, JOHN

SC

Captain, 1st South Carolina Regiment of Foot


John Barnwell assisted the Georgians in the capture of the powder ship Philippa in July 1775, when he commanded a boat and twenty men. [see JOHN JOINER] [NDAR, I, 923, 1048 and note, 1186-1187] He was a Captain in the 1st South Carolina Regiment of Foot in January 1776.


BAROT, JOHN

[See BARRET, JOHN]


BARR, JAMES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


James Barr was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 448] Barr served as First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Oliver Cromwell (Commander THOMAS SIMMONS), commissioned 8 July 1778. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Oliver Cromwell on 11 August 1779. Oliver Cromwell sailed about 1 September 1779. During the cruise she had a narrow escape from a British frigate and encountered a severe storm, which damaged the ship. Barr brought her into port about 30 September 1779. She was now used as a letter-of-marque, making two voyages to the West Indies. The Oliver Cromwell was sold in January 1781. [see Oliver Cromwell] On 28 May 1781 Barr was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Rover. [NRAR, 448] In late 1781 the “brig” Rover sailed from the West Indies for home and fell in with a British fleet which sailed from New York in November 1781. She was captured by HM Frigate Medea and was sent into Barbados, where Barr was imprisoned. [Allen, MPR, 268, from the Boston Gazette of 28 January 1782] Barr (called Barr, Jr., was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Montgomery (formerly called the General Montgomery) on 20 June 1782. [NRAR, 397]


BARR, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Barr was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. On 26 October 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Defence. [NRAR, 264]


BARRET [BARRETT, BAROT], JOHN

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


John Barret [Barot, Barrett] was born about 1750. [NOAR, 16] He commanded a vessel late in 1775, in which Lieutenant Richard Dale served. In March 1776 Dale was captured near Sandy Point by HM Frigate Liverpool, and was confined on a prison ship in Norfolk Harbor. [Stewart, 11-12] Barret was promoted Captain on 26 February 1778 and commanded the Virginia Navy Galley Hero. He resigned 3 September 1778. [Stewart, 144] He died in 1830. [NOAR, 16]


BARRET, JONATHAN

[See BARRETT, JONATHAN]


BARRETT, JAMES

[Acting Captain], Virginia Navy


James Barrett was a Boatswain on the Virginia Navy Galley Hero. For a short time he was in command of the Virginia Navy [unknown] Liberty. [Stewart, 144]


BARRETT [BARRET], JONATHAN

VA

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Jonathan Barrett was a resident of  Princess Anne County, Virginia. [Stewart, 144] He was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy on 12 July 1776. He served on the Virginia Navy Brig Raleigh (Captain EDWARD TRAVIS), which was captured in May 1777 by HM Frigate Thames. [NOAR, 16] Barrett was imprisoned at New York. After a year’s imprisonment he died there, leaving two children. His wife Amy petitioned for relief on 5 November 1778. [Stewart, 144] [He died in 1830 according to NOAR, 16. Much conflation in both Stewart and NOAR.]


BARRIER, P.

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


P. Barrier was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brig Duke de Crillon on 23 January 1783. [NOAR, 16]


BARRON, BENJAMIN

VA/(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


BARRON, JAMES

VA

Commodore, Virginia Navy


James Barron was born in 1740, [NOAR, 16] in Elizabeth City County, Virginia. He served in the transatlantic merchant service before the war, sailing the ship Elizabeth from Virginia to London and back. [NDAR, I, 1387-1394] He was commissioned as a Captain of Virginia Militia [NOAR, 17] and, according to his son, entered Virginia naval service on 25 December 1775. [Stewart, 146] On 4 March 1776 he was serving aboard the Virginia Navy [Sloop] Liberty. Together with Captain Richard Barron of the Virginia Navy [Sloop] Patriot he recaptured the British Transport Ship Oxford. On 11 September 1776 he and Richard Barron were ordered to protect transport vessels taking troops down Chesapeake Bay to the Virginia Capes. [NOAR, 17] Barron later served as Commodore of the Virginia Navy, commissioned July 1780, [Stewart, 146] to 7 April 1783. He died on 14 May 1787, still acting as Commodore. [Stewart, 146]


BARRON, JAMES, JR.

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


James Barron, Jr. was a son of JAMES BARRON. He was a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy. [Stewart, 148] He entered the Navy before July 1780. [Stewart, 146] He was a Captain later. [Stewart, 148] He later had a distinguished career in the United States Navy. [Stewart, 146]


BARRON, RICHARD

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


Richard Barron was a resident of Elizabeth City County, Virginia, ans brother of JAMES BARRON. [Stewart, 148] He was a Captain of Virginia Militia, and was assigned to the Virginia Navy [Sloop] Patriot on 4 March 1776. With James Barron of the Virginia Navy [Sloop] Liberty he recaptured the British Transport Ship Oxford. On 11 September 1776 he and James Barron were ordered to protect transport vessels taking troops down Chesapeake Bay to the Virginia Capes. [NOAR, 17] Barron was Captain, Virginia Navy and assigned to the Virginia Navy Brig Jefferson, from 1778-1780. On 11 October 1780 he was given leave to go to the West Indies to recover his health. His will was proved on 28 April 1791. [Stewart, 148]


BARRON, SAMUEL

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


Samuel Barron was a resident of Elizabeth City County, Virginia, and brother to JAMES BARRON and RICHARD BARRON. He was born in Hampton, Virginia on 5 September 1765 and attended William and Mary College. He left college to enter the Virginia Navy aboard Virginia Navy Ship Dragon. Barron served as “Lt. Commander” aboard lookout boats at various times. He served on one of the Virginia warships in an action fought off the mouth of Hampton Creek with a British tender. Barron bore a conspicuous part in the fight, although on 17 at the time. More British were killed or captured than manned the Virginia craft. Barron was later a Commodore in the United States Navy. [Stewart, 148]


BARRON, WILLIAM

VA/(P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy


William Barron was born in Elizabeth City County, Virginia. He was brother of JAMES, RICHARD, and SAMUEL BARRON, all involved in the Virginia Navy. [Stewart, 145] On 22 May 1776 the Rhode Island Frigate Committee appointed "Capt" William Barron of Newport as Master of the "largest of the Ships," he having produced "sufficient Testimony of his Seamanship & other Qualifications." [NDAR, V, 199] This was the vessel then building in Providence that was soon named the Continental Navy Ship Warren (Captain JOHN BURROUGHS HOPKINS). William Barron was then appointed as First Lieutenant of the Continental Navy Ship Providence (Captain SAMUEL TOMPKINS), being transferred from the Warren. [NDAR, V, 637-638] He later again served on the Continental Navy Ship Warren. [NOAR, 17] Barron was later First Lieutenant aboard the Continental Navy Ship Boston. He was critcally wounded when a gun burst aboard the Boston. [Stewart, 145, 148] He died of wounds on 26 March 1778. [NOAR, 17]


BARRY, JOHN

(P)

Captain, Continental Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Barry was born in Ireland in 1745. [NOAR, 17] Barry lived in Philadelphia most of his life. He was tall (6'4"), Roman Catholic, and known for his violent temper. He was a merchant skipper for the firm of Willing & Morris, and commanded their ship Black Prince in September 1775, when he arrived at Philadelphia from Europe, bearing letters which had an influence on the birth of the Continental Navy. Barry probably helped supervise the conversion of the Black Prince into Continental Navy Ship Alfred in November-December 1775. He was commissioned a Captain in the Continental Navy on 6 June 1776. Barry commanded the Continental Navy Brig Lexington, in which he captured the British tender Edward. Barry was ranked seventh on the Captains’ List of 10 October 1776 and was assigned to the new Continental Navy Ship Effingham. Barry served as presiding officer at the trial of Master William Whitpain (of the Continental Navy Sloop Independence) on 10 June 1777. On 21 July 1777 he was the senior officer to whom the Continental Navy Lieutenants handed the infamous "strike paper." [NRAR, 50] On 26 November 1777, Barry at Bordentown, reports to Marine Committee on court martial held on ship Lion for trial of men from Repulse. Read 5 December and referred to Marine Committee. [NRAR, 58] n 19 December 1777 Robert Morris (Manheim PA) to Henry Laurens (President of Marine Committee) related that John Barry wished to relate his reasons for dispute with Navy Board, Morris wanted to hear both sides, not one, Barry considered himself able to defend himself against the board. [NRAR, 62] On 29 January 1778 the Marine Committee issued orders to Barry for a crise on the Delaware (Barry at Bordentown?). The Middle Navy Board ordered to assist in every possible way. [NRAR, 65] On 11 March 1778 the Marine Committee congratulated Barry in his success on the Delaware River and discussed prize money. On 26 March the Marine Committee discussed future operations, prize money, and stealing by militia. [NRAR, 68] On 24 April 1778 the Marine Committee oredered Nicholas Vandyke (of Newcastle Co. Del) to forward the Continental share of Barry’s prizes or give it to the Navy Board at Baltimore. [NRAR, 71] On May 30, 1778 Barry is informed he is appointed to command Raleigh (then at Boston) by Marine Committee. He is to follow orders of Eastern Navy Board. (Barry in Delaware River). [NRAR, 74] On 24 August 1778 the Marine Committee to John Barry (Providence, RI?) with instructions for a cruise in the Raleigh with Captain William Burke in the Resistance under his command, along the Atlantic coast from Delaware Bay to North Carolina. Orders to Burke to join Barry. On 28 August 1778 Barry is ordered by the Marine Committee to act as convoy, with Burke, for vessels sent to sea by Col. Jeremiah Wadsworth. (Barry in Hampton, Va?) [NRAR, 81] On 28 September 1778 the Marine Committee wrote Barry (at Boston) to proceed to sea when Raleigh was armed, go to Portsmouth, Virginia and cruise on that coast. If the Deane were in company he was to attack the British frigate Perseus off Carolina. [NRAR, 85] On 25 October 1778 the Marine Committee wrote to the Eastern Navy Board regarding the loss of the Raleigh and a court of inquiry on Barry’s conduct. [NRAR, 87] On 20 November 1778 the Marine Committee issued instructions to Barry for an expedition against East Florida. [NRAR, 90] On 15 February 1779, Barry was commissioned as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Delaware, with ten guns and a crew of forty-five men. Delaware was owned by Thomas & Mathew Irwin of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 265] On 6 November 1779 the Marine Committee informed the Eastern Navy Board that Barry had been appointed to the America. Haste in completion was urged. [NRAR, 122]  The same day Barry (in Philadelphia) was ordered to Portsmouth to expedite completion of the ship, any advisable alterations to be reported to the Marine Committee. [NRAR, 122] On 20 November 1779 the Marine Committee informed Barry (then at Portsmouth?) that Captain of Marines George Jerry Osborne was appointed to command Marines on the America. [NRAR, 125] On 31 January 1780 the Board of Admiralty wrote to the Board of War as to accomodations for Barry’s horses. [NRAR, 133] On 5 September 1780 the Board of Admiralty appointed Barry to take command of the Alliance, Barry at Philadelphia. Captain Hoysteed Hacker (Philadelphia) appointed as her senior lieutenant. [NRAR, 160] On 12 September the Board of Admiralty reported to Congress on the troubles on the Alliance and that the Eastern Navy Board was consulting with Barry and William Ellery on the matter. [NRAR, 161] On 22 September 1780 the Eastern Navy Board notiefies Landais that he is suspended from command of the Alliance and that Barry is appointed to take command. [NRAR, 162] On 10 November 1780 the Navy Board of the Eastern Department sent an order to John Barry, at Boston, for the trial of Peter Landais and James (Arthur) Degge, and in a separate letter the Board added more charges against Landais. On 17 November, more charges were added by the Board. {NRAR, 165] On 18 December 1780 Landais requests an adjournment. [NRAR, 168] On 26 December 1780 Landais requested an adjournment. [NRAR, 168] The Landais affair lasted from 20 November 1780. The trial of Pierre Landais began, on board theAlliance in Boston, with John Barry as president of the court. It lasted from 2 January until 6 January 1781. [NRAR, 170] On 23 March 1781, Barry, at L’Orient, ordered Captain Gallatheau of the Marquis de Lafayette to prepare for sea. [NRAR, 173] The Marquis de Lafayette and the Alliance capture the Mars, 3 April 1781. [NRAR, 188] In a letter from the Navy Board of the Eastern Department to the Board of Admiralty, it is noted that Barry has been urging the promotion of John Buckley to a lieutenancy on the Alliance, dated 21 July 1781. On 25 July Barry notified the Board of Admiralty that he was nearly recovered from his wound and would soon to able to attend the needs of his ship. Barry in Boston. [NRAR, 182] On 13 October 1781 Barry wrote to Thomas McKean regarding the court-martial of three men then in Boston. Barry in Philadelphia. [NRAR, 186] On 5 January 1782, Morris wrote to Barry with a list of articles desired from Paris. [NRAR, 187] On 18 January 1782, James Wilson of Philadelphia, as agent for owners of Marquis de Lafayette, writes to Congress, praying that proceeds from sale of the Mars be equitably divided between the Marquis de Lafayette and the Alliance, to this end prays an appeal be allowed from Massachusetts authorities to the United States Court of Appeals. On 19 January this was referred to a committee., which reported favorably on 22 January. The same day William Robeson (at Nantes) wrote Barry with reminiscences and questons for the future. [NRAR, 188] On 22 May 1782, Barclay at L’Orient, writes to Barry regarding prizemoney. On 25 May 1782, Robert Morris orders Captain John Hodge of the Active to put himself under Barry’s command. On 6 June 1782 Morris informs Barry that he is unable to secure a Delaware pilot for Barry, and that Congress has taken no action in regard to Alliance’s mutineers. [NRAR, 190] On 15 June 1782 the committee of the Continental Congress reported on Barry’s testimony concerning loss of the Marquis de Lafayette. On 24 July 1782, Barry, at New London, forwarded to Thomas McKean, President of the Continental Congress, extracts of Alliance’s log book on the same matter. On 1 August 1782, Barry sent various other papers concerning the Marquis de Lafayette to Charles Thomson, Secretary of the Congress. [NRAR, 191] The next day he forwarded an attested copy of his testimony before the committee. [NRAR, 191-192] The officers of the Alliance gave Barry power of attorney for them in prize matters on 17 November 1782. On 27 November, Thomas Barclay, at L’Orient, wrote Barry, approving his conduct toward his subordinate officers. [NRAR, 193] On 29 March 1783 Morris wrote to Barry with instructions for repairs to, and stores for, the Alliance. [NRAR, 194] Robert Morris replied to Barry, Read, and others, as to petitions for refief, on 6 October 1783. [NRAR, 197] On 25 December 1783, Barclay at Paris, writes to Barry regarding prize money. [NRAR, 199] On 10 May 1784 various members of the Alliance’s crew presented Congress with a petition for wages and prize money. A committee reported on this matter the same day, referring it to the Agent of Marines. On 1 July 1784, Barry presented his account against the Alliance: $1,599.94. [NRAR, 203] A letter from Thomas Barclay at L’Orient, dated 12 January 1785, with an account of the monies payed to the Alliance, and the profit on shares purchased for Barry and John Brown. [NRAR, 205] On 24 September 1785, Barry and THOMAS READ sent a letter and petition to Congress asking for increased pay for themselves and others. The petition was read on 26 September. [NRAR, 209] He conspired with JAMES NICHOLSON to block JOHN PAUL JONES’ promotion to Admiral. Barry had notable fights in May 1781 with HM Sloops Atalanta and Trepassy and in 1783 with HM Frigate Sybil.


BARRY, THEODORE

PA

First Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy


Theodore Barry was commissioned a First Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 6 November 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Camden. [NOAR, 17]


BARSTON, MICHAEL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Michael Barston was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Industry on 29 November 1776. [NOAR, 17]


BARTHOLOMEW, JOHN

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Bartholomew was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/20/79

PA

Schooner Adventure (6/20)

John McIlnoe

Benjamin Towne and John Bartholomew & Co.

John McIlnoe, Benjamin Towne

[NRAR, 221]


BARTLETT, ABRAHAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Abraham Bartlett was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Congress on 3 November 1778. On 4 June 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Starks. [NOAR, 17] On 19 [NOAR, 18] October [NOAR, 17] 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Fame. Bartlett’s next commission was to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Commerce, on 6 July 1780. [NOAR, 18] He was re-commissioned to the Commerce on 12 September 1781. [NRAR, 256]


BARTLETT, AMBROSE

MD

Third Lieutenant, Maryland Privateers


Ambrose Bartlett was appointed as Third Lieutenant on the Maryland Privateer Ship Buckskin (Commander AQUILA JOHNS) on 9 January 1779. [NRAR, 243]


BARTLETT, ELKANAH

MA

First Mate [Pilot], Massachusetts Navy


On 6 June 1776 Elkanah Bartlett was appointed as First Mate and Pilot on the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Swift (Commander JOHN WIGGLESWORTH). [NOAR, 18]


BARTLETT, ISAAC

MA

Captain, Massachusetts Navy


Isaac Bartlett was in command of the Massachusetts Navy Schooner Plymouth. On 6 January 1777 he was ordered to proceed to the West Indies to obtain a cargo of munitions. She was to be armed for her return trip. [NOAR, 18]


BARTLETT, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Bartlett was a native of Marblehead, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 18] He served as Second Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Satisfaction (Commander JOHN STEVENS) on 4 November 1776. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] He was commissioned on 29 November 1777 to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hampden (or Hamden). [Allen, MPR, 161] In January 1779 the Hampden was captured by the British. [NOAR, 18] On 13 August 1782 a John Bartlett, of Salisbury, Massachusetts, is listed among the owners of the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Resolution. [NRAR, 437]


BARTLETT, NICHOLAS

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nicholas Bartlett, [NRAR, 222] or Nicholas Bartlett Jr., [NOAR, 18] was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts in 1778. [NOAR, 18] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine America on 28 August 1778. On 21 May 1779  Bartlett was appointed as commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hero. [NOAR, 18] On 26 August 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine General Glover. Bartlett was now known as "Nicholas Bartlett," having dropped the "Jr." He listed his residence as Marblehead, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 220] Bartlett  was captured by the British in October 1779, presumably in the General Glover, and was later exchanged. [NOAR, 18] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Adventurous Fisherman on 29 August 1782. [NRAR, 222]


BARTLETT, PHILIP

NY

Surgeon, Virginia Navy


Philip Bartlett was a resident of Hampton, Virginia, and said to be from New York. He was a Surgeon in the Virginia Navy, serving aboard the Virginia Navy [unknown] Liberty. He was on the Virginia Navy [unknown] Patriot at the end of the war. Bartlett died in 1809. [Stewart, 149]


BARTLETT, WILLIAM

MA

Agent, Continental Army Boston Squadron


BARTLETT, WILLIAM

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


William Bartlett was a native of Beverly, Massachusetts. He served as First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hampden (Commander JOHN BARTLETT), from 1 November 1777. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425. Howe gives the commission date as 1 November and the commander as JONATHAN INGERSOLL. Ingersoll was listed as Hampden’s owner; her commission was given on 29 November 1777.] Bartlett was probably the brother of John Bartlett, and perhaps both were sons of the agent, WILLIAM BARTLETT. Hampden was captured by the British in January 1779. [NOAR, 18]


BARTON, WILLIAM

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Barton was, possibly, a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Jackall on 12 August 1779. [NRAR, 354]


BARTRAM, EBENEZER

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy

[First Lieutenant], Connecticut Privateers


Ebenezer Bartram was a native of Fairfield, Connecticut. He was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Connecticut Navy on 3 March 1776 and assigned to the Connecticut Navy Brig Defence (Captain SETH HARDING). Bartram served [NOAR, 18] on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hibernia (Commander SAMUEL SMEDLEY), commissioned 10 October 1780, [NRAR, 337] apparently as First Lieutenant. Hibernia was captured by the British on 25 October 1780. [Middlebrook, MCR, 123-125]


BARTRAM, SAMUEL

CT

Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy


Samuel Bartram was a Lieutenant in the Connecticut Navy in 1776. He was dismissed on 10 January 1777 due to a disability of some kind. [NOAR, 18]


BASDEN, HENRY

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Henry Basden, possibly of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Merlin (Commander JOSIAH HILL) on 16 June 1781. [NRAR, 391] Basden listed his age as 25. [NOAR, 19]


BASS, EBENEZER

CT

First Lieutenant, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Ebenezer Bass entered the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Galley Trumbull on 23 September 1776 as First Lieutenant. He remained aboard until 25 November 1776 when he was discharged back to his regiment. [NDAR, VII, 280-281. NOAR, 19, lists Bass as a First Lieutenant of Marines.]


BASSETT, BARAKIAH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Barakiah Bassett was a resident of Plymouth, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Boat Falmouth on 8 May 1782. [NOAR, 19]


BASSETT, CHRISTOPHER

MA

[Prizemaster]


Christopher Bassett was in command of the vessel Jupiter, captured from the British. About November 1780 the Jupiter was captured by the British vessel Emperor. [NOAR, 19]


BASSETT, THOMAS

CT

First Mate, Connecticut Privateers


Thomas Bassett was appointed as First Mate on the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Delight (Commanders EBENEZER SAGE and NATHAN POST) from 21 November 1780. The Delight made two voyages to the West Indies in this period. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 69-70]


BATCHELDER, NATHAN

MA

First Mate [Lieutenant], Massachusetts Privateers


Nathan Batchelder was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. He was the First Mate on the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Valiant (Commander JOSHUA ELLINGWOOD) on 3 June 1780. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 419, 425] Batchelder is described as age 29, 5'6" tall, and with a light complexion. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 419]


BATES, BENJAMIN

MA/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Benjamin Bates was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Continental Navy on 4 December 1778. On 20 December 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Sailor’s Delight, with eight guns and fifty men, sailing out of Boston. [NOAR, 19]


BATSON, GEORGE

PA/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


On 15 May 1777 George Batson signed the original petition complaining about his low pay of twenty shillings per week. He signed the Lieutenant’s Petition of 21 July 1777 (the "strike paper," refused to do duty, was suspended from the Navy by Congress on 23 July, and was reinstated, with the others, on 28 July, following an abject apology.


BATTEN, ANDREW

Midshipman, Continental Navy


Andrew Batten enlisted as a Midshipman in the Continental Navy aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Independence (Captain JOHN YOUNG) [Clark, The First Saratoga, 154] probably about January 1777. Batten made a cruise from Philadelphia to St. Pierre, Martinique in the Independence, from about 15 March-5 April 1777 and the return trip to Sinepuxent Bay, Maryland, ending in May 1777. He sailed for France in the Independence. When the prize brig Lovely Peggy was captured on 7 September 1777, [Clark, The First Saratoga, 157] Batten was assigned as prizemaster. He was captured, along with the prize, on 30 September 1777. [Clark, The First Saratoga, 154]


BATTY, GEORGE

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


George Batty was commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Brigantine Morning Star on 1 March 1781. [NRAR, 397]


BAXTER, JOHN

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Baxter was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Tryall on 14 July 1780 [NRAR, 478] and, on 5 May 1781, to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Hibernia. [NRAR, 338. His name is listed as James Baxter here, but see the editor’s note.]


BAXTER, SETH

PA/(P/A)

Captain, Continental Marines


Seth Baxter was born in Braintree, Massachusetts in 1732, one of eleven children of John and Mehitable Baxter. On 26 October 1758 he married Elenor, daughter of Jonathan Allen of Martha’s Vineyard. Baxter had three children by Elenor. He married again, on 20 December 1767, to Mary Saunders, by whom he had four children. Baxter was commissioned as a Captain of Marines on 10 October 1776. He was assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Hancock (Captain JOHN MANLEY), reporting aboard late in 1776 or in January 1777. In January 1777 one Jacob Spear enlisted as a corporal of Marines under Baxter in the Hancock. WILLIAM BUBIER, of Marblehead, Massachusetts, served as Hancock’s’s [First] Lieutenant of Marines. Baxter sailed with Hancock and Continental Navy Ship Boston and a fleet of privateers in mid-May 1777. Baxter participated in  the events of this cruise, including an action with HMS Somerset on 30 May 1777, the capture of HM Frigate Fox on 7 June 1777 and the Action of 7/8 July 1777 in which Hancock was captured by HM Frigate Rainbow. Baxter and his junior officer, Bubier, were imprisoned aboard the Rainbow and were later kept at Halifax, Nova Scotia. On 9 November 1777 Baxter was exchanged for Captain John Aire. Baxter’s record is unknown until 17 February 1779 when he reported aboard the Continental Navy Ship Boston (Captain SAMUEL TUCKER) [at Boston]. Baxter replaced Captain of Marines RICHARD PALMES. Baxter’s under officers were First Lieutenant of Marines JEREMIAH REED (who joined the frigate in December 1778) and Second Lieutenant of Marines WILLIAM COOPER (who came aboard in March 1779). In April 1779 Boston was ordered to Philadelphia to obtain bread, and then to cruise off the Delaware Capes. On patrol there with the Continental Navy Ship Confederacy, three prizes were captured, including the 26-gun privateer Pole. Cooper was part of the prize crew which took her into Philadelphia. Baxter’s career is unknown thereafter. He died at age 74 on 8 August 1805. [Smith, Marines, 431]


BAXTER, WILLIAM

PA

Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Baxter served as a Lieutenant [NOAR, 19] on the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hancock (Commander WINGATE NEWMAN), commissioned 2 September 1776. [NOAR, 219] On 7 December 1776 Baxter volunteered to serve with the land forces during emergencies. [NOAR, 19]


BAY, HUGH

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Hugh Bay, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Sally (Commander JOHN CHRISTIE) on 11 August 1781. [NRAR, 452] Bay listed his age as 25. [NOAR, 19]


BAYARD, JAMES

MA

First Mate, Continental Army Boston Squadron


James Bayard was First Mate on the Continental Army Schooner Lynch, of the Boston Squadron, on 19 August 1776. Lynch was captured by the British on 19 May 1777, [NOAR, 20]


BAYARD, JOHN

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Bayard was probably a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated with GEORGE WOOLSEY of Baltimore, Maryland; and JAMES CALDWELL and JOHN PRINGLE "and others," all of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in privateering. Vessels associated with Bayard were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Bonder

Witness

2/7/77

PA

Ship Oliver Cromwell (24/150)

Harman Courter

George Woolsey, John Pringle et al, James Caldwell, John Bayard

Harman Courter, James Caldwell, John Bayard

[Photograph of bond]


BAYLEY, JOSEPH, JR.

MA [ME]

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Bayley, Jr. was a resident of Falmouth, Massachusetts [Maine]. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Putnam on 27 September 1776. [NOAR, 20]


BAYLEY [BAILY], SAMUEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Bayley listed his residence as Newburyport, Massachusetts. On 7 August 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Behmus [Bemus]. [NOAR, 20]


BAYLY, LABAN

[See BAILEY, LABAN]


BAYNE [BAYNES], JOHN

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


John Bayne (Baynes) was a resident of Norfolk County, Virginia. He was commissioned as a Captain, Virginia Navy on 9 June 1777 and assigned to the Virginia Navy [unknown] Liberty. Bayne was said to be lost at sea. [Stewart, 149]


BAYNES, JOHN

[See BAYNE, JOHN]


BEACH, BENJAMIN

VA

[First] Mate, Virginia Navy


Benjamin Beach was a resident of Northampton, Virginia. He served aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Diligence as [First] Mate (Master’s Mate). [Stewart, 149]


BEACH, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Beach was a resident of Gloucester, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Gloucester Packet on 28 December 1780. [NRAR, 317] On 21 January 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Harriot, a vessel partly owned by Beach. [NRAR, 328] His final command of the war was the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Forty-Five, commissioned 11 November 1782. [NRAR, 299]


BEACH, JOHN

PA

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy


John Beach was born in Bristol, Pennsylvania. [NOAR, 20] He was appointed First Lieutenant on the Continental Navy Schooner [Lugger] Surprize (Captain GUSTAVUS CONYNGHAM) in April 1777. Beach passed himself off as an Irishman from Dublin, obtained fake French clearances in his name at Dunkerque, for the "Peacock," then sailed out to take Conyngham aboard. After the capture of HM Packet Sloop Prince of Orange on 2 May 1777, Beach was assigned as prizemaster. He brought the prize into Dunkerque, where she was released by the French and Conyngham, Beach and Surprize’s crew thrown in jail. Beach was soon released and transferred, with the other Americans, to the Continental Navy Cutter Revenge (Captain Gustavus Conyngham). Revenge sailed from Dunkerque on 17 July 1777.


BEALL, W.

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


W. Beall was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Alert on 29 June 1782. [NOAR, 20]


BEARS [BEERS, BEEARS], DANIEL

RI/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Daniel Bears enlisted in the Continental Navy on 20 November 1775 at Rhode Island, being part of the men brought to Philadelphia aboard the Rhode Island Navy Sloop Katy in December 1775. He was assigned to Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain ABRAHAM WHIPPLE) as a Midshipman. He participated in the New Providence Expedition and in the Battle off Block Island. On 1 June 1776 Bears was promoted to Gunner of the Columbus. Bears was Second Lieutenant aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Providence from 19 June 1777 until at least 28 August 1777. He was, (as Daniel Beers), captured by the British and committed to Fortun Prison on 28 August 1778. He was pardoned for exchange on 11 December 1779. [NOAR, 20, 21. Listings under both names in this source.]


BEASLEY, STEPHEN

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


Pennsylvania Navy Boat Viper was placed in commission on 5 April 1777, when Stephen Beasley was commissioned as Captain, on recommendation of the Pennsylvania Navy Board. [NDAR, VIII, 277] These promotions and assignments were passed along to Captain John Hazelwood, commanding the Pennsylvania Navy, on 9 April. [NDAR, VIII, 307] Viper had the usual desertion problem: on 21 May 1777 Beasley advertised for two deserters, offering an $8 reward. [NDAR, VIII, 1015] Viper was one of five boats that Hazelwood was to choose a reinforcement for Lewes, Delaware from, on 11 August 1777. [NDAR, IX, 735]


BECK [BACK], FRANCIS

First Mate, [unknown] Privateers


Francis Beck (or Back) served as First Mate on the [unknown] Privateer [unknown] Polonick. He was captured by the British and committed to Mill Prison on 31 March 1781. [NOAR, 20]


BECKER, HENRY

See BICKER, HENRY


BEDFORD, PETER

PA/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


In December 1776, Major SAMUEL NICHOLAS was forming a Continental Marine detachment for the Continental Navy Ship Delaware (Captain CHARLES ALEXANDER). Marine Lieutenants DAVID LOVE and DANIEL HENDERSON were assigned to the Delaware. Second Lieutenant HUGH MONTGOMERY was assigned to the duties of quartermaster. To replace Montgomery, Peter Bedford, reputedly a friend of Captain of Marines ROBERT MULLAN, was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant of Marines. His father was possibly the "Gunning Bedford, Sr.," from either New Jersey or Pennsylvania. Bedford resigned his commission on 5 July 1779, according to Doyle Sweeny. [Smith, Marines, 431] Bedford married Mary Vanzoling on 10 August 1779 and operated a grocery business in Philadelphia after the war. His sister married JOSHUA BARNEY in March 1780 and a brother, JOSEPH BEDFORD, served as a volunteer on Barney’s Hyder Ally during his notable fight with the British General Monk in April 1782, where the brother was severely wounded. Bedford died before 1818. [Smith, Marines, 432]


BEEBE, EDWARD

CT

Master, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Edward Beebe [NRAR, 219] (or Bebe) [NOAR, 21] was a resident of Stratford, [NOAR, 20] and later Wethersfield, Connecticut. [NRAR, 219] Edward Beebe was aboard the Connecticut Navy Brig Defence as First Mate on 4 March 1776. [NDAR, VII, 170-177] He was promoted Master of the Defence on 10 January 1777, succeeding JOSIAH BURNHAM. [NDAR, VII, 914]  He was paid his wages from 15 November 1776 to 15 June 1777 on the latter date. [NDAR, IX, 116-118] On 30 July 1777 he was commissioned as Commander of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Adams. [NDAR, IX, 352; NRAR, 219]


BEEBE, JOAB

CT

Second Lieutenant of Marines, Connecticut Marines


Joab Beebe was a resident of New London in 1776 when he was appointed, on 31 July 1776, by the Governor and Council of Safety of Connecticut as Second Lieutenant of Marines on the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell. The entry in the Journal of the Council of Safety indicates the name was crossed out later, perhaps indicating that Beebe declined the appointment, or that the Council reconsidered. [NDAR, 5, 1303-1304 and note] He was succeeded by BELA ELDERKIN.


BEEBE, LEWIS

NY

Surgeon, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


On 1 October 1776 Lewis Beebe was appointed as Surgeon for the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron. [NOAR, 21]


BEEKER, HENRY

See BICKER, HENRY


BEEARS, DANIEL

See BEARS, DANIEL


BEERS, DANIEL

See BEARS, DANIEL


BELCHER, JOHN

CT

Second Lieutenant, Connecticut Privateers


John Belcher was appointed Second Lieutenant on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Revenge (Commander JOSEPH CONKLING), commissioned 23 October 1776. [NRAR, 439; NDAR, VI, 1004-1005 and 1005 note; VII, 995-997] He was on the entire time of her first cruise, 22 January 1777-22 May 1777, and for her second cruise, perhaps July-September 1777. Two actions were fought, one resulting in the loss of HM Schooner Tender Admiral Parker, on 23 September. [see Revenge]


BELL, THOMAS

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Thomas Bell of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [NRAR, 253] was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Speedwell on 13 November 1776, [NOAR, 21] and, on 25 October 1779, to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Chevalier de la Luzerne. [NRAR, 253] After the war ended Bell was skipper of the ship United States, one of the first American vessels in the China trade. [NRAR, 199]


BELL, WILLIAM SMITH

VA

Surgeon, Virginia Navy


William Smith Bell was a Surgeon in the Virginia Navy, serving aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Caswell on 21 September 1776. [Stewart, 149]


BELLAMY, WILLIAM

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


William Bellamy was commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Galley Dreadnought on 15 June 1782. [NRAR, 278]


BELLENGER, JOHN

(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


BELT, JAMES [JOHN]

PA

Captain, Maryland Navy

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Belt was a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 376] In 1776 he was a Captain in the Maryland Navy. On 13 May 1777 he was commissioned to the Maryland Navy Xebec [Galley] Johnson. [NOAR, 21] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Montgomery on 17 November 1778. [NRAR, 396] His next privateer command was the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Lively, commissioned 31 May 1779. [NRAR, 376] With the Maryland Privateer Schooner Baltimore Hero (Commander JOHN EARLE) [NRAR, 232] and the Maryland Privateer [unknown] Lady Washington (Commander JOSEPH GREENWAY) he engaged two British privateers, each carrying twelve guns, on 13 June 1779. [NOAR, 21, 128] After a severe fight the Americans were driven off by the arrival of superior British forces, [NOAR, 21, 128] and the Americans returned to Baltimore. [NOAR, 128] They did recapture an American privateer off the mouth of the Rappahannock River. [NOAR, 21] Belt was re-commissioned to the Lively, this time as Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Lively, on 9 November 1779. [NRAR, 376] About August 1780 Belt and the Lively were captured by the British vessel Jupiter. He was later exchanged. On 21 February 1782 he was commissioned to the [Pennsylvania] Privateer Ship Matilda. [NOAR, 21]


BENEZET, STEPHEN

PA

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Stephen Benezet, listing his address as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Vengeance on 23 July 1781. [NRAR, 484] He was next commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Spitfire on 16 February 1782, [NRAR, 463] listing his age as 32. [NOAR, 22] On 10 February 1783 he was given command of the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Hibernia. [NOAR, 22]


BENNETT, ABRAHAM

NJ


Abraham Bennett was a Captain in the "Navy" according to the DAR. He was born in 1735 and died in 1804. [NOAR, 22]


BENNETT, CHARLES

VA

Master, Virginia Navy


Charles Bennett was appointed as Master (Sailing Master) in the Virginia Navy, serving aboard the Virginia Navy [unknown] Dragon on 17 March 1777. He was still aboard the Dragon on 20 January 1779. Bennett was said to be wounded on 19 February 1779. [Stewart, 150]


BENNETT, JOSEPH

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Bennett [Bennet] of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Count de Grasse (Commander JOHN GIFFORD) on 22 December 1781. [NRAR, 260] He listed his age as 36. [NOAR, 22] He was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Harlequin (Commander JOHN EARLE) on 7 August 1782, [NRAR, 327] listing his age as 35. [NOAR, 22]


BENNETT, WILLIAM

VA

Master, Virginia Navy


William Bennett was a resident of Accomac County, Virginia. He was appointed as Master (Sailing Master) in the Virginia Navy. He served aboard both boats Patriot and Liberty, the crews being interchangeable depending on the service involved. He left the service on 19 May 1781. Bennett died on 22 April 1783. [Stewart, 150]


BENSON, FRANCIS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Francis Benson was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Dolphin on 13 August 1782. [NRAR, 275]


BENSON, THOMAS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Benson was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 362, 364] On 7 October 1777 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Lively, and, on 22 October 1778, to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Montgomery. [NOAR, 22] He was next commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Kendrick, on 16 August 1781. [NRAR, 364] By early 1782 he had captured several prizes but in October 1782 he was captured by the British and imprisoned at New York. He was later exchanged [NOAR, 22] and, on 4 March 1783, commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Julius Caesar. [NRAR, 362]


BENTLEY [BENTLY], NATHANIEL

RI

Commander, South Carolina Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nathaniel Bentley, a native of Rhode Island, was commissioned to the South Carolina Privateer Bachelor, owned by Alexander Rose of Charleston, on 13 August 1777. [NRAR, 231] Bently next turned up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hornet on 22 January 1778. On 1 January 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Betsey, and, on 19 March 1779, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Unity. Bentley’s third commission in 1779 was to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Fly, on 6 July. On 19 October 1779 he was given command of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Shark, and, on 11 May 1780, the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Julius Caesar. [NOAR, 22] On 4 June 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Senegal. [NRAR, 458]


BENTLY, NATHANIEL

[See BENTLEY, NATHANIEL]


BENTON, ASA

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Asa Benton was a native of Hartford, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Mentor on 12 December 1780. [NRAR, 389] Benton was on a cruise to the West Indies in this vessel when he was captured by the British and taken into Bermuda. He died in Hartford on 28 February 1811 at age 69. [NOAR, 22]


BENTON, JOHN

CT

[First] Mate, Connecticut Privateers


John Benton was a Mate [NOAR, 23] on the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine General Green (Commander GIDEON OLMSTEAD). [NRAR, 310] General Green was captured by HM Frigate Virginia and taken into New York in May 1782. [NOAR, 23]


BENTON, WILLIAM

MA

Second Master, Massachusetts Privateers


William Benton was appointed as Second Master on the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Hancock (Commander WINGATE NEWMAN) on 12 June 1776. [NOAR, 23] The Hancock was commissioned on 2 September 1776. [NOAR, 219]


BERRILL, ROBERT

See BIRRELL, ROBERT


BERRIMAN, WILLIAM

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Berriman, possibly from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Trojan (Commander JOHN FANNING) on 18 November 1781, [NRAR, 477] listing his age as 23. [NOAR, 23]


BERRUYER DU VANROUY, FLETCHER DE

See DU VANROUY, FLETCHER DE BERRUYER


BERRY, ROBERT

MD

Captain, Maryland Navy


Robert Berry was supposed to be a Captain in the Maryland Navy, in Continental service. [NOAR, 23]


BESNARD, JOHN

SC

Master, South Carolina Navy Trading Vessel


John Besnard was master of the South Carolina Navy Trading Schooner Polly. He loaded a cargo of rice at Santee on 11 January 1776 (the cargo being owned by John Scott). He probably made a second voyage before 14 October 1776 with a public cargo.


BESSE, BRAZILLA [BARZILLAI]

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Brazilla Besse was a resident of Plympton, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Boat Black Snake on 21 March 1783. [NRAR, 241]


BESSE, CLAUDE

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Claude Besse was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. [NRAR, 461] He was appointed as Second Lieutenant on the Maryland Privateer Schooner Felicity (Commander JEREMIAH YELLOTT) on 19 July 1779. [NRAR, 292] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Good Adventure on 7 July 1781. [NRAR, 318] The next day, 8 July, he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Spitfire. [NRAR, 461]


BETHEL, ROBERT

See BETHELL, ROBERT


BETHELL [BETHEL], ROBERT

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Robert Bethell (or Bethel) was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Nancy on 12 October 1778. [NRAR, 399]


BETTS, ISAIAH

CT

[Commander, Connecticut Privateers]


Isaiah Betts was a native of Norwalk, Connecticut. He commanded an armed boat in Long Island Sound. [NOAR, 23]


BETTS, PETER

CT

[Commander, Connecticut Privateers]


Peter Betts was a native of Norwalk, Connecticut. He commanded an armed boat in Long Island Sound. [NOAR, 23]


BETTYS, JOSEPH

[PA]

First Mate, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Joseph Bettys is assumed to be a Pennsylvanian. He entered aboard the Continental Army Lake Champlain Gondola Philadelphia (Captain BENJAMIN RUE) on 1 August 1776 and served aboard her through the Battle of Valcour Island. Philadelphia sank shortly after the battle ended and Bettys was aboard another vessel until returned to his regiment on 16 October 1776. [NDAR, VII, 1333-1335] One James Bettys, who enlisted at Philadelphia,  served aboard the Continental Navy Ship Alfred as a Seaman; he was possibly a relative of Joseph Bettys.


BEVAN, EVAN

Midshipman, Continental Navy


Evan Bevan was a Midshipman on the Continental Navy Brig Andrew Doria (Captain NICHOLAS BIDDLE) in January 1776. [NOAR, 23]


BICKER [BECKER, BEEKER], HENRY

NY (P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Henry Bicker [or Becker, Beeker] was appointed as First Lieutenant of Marines aboard the Continental Navy Ship Montgomery on 20 May 1777, by Captain JOHN HODGE. [NDAR, IX, 281 and note] Bicker was probably a relative of VICTOR BICKER, JR., who served in the same capacity on the Continental Navy Ship Congress (THOMAS GRENNELL), and was presumably a New Yorker. Bicker presumably served aboard the Montgomery until 7 October 1777 when the ship was burned to prevent capture during the action at Fort Montgomery, New York. [Note: He is listed as Henry Beeker in NOAR, 21, as a Marine Lieutenant in 1781, citing Allen. Allen, ii, 712, lists no date for Henry Becker. Doyle Sweeny reports one Henry Becker as a Marine Lieutenant in the war, without giving any dates. (Smith, Marines, 431)]


BICKER, VICTOR, JR.

NY

First Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Victor Bicker, Jr. was a New Yorker. Her served in the 1st New York from 28 June 1775 to 31 March 1776 as a second lieutenant. [Snith, Marines, 432] Bicker was appointed as a Lieutenant of Marines aboard the Continental Navy Ship Congress (Captain THOMAS GRENNELL) by the Convention of New York on 4 December 1776, and ordered to enlist thirty men to guard the incomplete frigates Congress and Montgomery, other vessels wintering in Esopus Creek, and various stores at Poughkeepsie, New York. [NDAR, VII, 367 and note]  Bicker was known for his "courage, activity and integrity" according to the New York Provincial Congress, in a letter of 5 December to the Marine Committee. [NDAR, VII, 376-377] He received $200 from the New York Committee of Safety for recruiting purposes on 28 December, at Fishkill, New York. [NDAR, VII, 607] Marine Committeeman Francis Lewis of New York promised to forward Bicker’s commission to New York, as soon as blank ones were available, on 27 December. [NDAR, VII, 615] On 25 July 1777 the New York Council of Safety recommended his appointment to a lieutenancy aboard the Congress. [NDAR, IX, 333-334] Bicker presumably served aboard the Congress until 7 October 1777, when the frigate was destroyed to prevent her capture during the action at Fort Montgomery, New York.


BICKFORD, BENJAMIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Bickford was a native of Beverly, Massachusetts. He was First Mate on the Massachusetts Privateer Snow Diana (Commander WILLIAM HERRICK), commissioned on 23 September 1780. Bickford was aboard by 19 September. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] Diana was captured by a British cruiser on 15 June 1781 and her crew imprisoned. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 408] About April 1782 he was commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Daniel. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] On 18 April 1782 the Salem Gazette reported that the ship Daniel (Benjamin Bickford) had arrived at Beverly on16 April, having sailed from Martinique, French West Indies on 24 March 1782. Daniel had formerly been the Salem Packet until she was captured by the British en route home from Bilboa, Spain. She had been captured in the West Indies by the Mohawk. On 22 April the Boston Gazette reported that the Mohawk had arrived at Beverly from the West Indies on 13 April. [Allen, MPR, 223] [Schooner Salem Packet?]


BICKFORD, JOHN

MA

First Mate [Lieutenant], Massachusetts Privateers


John Bickford was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. He was First Mate on the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Cornwall (Commander JOHN EDMONDS), on 15 January 1778. Bickford also served as First Mate on the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine General Wayne (Commander JOHN LEACH) on 17 June 1780. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425]


BIDDLE, CHARLES

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Charles Biddle was a resident of Philadelphia, [NRAR, 219] and was born about 1747. [NOAR, 24] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Active on 29 September 1781, [see Active] listing his age as 34. [NOAR, 24] Active sailed in November 1781 for the Danish West Indies. There followed a harrowing voyage to the West Indies and back to Philadelphia, which is recounted in Biddle’s autobiography. Active was captured by HMS Chatham on 21 December 1781 and taken in to New York, where most of the crew was sent to the prison ships. Biddle was paroled about February 1782. [see Active]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/29/81

PA

Brigantine Active (7/25)

Charles Biddle

Francis Gurney, Charles Pettit, Charles Biddle et al

Charles Biddle, Francis Gurney

 [NRAR, 219]


BIDDLE, CLEMENT

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


Clement Biddle was a resident of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 219] He was related to NICHOLAS BIDDLE and CHARLES BIDDLE. Vessels associated with Biddle were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/29/81

PA

Brigantine Active (7/25)

Charles Biddle

Francis Gurney, Charles Pettit, Charles Biddle et al

Charles Biddle, Francis Gurney

 [NRAR, 219]


BIDDLE, NICHOLAS

PA/(P/A)

Captain, Continental Navy


A committee report favored compelling British prisoners to serve on Continental Navy warships in retaliation for similar British practices. In response to the report Biddle was ordered by Congress to take prisoners from the gaol for service. Possibly 7 December 1776. [NRAR, 29] On 17 December 1776 Robert Morris reported he had informed Biddle of the locations of British ships Roebuck and Falcon. [NRAR, 31] On 25 December 1776 the Hornet (Captain John Nicholson) was ordered to accompany Biddle to sea, then proceed to Carolina, by the Marine Committee. [NRAR, 31] On 30 December 1776 Morris reported that six British ships were in the Delaware, so stationed that Biddle and Nicholson could not get out. [NRAR, 33] They were still waiting to escape on 3 January 1777, according to Morris’ report. [NRAR, 33] On 26 January 1777 Morris reported that Randolph had 200 men aboard and was waiting to push out of Delaware River, but the river was now iced over. On 30 January Biddle’s cruising orders were written by the Marine Committee. [NRAR, 36] By 10 February 1777 Morris reported that Randolph and her convoy were safely at sea: "The frigate sails well and is not badly manned." On 15 February 1777 the Marine Committee wrote instructions for Biddle to proceed to the West Indies to collect supplies for the Continental Army, enclosed signals and regulations for conduct in foreign ports. [NRAR, 38] On 15 February 1777 the Marine Committee ordered Captain Elisha Warner of the Fly to deliver dispatches to the Randolph. [NRAR, 38-39] On 19 February Morris reported he had sent the Fly in search of Biddle, with Biddle’s orders for Martinique. [NRAR, 39] On 26 April 1777 the Marine Committee sent orders to Biddle as to care to be taken to prevent illness in Randolph’s crew, cargo to be received and cruise to be made. Biddle to cruise in West Indies until 10 July, when he is to follow sealed orders. [NRAR, 43-44] The same day the Continental Agents in Charleston were instructed to give Biddle all assistance. The secret instructions were a plan for the whole American fleet to rendezvous at Abaco, Bahamas on 25 July 1777 and concert an attack on the British Jamaica convoy. The Marine Committee also wrote to John Dupuy on 29 April, at Mole St. Nicholas, asking him to collect supplies for Biddle. [NRAR, 44] On 1 September 1777 Biddle reported his difficulties to Morris: privateers taking his sailors and no redress but force. [NRAR, 52] On 12 September 1777 Biddle reported to Morris the capture of four prizes and testified to the good character of his crew. [NRAR, 53] Soon after the officers of the Randolph presented Biddle with a petition requesting that Lieutenant  Panatiere de la Falconer be discharged. [NRAR, 53] On 24 October 1777 the Marine Committee forwarded orders to Biddle for a cruise to France. He was to cover his guns in French ports and make as little show as possible. Biddle was to take orders from the American Commissioners to France. [NRAR, 54] On 13 April 1779 the Marine Committee requested Nathaniel Shaw, Jr. to present an account of all Biddle’s prizes under his care. [NRAR, 103]

On 5 February 1778 Biddle went aboard the Randolph in Rebellion Road for his last cruise. [231] Accompanied by the four South Carolina Navy vessels Randolph sailed on the morning of 14 February, meeting no enemy ships off the bar. Randolph ushered thirteen sail of merchant shipping to sea. On 15 February a small prize was re-captured and burned and the squadron cruised south, near Bermuda, then down to Antigua, then near Barbados. On 4 March 1778 a small schooner was captured by the fleet. Then, on the morning of 7 March a sail was sighted. After a full day of approach and conjecture, the Randolph and her fleet engaged HMS Yarmouth in the Moonlight Battle of 7 March, during which Biddle was killed when the Randolph blew up in action. [Clark, Captain Dauntless, 233-250]


BIDWELL, SAMUEL

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


Samuel Bidwell was a Midshipman in the Connecticut Navy, assigned to the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain Timothy Parker). The Oliver Cromwell was captured by the British. [NOAR, 24]


BIGELOW, DANIEL

CT

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Daniel Bigelow commanded an armed vessel that returned to New London, Connecticut on 30 July 1776, with a cargo of five tons of gunpowder. In July 1777 he was captured, presumably in the West Indies. Bigelow was later exchanged. In 1780 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Charming Polly, which was captured on 19 September 1780. The crew was confined in Old Mill Prison, near Plymouth, England. [NOAR, 24]


BIGHAM, JOHN

See BINGHAM, JOHN


BILL, DAVID

CT/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Marines


David Bill was born on 2 October 1751, the son of Samuel and Martha Bill of New London, Connecticut. Bill was married to Temperance Harris in May 1776. He was an ensign in Colonel Samuel Selden’s Connecticut State regiment from June to December 1776. Bill reputedly moved to Boston, where he was living on 25 June 1776. A daughter was born to him in 1777 and a son, David, in 1779. Bill’s cousins, EPHRAIM BILL, JR. and GURDON BILL were both Continental Marine officers. Bill became an acting Marine Lieutenant aboard Continental Navy Ship Confederacy on 12 February 1780. He was supposedly killed on 2 June 1780, however Confederacy was in port on that date. However, one David Bill is listed as a volunteer aboard the Continental Navy Ship Trumbull, during her battle with the Watt on 1 June 1780. This David Bill was listed as killed in the battle. [Smith, Marines, 432]


BILL, EPHRAIM

CT

Overseer of Construction, Connecticut Navy


Ephraim Bill acted as Overseer of Construction on the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell, building at Saybrook in June 1776. He used Connecticut Navy Galley Shark (Captain Theophilus Stanton) to ship materials from New London to Saybrook about 7 June, and received L200 from the Council of Safety the same day. [NDAR, 5, 409-410] He was ordered to deliver provisions to Connecticut Navy Galley Crane (Captain Jehiel Tinker) at Saybrook, on 27 June 1776. [NDAR, 5, 769] On 26 September he drew L300 for the account of the Oliver Cromwell. [NDAR, 6, 1005] He was ordered toreceive 140 hammocks for the ship from Dr. Joshua Elderkin of Windham on 27 September. [NDAR, 6, 1021] One of three men appointed on 6 December 1776 to remove Continental and state goods and stores from New London to Norwich, when New London was thought to be threatened with attack. [NDAR, 7, 385] Bill was ordered to load supplies on the Connecticut Navy Schooner Spy (7 December) for transportation as far to the west as possible, the goods being for Connecticut troops in the Continental army. [NDAR, 7, 401]


BILL, EPHRAIM

CT

Second Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Ephraim Bill was born on 31 May 1759, the son of Ephraim and Lydia Bill of Norwich, Connecticut. He was the younger brother of Lieutenant of Marines Gurdon Bill. Ephraim’s naval service began eary. One "Ephraim Bills" was a sergeant of Marines aboard the Continental Army Sloop Enterprise (Captain JOHN PROUT SLOAN) on Lake Champlain in the summer of 1775. He entered her muster roll on 7 May and was discharged on 1 July, receiving £5.08.00 for his services. He obtained a commission as a Second Lieutenant of Marines at an unknown date before early 1779. On either 22 or 27 February 1779 Bill was in Philadelphia, writing to Major Joshua Huntington at Norwich, Connecticut. [Smith, Marines, 432] Bill had apparently been sent to Philadelphia to obtain money for work on the Continental Navy Ship Confederacy, to which he was probably assigned. [conclusion] Bill informed Huntington that he had obtained an order for the money, but it would not be available until the following week. In February or March 1779 Bill took the sum of $500,000 to the Navy Board of the Eastern Department at Boston. Bill entered the Continental Navy Ship Confederacy (Captain SETH HARDING) at some time before April 1779, serving with his brother, First Lieutenant of Marines GURDON BILL. Bill was probably on the aborted cruise to France, when the vessel was dismasted and put into the French West Indies for repairs. Confederacy reached Philadelphia the following spring for permanent repairs. This refitting occupied most of the summer of 1780. Bill served as a messenger. On one trip he took a letter to Continental Agent Nathaniel Shaw at New London, requesting him to sell properties he was holding to raise money to repair the Confederacy. Bill reputedly died at sea in November 1780, but Confederacy was still at Philadelphia. He may have been in a different vessel, or this may simply mean that he was in service at the time. [Smith, Marines, 432-433]


BILL, GURDON

CT/(P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Gurdon Bill was the son of Ephraim and Lydia Bill and was born in Norwich, Connecticut on 26 August 1757. His father and his maternal grandfather (Major Joshua Huntington) were instrumental in constructing the Connecticut Navy Ships Defence and Oliver Cromwell and the Continental Navy Ship Confederacy. A cousin, DAVID BILL, and younger brother, EPHRAIM BILL, both served as Marine Lieutenants. In December 1778 Bill applied to Huntington for the position of lieutenant of Marines aboard the Confederacy. If that position were filled, he asked for an appointment as steward. Although some of his early letters are signed as lieutenant of Marines he apparently acted as steward or purser from 18 January to 4 February 1779, while the vessel was fitting out at New London. Rumours were circulating in New London that the officers of the Confederacy were unhappy with their captain, SETH HARDING. Bill sent a letter to the newspaper on 5 January, refuting the rumours. He signed it as lieutenant of Marines. He was listed on a muster roll in 1779 but without a rank noted, simply heading the list of men’s names. Bill sailed with the Confederacy on her maiden voyage on 1 May 1779. On 6 June she captured the 26-gun British privateer Pole and two other prizes. He was aboard during the unfortunate cruise to France, beginning 26 October 1779. Following emergency repairs in the French West Indies, Confederacy reached Philadelphia on 27 April 1780, where she remained for most of the summer. She sailed again on 5 December 1780, in company with Continental Navy Ship Saratoga, bound for Cape Francois. With Saratoga and Continental Navy Ship Deane, Confederacy sailed for home on 15 March 1781. On 14 April she was off the Delaware Capes with a few merchant vessels, when HM Frigates Orpheus and Roebuck were met. Harding surrendered without a fight. The crew was taken to New York where the enlisted men were sent to the prison ships. Some of the officers were paroled. Some, including Lieutenant of Marines Bill, were sent to England. He either escaped from prison or was exchanged there. On 6 July 1782 the American Commissioners to France gave him $120 to pay for his passage to America. Bill married Betsey Tracy of Norwich on 23 December 1797. Eight children were born to the couple. Bill continued to go to sea. He supposedly served as a lieutenant of Marines, USMC in 1798. One of his ships, schooner Hannah, was seized by the French during the Naval War with France. Bill was among the founders of a local school in 1806 and was a member of the Society of the Cincinnati (from 1790). He died on 4 or 6 March 1815. [Smith, Marines, 433]


BILL, WILLIAM

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


William Bill was appointed as First Lieutenant aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Mars (Commander Thomas Truxtun) on 24 May 1777. [NOAR, 24]


BILLINGS, HENRY

CT

Third Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Henry Billings was a native of Norwich, Connecticut, born in 1746. He married Lucretia Leffingwell in 1770 and had three children by 1775. [Richard Henry Greene, Henry Reed Stiles, Melatiah Everett Dwight, George Austin Morrison, Hopper Striker Mott, John Reynolds Totten, The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, vol. 52, 67-68, New York Genealogical and Biographical Society: New York, 1921] Billings was Third Lieutenant aboard the Connecticut Navy Brig Defence [NOAR, 24] (Captain SETH HARDING) in February 1776. [NOAR, 25] On 20 March 1777 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Trumbull. [NRAR, 478] In the Trumbull he captured a brig with a cargo of coffee and another vessel laden with rum. On 8 August 1777 the brig Generous Friend was libeled, another one of his prizes. Trumbull also captured the Argus, George, and Betsey, but these vessels were recaptured by the British. [see Trumbull]. Billings and the sloop were back in Boston, Massachusetts by August 1777, where he was recruiting for a second cruise. On this cruise Trumbull was sold in Martinique in November 1777 and Billings returned to Boston in December 1777. [see Trumbull] On 18 November 1778 Billings was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Ship Governor Trumbull. [NRAR, 320] Billings took her on a voyage to the West Indies, made an ill-advised attack on Tobago, and, on 5 April 1779, was captured with the Governor Trumbull by HM Frigate Venus and sent into St. Kitts. [see Governor Trumbull] Billings was later exchanged. On 5 March 1786 he was in command of the schooner Humbird, which was cast away and lost at St. Eustatius on that date. [McManemin, Privateers, 8] He died in 1797 at Port aux Paix. [Greene, The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, vol. 52, 67-68]


BILLINGS, RICHARD

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Richard Billings, possibly of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner James (Commander SAMUEL WILSON), commissioned 1 July 1782. [NRAR, 356]] He listed his age as 22. [NOAR, 25]


BINGHAM [BIGHAM], JOHN

PA

First Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Bingham [NOAR, 25] or Bigham [NRAR, 336] was appointed as First Lieutenant [NOAR, 25] on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Hetty (Commander HENRY DARNELL) [NRAR, 336] on 18 August 1781. [NOAR, 25] However, the Hetty was not commissioned until 6 September 1781, when Bingham is listed as First Mate. [NRAR, 336] He listed his age as 27. [NOAR, 25]


BINGHAM, JOHN

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


John Bingham was a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy on 30 July 1776. He was assigned to the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty (Captain THOMAS LILLY). [NOAR, 25] Bingham was still aboard late in 1776. [Stewart, 45 note]


BINGHAM, WILLIAM

PA

Continental Agent, Martinique


BINGLEY, EDWARD

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


On 20 June 1776 Edward Bingley was commissioned as Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy and assigned to the "Fire Brig’t" (Pennsylvania Navy Fire Brigantine Vesuvius). Bingley was directed to recruit four men to "navigate the said Brig’t." [NDAR, V, 646-647] Vesuvius is noted as having a crew of five men, in addition to Captain Bingley, on 1 August 1776. [NDAR, VI, 6-7] Bingley evidently left soon after. On 8 October 1776, JOHN CHRISTIE was commissioned as Captain of the brig. [NOAR, 59]


BIRCH, BENJAMIN

VA

[First] Mate, Virginia Navy


Benjamin Birch was a First Mate (Master’s Mate) aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Diligence from 6 February 1777 to October 1779. [Stewart, 150]


BIRD, DAVID

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Navy


David Bird was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Navy Floating Battery Arnold. On 26 Match 1776 he was listed as on duty at "camp." [NOAR, 25]


BIRD, FREDERICK

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


Frederick Bird was commissioned as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy on 17 February 1777 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Sloop Defiance. On 1 May 1777 he was appointed as Pilot aboard the Pennsylvania Navy Fire Brig Volcano by order of Commodore Hazelwood. On 26 May 1777 he was appointed as Pilot for all the Pennsylvania fire craft. [NOAR, 25]


BIRD, JACOB

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


Jacob Bird was commissioned as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy on 17 May 1777 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Sloop Defiance. He deserted on 1 November 1777. [NOAR, 25]


BIRD, LEVIN

[See BYRD, LEVIN]


BIRD, SAMUEL, JR.

CT

[Commander, Connecticut Privateers]


Samuel Bird, Jr. was a resident of New Haven, Connecticut. [NRAR, 476] He was commissioned by Governor Trumbull of Connecticut to command an armed whaleboat on Long Island Sound. [NOAR, 25] On 1 June 1782 Bird was a bonder for the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Tiger (Commander Daniel Jons [or Jones]). [NRAR, 476] On 16 September 1782 he captured a British schooner. [NOAR, 25]


BIRRELL [BERRILL], ROBERT

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Robert Birrell was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Franklin on 27 September 1779. [NOAR, 26]


BISCOE, GEORGE

MD

Civilian Official


George Biscoe was named the Naval Officer for the Second District of Maryland on 28 March 1777. [NOAR, 26] This was a position somewhat akin to portmaster, or a customs official.


BISHOP, ISRAEL

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Israel Bishop was a resident of New Haven, Connecticut. [NRAR, 452] He was appointed as First Lieutenant on the Connecticut Navy Galley Whiting. Aboard the Whiting Bishop participated in the New York campaign and was captured by the British. He was later exchanged. In July 1778 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brig New Broom. On 13 November 1778 the New Broom was captured by a British warship and he was taken to Antigua in the British West Indies. Again exchanged, [NOAR, 26] Bishop was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brig Sally on 2 June 1780. [NRAR, 452] Bishop sailed in the Sally soon after and was never heard from again. The vessel was presumably lost at sea. [NOAR, 26]


BISHOP [BASHOPE, BACHOPE], JAMES

RI

Second Mate, Continental Navy


James Bishop was aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Providence (Captain JOHN PAUL JONES) as a Second Mate in 1776. He was prizemaster of the Molly in early 1777. [NOAR, 26]


BISHOP, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Bishop was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 410] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Betsey on 29 June 1780. [NOAR, 26] Bishop was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Patty on 17 July 1781. [NRAR, 410] The Patty was captured by the British in February 1782. [NOAR, 26]


BISHOP, LEMUEL

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Lemuel Bishop was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Mermaid on 3 July 1776. [NOAR, 26]


BISSEL, RICHARD

SC

Lieutenant, South Carolina Privateers


Richard Bissel was a Lieutenant aboard the South Carolina Privateer Ship Cotesworth-Pickney (Commander WILLIAM RANKING) in June 1777. He was prizemaster of the sloop Mary, captured on 8 June. Mary was recaptured by the HM Frigate Daphne on 9 June and Bissel was clapped in irons. [see Cotesworth-Pickney]


BLACK, JAMES [Dr. BLAKE]

SC

Naval Constructor, Beaufort, South Carolina


It is probable that James Black and Dr. Blake were the same person. On 6 March 1776 a Dr. Blake was to be hired by JOHN JOINER to build an armed boat (row galley) at Beaufort, South Carolina on a model furnished by Captain BUCKLE. The South Carolina Navy Board inquired for James Black’s terms to build a galley on 1 November 1776. Black was probably the builder of South Carolina Navy Galley Beaufort in the spring of 1777. Beginning about 4 April 1777 he supervised the conversion of South Carolina Navy Brig Notre Dame from trading vessel to warship.


BLACKDEN, JOHN

See BLACKLER, JOHN


BLACKLER [BLACKDEN], JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Blackler (or Blackden) was a native of Marblehead, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Union on 19 August 1777, [NRAR, 482] and, on 27 March 1778, to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Lizard. Later in 1778 he commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner General Lincoln. [NOAR, 26]


BLACKMER, SALISBURY

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Salisbury Blackmer was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Widow Wadman on 10 August 1778. [NRAR, 492]


BLACKWELL, G.

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


G. Blackwell was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brig Hamburg on 20 May 1782. [NOAR, 26]


BLAIR, JAMES

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


James Blair was commissioned a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy on 1 December 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Burke. [NOAR, 26]


BLAKE, EDWARD

SC

First Commissioner, South Carolina Navy Board


Edward Blake, known as Captain Blake, was appointed to the Commission to Equip Three Schooners on 5 September 1775. He was appointed Commissary of Stores for the South Carolina Navy on 10 November 1775. Blake performed numerous duties, including some operational duties and some passing on of orders. He was involved in conferences on blocking the harbor passages. On 4 January 1776 he was ordered to appraise a prize at Hobcaw. On 8 January he was given permission to load a schooner for Bermuda and another for the foreign West Indies. The Bermuda vessel was the Little Thomas, which Blake rented to the South Carolina Navy for £280 per month in January 1776, with South Carolina insuring against her loss for £2000. The colony paid on 11 January and took delivery the next day. Blake also owned the vessel Polly, a South Carolina Navy Trading Schooner which imported public stores before 31 January 1776, and was to sail again in February 1776. Blake was appointed as Commissioner of the Treasury on 10 April 1776 and resigned his Navy post. On 1 October 1776 he was appointed to the South Carolina Navy Board, when the Board was created by the General Assembly. When the Board met on 9 October he was selected as First Commissioner (chairman). Blake wrote a letter to the South Carolina delegates in the Continental Congress concerning difficulties in obtaining ship carpenters on 30 June 1777. He was still in his post on 15 September 1777.


BLAKE, JOHN

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


John Blake was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. Associated with Blake in privateering was JOHN HEAD. Vessels associated with Blake were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/21/77

MA

Schooner Buckram (4/45)

John Cross

John Blake et al

John Cross, John Blake, John Head

[NRAR, 245; Allen, MPR, 89]


BLAKE, JONATHAN

[PA]

First Lieutenant, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Jonathan Blake is assumed to be a Pennsylvanian. He entered aboard the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Gondola Philadelphia on 16 August 1776 and served aboard her through the Battle of Valcour Island. Philadelphia sank shortly after the battle ended and Blake was aboard another vessel until returned to his regiment on 16 October 1776. [NDAR, 7, 1333-1335]


BLANCHARD, SAMUEL

MA

Surgeon, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Blanchard was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was Surgeon aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Vengeance (Commander THOMAS THOMAS) on 27 June 1779. Vengeance was a participant in the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition of 1779, and was destroyed in the Penobscot River to prevent her capture on 14 August 1779. [Allen, MPR, 324-325] Blanchard next served as Surgeon on the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Pilgrim (Commander JOSEPH ROBINSON) on 2 August 1780. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] On 5 January 1781 the Pilgrim fell in with the British ship Mary (Stowards). A very “desperate” battle followed before the British struck, with Stowards and a number of the crew dead. The American loss was heavy and both vessels were shattered. [Maclay, Privateers, 209-210] The Boston Gazette of 19 February 1781 reported the arrival of the Pilgrim at Salem on 9 February. The paper reported that Robinson and his crew had captured nine valuable prizes. [Allen, MPR, 237] Blanchard left the ship before it was again commissioned on 14 April 1781. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 414] A Samuel Blanchard of Salem, Massachusetts, was a bonder for Massachusetts Privateer Ship Marquis de La Fayette (Commander JOHN BUFFINGTON), on 15 March 1782. [NRAR, 385] Blanchard also served as security for the bond of Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Jackall (Commander ADAM WELLMAN), on 31 May 1782. He again listed his address as Salem. [NRAR, 355]


BLANKHEAD, JAMES

VA

Second Lieutenant, Virginia Marines


James Blankhead was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Virginia Marines on 30 October 1776, under Captain Alexander Dick. [NOAR, 27]


BLAWS, JAMES

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


James Blaws was a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy on 27 March 1776, [NOAR, 27; Stewart, 150] serving aboard a vessel commanded by Richard Taylor. [NOAR, 27] He was recommended for promotion to Second Lieutenant on 8 September 1777, aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Manley (in place of CHAMBERLAYNE, who had resigned). [Stewart, 150]


BLAWS, ROBERT

VA

Second Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Robert Blaws was commissioned on 6 February 1777 [NOAR, 27; Stewart, 150, says he was appointed on 26 March 1776] as a Second Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy and assigned to the Virginia Navy Galley Manley. [NOAR, 27; Stewart, 150]


BLOXOM, SCARBORD

See BLOXSOM [BLOXOM], SCARBOROUGH [SCARBORD]


BLOXSOM [BLOXOM], SCARBOROUGH [SCARBORD]

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Scarborough (Scarbord) Bloxsom (Bloxom) was born in 1754 in Accomac County, Virginia, Bloxsom served as a Midshipman on the Virginia Navy Galley Accomac. He died in October 1836. [Stewart, 151]


BLUNDELL, SETH

See BLUNDLE, SETH


BLUNDELL, THOMAS

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Thomas Blundell was born about 1736. [NOAR, 27] He was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 17 August 1781 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine [NRAR, 476] Totton [NOAR, 27] (or Totten). [NRAR, 476] He listed his age as 45. [NOAR, 27]


BLUNDEN, SETH

See BLUNDLE, SETH


BLUNDLE [BLUNDELL, BLUNDOW, BLUNDON, BLUNDEN], SETH

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Seth Blundle (Blundell, Blundow, Blundon, Blunden) was a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy. [Stewart, 151]


BLUNDON, SETH

See BLUNDLE, SETH


BLUNDOW, SETH

See BLUNDLE, SETH


BOARDMAN [BOWMAN, BOURMAN], FRANCIS

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Francis Boardman [Bowman, Bourman] was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 264, 349, 432, 474] Boardman is listed as commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Independence, commissioned on 1 January 1777. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] However, he was more likely First Lieutenant on that sloop, mentioned as being under  Commander JAMES MAGEE on 13 January 1777. [Allen, MPR, 186] Boardman next served as the First Lieutenant aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Black Prince (Commander ELIAS SMITH), commissioned 17 June 1778. Boardman was aboard by 23 June. [Allen, MPR, 84; Howe, Beverly Privateers, 406, 425] Boardman was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Fortune on 28 June 1779. [Allen, MPR, 133; Howe, Beverly Privateers, 410, 425] On 15 December 1780 Boardman was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Thomas. [NRAR, 474] Boardman served as a bonder for the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Rattlesnake (Commander MARK CLARK) on 12 June 1781 [NRAR, 432]. He was re-commissioned to the Thomas on 22 November 1781. [NRAR, 474] He again served as a bonder on 26 October 1782, for the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Defence (Commander JOHN BARR). [NRAR, 264] Boardman’s final commission was to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hind (or Hynde) on 19 November 1782. [NRAR, 349]


BOARDMAN, JOHN

MA

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


John Boardman was Second Lieutenant aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Defence (Commander JOHN EDMONDS), commissioned on 6 July 1779. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] Defence was a newly-built vessel. On 30 June 1779 she was fitting out, anchored in Beverly Harbor. The plan was to send her to operate against the Quebec fleet. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 407] Defence participated in the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition and was destroyed in the Penobscot River on 14 August 1779 to prevent her capture by the British. [Allen, MPR, 110]


BOARDMAN, OFFIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Offin Boardman was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 27; NDAR, III, 4] He was commissioned on 11 December 1775 to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Washington. [NDAR, II, 1316 and note; III, 4, 63 and note] Boardman and the Washington were soon at sea, capturing the British Transport Brigantine Sukey and the British Transport Ship Friends on 15 January 1776. [see Washington for references] Boardman left the Washington by March 1776. [NDAR, IV, 417] He was captured by the British and committed to Mill Prison in June 1777. Boardman escaped on 5 January 1779. He then commanded the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Betsey, and was captured again, about June 1780, by the Union. He again escaped. [NOAR, 27] On 11 May 1782 Boardman (as Boardman, Jr.) was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Lark. [NRAR, 369]


BODEN, ABIJAH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Abijah Boden was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned on 13 November 1776 to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Rover. In March 1777 he captured the ship Duke of Leinster. [NOAR, 27]


BODEN, BENJAMIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Benjamin Boden was a native of Marblehead, Massachusetts. In October 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Free Mason. On 4 August 1780 he was commissioned to the New Hampshire Sloop Friendship. [NOAR, 27-28]


BODWINE, JOHN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Bodwine, possibly from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Boat Governor Clinton (Commander WILLIAM MORNYER) on 24 July 1781. [NRAR, 319]


BOLLING, ROBERT

VA

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Robert Bolling was born in 1751, [NOAR, 28] and was a resident of Dinwiddie County, Virginia. Prior to 16 October 1776 he was commanding the [Virginia Navy] trading vessel Peace and Plenty. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 151-152. NOAR, 28, calls him a lieutenant and dates this to August 1776.] About the first of November 1776 he was apparently aboard the Virginia Navy Brig Musquetto (Captain JOHN HARRIS) as Second Lieutenant.On 28 January 1777, Bolling was promoted to First Lieutenant and assigned to the Virginia Navy Galley Manley.[NDAR, VII, 1054-1055. NOAR, 28, dates this as 3 February 1777. According to Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 151-152, he was promoted to First Lieutenant of the Manley, in place of Sturdivant, on 21 March 1776.] Bolling married Clara Yates Bland in 1779 and died about 1790. [Stewart, Virginia’s Navy, 151-152]


BOLTAR, MARTIAL

[See BORTAR, MARTIAL]


BONAMY, AUGUSTINE

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Augustine Bonamy, supposedly a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine La Ravie on 2 September 1780. [NRAR, 368]


BONAVITTA, PASCHAL [PASCALY, JEAN]

Commander, [Continental] Privateers


Paschal Bonavitta was born in Corsica, according to some reports. He was usually referred to as a “Pirate” by the British. The first mention of Bonavitta was on 9 April 1777. He was mentioned, as “Pascal,” in a British intelligence report of privateers in port at Martinique. His schooner, name unknown, was said to have four guns and a crew of thirty men. [Jamieson, Alan G., “American Privateers in the Leeward Islands, 1776-1778,” in The American Neptune, [volume unknown], reprinting a table from CO 101/20] Bonavitta apparently had gotten hold of one of Bingham’s blank commissions. On 20 September 1777, Bonavitta raided the island of Tobago, under the British Windward Islands government. A schooner, with an American captain, [Joseph] White (a native of Bermuda) and a privateer commission, came over in the night to Man of War Bay, at the northeast end of Tobago. Thirty-seven slaves and two Carib Indians (by some accounts forty people) were abducted, and a small schooner (Wilkinson) at anchor in the bay was captured. The captives were taken to Trinidad, a Spanish possession. Bonavitta was supposed to have a “Settlement” there. Lord Macartney intended to protest to the governor of Trinidad, asking for restitution and extradition of the pirate or his punishment. On 7 October Macartney requested that one of the two sloops-of-war at Grenada take the message to the Spanish governor. HM Sloop Favourite (Commander William Fooks) was selected. [NDAR, X, 65 and notes, 81-82, 277-278 and notes, 278-279 and 279 notes] In his letter to Don Manuel Falquez, Lord Macartney expounded on Bonavitta’s character: “ . . . this Villain has committed so many Robberies in these Seas, that there is not one of the West India Islands, whether English or French, in which he would not be immediately hanged if he were caught.” [NDAR, X, 81-82] Fooks arrived with Macartney’s letter on 18 October. As Favourite came into port the Spanish mistook some other vessels in sight for British warships. Thus the Spanish thought a squadron of six vessels was bringing in the letter: this unsettled the Spanish authorities. They requested Books to order all the vessels to leave port except the Favorite. [Near, X, 210-211, 211] Books answered that he knew not what these vessels were, but then added that, as long as rebels or pirates were sanctioned in the port, British cruisers might be seen around the island. Books then informed Don Filches that he had learned that one of the schooners in port was Bonavitta’s, and demanded it, and also the abducted slaves. [NDAR, X, 211]

Don Falquez it seems, already knew Bonavitta. Recently an American privateer schooner had appeared in port at Trinidad, under one Commander [Joseph] White. White represented that he was in urgent need of succour and necessaries. Don Falquez admitted him to the port, as “he would willingly do to all Europeans upon the like occasion . . .” This was an old game, known well by the Americans if not by Don Falquez. Now appeared a similar complaint to Lord Macartney’s, recently received from the governor of Martinique. Discovering Bonavitta was aboard the privateer, Don Falquez called him in for an interrogation. After laying the charge against Bonavitta out, Don Falquez was informed that White had the privateer commission. Bonavitta was merely the boatswain. White was called in, along with a suite of English-Spanish interpreters. They examined White and his papers and concluded that he had sufficient authority to act against the British in the present dispute. Don Falquez then suggested that White proceed to Martinique and there submit to the determination of the Continental Agent (William Bingham), Don Falquez deciding he had no authority in the matter. [NDAR, X, 210-211, 211]

White, Bonavitta and the privateer sailed for Martinique, but soon returned, claiming to have been chased by a privateer. They soon sailed again, but returned to anchor on 17 October at 0200. White stated he had been chased by a frigate, a brig, and three sloops who were steering for Trinidad. This was, of course, the “fleet” that Don Falquez thought was British. At 1100 on the 17th, seeing the “frigate” (HM Sloop Favourite) coming into harbor, White, Bonavitta and the privateer sailed. They fired one gun at the “frigate,” which took no notice of it. This time they stayed gone. [NDAR, X, 210-211]

Since the pair was gone, Don Falquez was unable to examine them again regarding the British complaint. However, if they returned to Trinidad they would be arrested and examined. Don Falquez had made inquiries and no slaves had been landed, but the island was large and his orders not to land them may have been evaded. Don Falquez would order a search for them. [NDAR, X, 210-211]

On 24 October Lord Macartney reported on the raid to on of his bosses, Lord George Germain. Paschall Bonavitta had formerly lived in Martinique and had committed “several Piracies and Robberies in these Seas under a pretended American Commission.—The Commission now runs in the name of one White and has already served for several different little pirate Vessels, on board of which this White, who is generally the only American of the Crew, has served at different times. . . .” White was in the raid on Man of War Bay, but the schooner was Bonavitta’s, and Bonavitta was the actual commander. When Macartney complained to Don Falquez he received an “evasive, unsatisfactory answer . . .” [NDAR, X, 277-278 and 278 notes]

Bonavitta next appears on 3 November 1777. He was in command of a schooner, perhaps the same one in which he departed Trinidad. Bonavitta was sailing thirty-six miles south of Antigua, off Guadeloupe, French West Indies, in moderate and cloudy weather. At 1300 a shot was fired at his schooner, from an new friend, HM Sloop Favourite, on patrol in the area. Bonavitta hoisted French colors. Fooks ignored the colors and sent his boats after the schooner, the wind having died off. Bonavitta hoisted his boat out and departed with four other men, leaving eight men aboard. At 1400 the British took the schooner and brought her down to the Favourite at 1600. Fooks “found her a Pirate . . .” and removed the remaining crew, sending an officer and men aboard as a prize crew. [NDAR, X, 392 and note] Presumably the precious commission was also removed.

Bonavitta now went to the French authorities and filed a declaration on 4 November. Calling himself Jean Pascaly, Bonavitta deposed that he had left Martinique on 17 October 1777 [he left Trinidad on that day] on a schooner commanded by Augustin Auressy, bound for Saint-Martin, with intermediate stops. The schooner was in ballast, and Pascaly was the only passenger. Near Kahouanne, an island off the northwestern tip of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, a British “frigate” fired several shots at the schooner, and then sent it’s boats after the schooner. Pascaly then got into one of the schooner’s boats with his servant and three others and rowed ashore, reaching the Batterie de Basvent. The English still pursued, so Pascaly ran inland. He saw the English land and climb up to the Batterie de Basvent. Pascaly saw the schooner captured. Pascaly then went to Saint-Rose and made his declaration. [NDAR, X, 401 and note]


BOND, HANCE

VA

Captain of Marines, Virginia Marines


Hance Bond was born in 1756. [NOAR, 28] Bond was appointed as a Captain of Marines in the Virginia Marines and served aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Caswell, stationed in North Carolina. [Stewart, 152] He died in 1796.[NOAR, 28]


BOND, NATHANIEL

MD

Midshipman, Maryland Navy


Nathaniel Bond was a Midshipman in the Maryland Navy on 31 July 1776, assigned to the Maryland Navy Ship Defence. [NOAR, 28]


BONNEAU, ANTHONY

Agent, South Carolina Navy


Anthony Bonneau was appointed as Agent for the South Carolina Navy at Georgetown, South Carolina, on 17 October 1776.


 BONNELL, JOHN

MD

Master, Maryland Navy


John Bonnell was a Master in the Maryland Navy on 5 April 1776, assigned to the Maryland Navy Ship Defence. [NOAR, 28]


BONNEWELL, THOMAS

VA

Master, Virginia Navy


Thomas Bonnewell served in the Virginia Navy as a sailing master (Master). He served successively on the Virginia Navy [unknown] Diligence, Virginia Navy Galley Manley, and Virginia Navy Brig Northampton. He was aboard the Northampton on 8 September 1777. After the war he moved to Kentucky. [Stewart, 152]


BONNEWELL, WILLIAM

[See BONWELL, WILLIAM]


BONWELL [BONNEWELL], WILLIAM

VA

Master, Virginia Navy


William Bonwell [Bonnewell] served as a Master in the Virginia Navy. [Stewart, 152]


BOOKER, EDWARD

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Edward Booker was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was commissioned on 31 May 1777 to command the Maryland Privateer Brig Buckskin Hero. [NRAR, 244] Booker sailed on his voyage from the Chesapeake Capes between 10 October 1777 and 2 November 1777. [NDAR, X, 208, 379 and note, 611]


BOOTH, WILLIAM

VA

Pilot, Virginia Navy


William Booth was a Pilot in the Virginia Navy and served aboard the Virginia Navy [unknown] Dragon. He was aboard the Dragon on 7 October 1779 and 19 January 1783. [Stewart, 152] He may be same as the WILLIAM BOOTH below.


BOOTH, WILLIAM

VA

Master, Virginia Navy


William Booth was a resident of Elizabeth City County, Virginia. He enlisted and served three years as Pilot and sailing master (Master) aboard Virginia Navy Galley Protector. [Stewart, 152]


BOOTMAN, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Bootman was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Beaver on 3 June 1779. [Allen, MPR, 78; NOAR, 28]


BORDEWINE,

NJ

First Lieutenant, New Jersey Privateers


One Bordewine was First Lieutenant to Adam Hyler, the noted maritime guerilla leader late in the war. He was sent to obtain a commission for the New Jersey Privateer Boat Active about 26 June 1782. [McManemin, Privateers, 474-475]

BORTAR [BOLTAR], MARTIAL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Martial Bortar [NRAR, 298] (or Boltar) [NOAR, 28] was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Fortune on 11 October 1780. [NRAR, 298]


BOUCHER, JOHN THOMAS

VA

Commodore, Virginia Navy

First Lieutenant, Maryland Navy

Commander, Maryland Privateers


John Thomas Boucher was a resident of Alexandria, Virginia. [NRAR, 224] He was First Lieutenant in the Maryland Navy, assigned to the Maryland Navy Ship Defense. [Stewart, 152] He resigned to take a command in the Virginia Navy. Boucher was the Commodore of the Virginia Navy’s Potomac Squadron, [Stewart, 152] being commissioned on 17 June 1776, [NOAR, 28] to his flagship, Virginia Navy Sloop Congress. On 26 November 1776 Boucher resigned from the Virginia Navy. [Stewart, 152] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Alexandria on 7 July 1781. [NRAR, 224]


BOURDEAUX, DANIEL

SC

Owner, South Carolina Privateers


Daniel Bourdeaux was a resident of Charleston, South Carolina. He was associated in privateering with JOSEPH ATKINSON. Vessels associated with Bourdeaux were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/?/77

SC

Brig Bellona (16/?)

George Cross

Daniel Bourdeaux, Joseph Atkinson

  

1778

SC

Brig Bellona (16/?)

Hezekiah Anthony

[Daniel Bourdeaux, Joseph Atkinson]

  


BOURMAN, FRANCIS

See BOARDMAN, FRANCIS


BOUSCH, GOODRICH

See BOUSH, GOODRICH


BOUSH, CHARLES SAYER

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Charles Sayer Boush was born in 1755. [NOAR, 29] He married Martha Sweeny on 23 May 1774. He was a Lieutenant of Marines in the Virginia Marines. He was recommended as Second Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy, for the Virginia Navy Galley Norfolk Revenge on 29 August 1777.  Boush was transferred to the Virginia Navy Caswell on 30 August 1777. [Stewart, 152-153] He served until 1781. [NOAR, 29] Boush died in 1809 [Stewart, 152-153]


BOUSH [BOUSCH], GOODRICH

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


Goodrich Boush was recommended on 31 January 1777 to command the Virginia Navy Galley Washington. He was recruiting men for the Washington on 3 February 1777. He was in the American Congress in February 1777. He “died in service.” Notice of his death was published on 22 May 1779. [Stewart, 153]


BOUSH, ROBERT

VA

Commissary of Naval Stores/Superintendent of Naval Rigging, Virginia Navy


Robert Boush was a resident of Norfolk, Virginia. Although it was later claimed he was a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy, this seems unlikely. On 8 February 1779 he was appointed as “Commander” [Commissary?] of Naval Stores and “superintendent of all naval rigging.” He was also Paymaster in the Virginia Line. [Stewart, 154]


BOUSH, WILSON

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Wilson Boush was a Midshipman on the Virginia Navy Galley Washington on 1 February 1777. He was the son of Captain GOODRICH BOUSCH, who commanded the Washington. He entered the service very early with his father and continued until the latter’s death in 1779. [Stewart, 154]


BOWDOIN, A.

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


A. Bowdoin was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Rover in November 1776. [NOAR, 29]


BOWEN, EDWARD

[Commander], [unknown] [Privateers]


Edward Bowen was in command of the vessel Sally in November 1779, perhaps a privateer vessel. The Sally was captured by the British in that month. [NOAR, 29]


BOWEN, ELIJAH

CT/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Elijah Bowen was allegedly born in Middletown, Connecticut. [NOAR, 29] He was appointed Second Lieutenant aboard the Continental Navy Schooner Wasp and served from 18 December 1775 until about 6 April 1776, when he apparently left the schooner. [xx] He was aboard the Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain WILLIAM HALLOCK) on 22 October 1776 as Second Lieutenant. [NOAR, 29] He was commissioned on 5 February 1777 [as First Lieutenant]. Bowen was First Lieutenant aboard the Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain HENRY JOHNSON) in September 1777. He was wounded in the action with HM Packet [Cutter] Alert on 19 September 1777, losing either a hand or an arm in the action. He was captured with the Lexington.


BOWEN, JABEZ

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers


Jabez Bowen of Providence, Rhode Island, was presumably a relative of Commodore OLIVER BOWEN of the Georgia Navy. After Georgia’s fall to the British, Oliver Bowen presumably returned to Providence. Jabez Bowen was listed as the owner of Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Argo, commissioned on 12 December 1780, and commanded by Oliver Bowen. [NRAR, 229]


BOWEN [BROWN], OLIVER

RI

Commodore, Georgia Navy

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Oliver Bowen was a New Englander, born in Providence, Rhode Island on 17 November 1742, the son of Ephraim and Mary Bowen.  Bowen’s father was a doctor. On 19 November 1769 Bowen married Polly Cooke and moved to Georgia in the early 1770s. [Coleman, Kenneth and Gurr, Charles Stephen, eds., Dictionary of Georgia Biography, University of Georgia Press, Athens: 1981, I, 102-103] He was age 34 in 1775. [Northern, William J., ed., Men of Mark In Georgia, The Reprint Company, Spartanburg, SC: 1974, I, 15-18] As a militia Captain, he was appointed to joint command of Georgia Navy Schooner [xx] Liberty [NOAR, 29] (formerly the Elizabeth) [NOAR, 29] in July 1775 (with Captain Joseph Habersham) [xx] Bowen was given the mission of capturing the Philipa, with a cargo of gunpowder. She was captured on 10 July 1775. He was authorized to go on a voyage to Hispaniola to purchase munitions on 28 August 1775, probably in the vessel owned by Philip Moore, and furnished with a £2000 cargo by the Georgia Council of Safety. He was authorized to arm his vessel for the return voyage. [xx]  Bowen  was a delegate to the first Provincial Congress. In December 1775 Bowen was a member of the Committee of Safety. [Northern, William J., ed., Men of Mark In Georgia, The Reprint Company, Spartanburg, SC: 1974, I, 15-18] In November 1776 he was at St. Domingue, where, with the help of the governor he bought 7253 livres of war supplies from Roux et Cie, which was never paid for. [Coleman and Gurr, Dictionary of Georgia Biography, I, 102-103] On 30 January 1777 Bowen was appointed as "Commodore or Commander" of the Georgia Navy, to rank as a Colonel in the Army, by the Georgia Assembly. [Northern,Men of Mark In Georgia, I, 15-18] Bowen commanded the naval forces in the invasion of East Florida in April-June 1777. [xx] In April 1778 Bowen was suspended from command for insubordination to the Governor of Georgia during the failed East Florida operation. [xx] He later commanded three galleys. Bowen was reported to have captured three enemy vessels. [NOAR, 29. Claghorn separates Oliver Bowen into two people, but it is nearly certain that they were the same person.] He received a latter of congratulations from the Marine Committee, dated 24 June 1778, for this last victory. [NRAR, 76] Oliver Bowen was a resident of Providence, Rhode Island in 1780. On 12 December 1780 he was commissioned to command the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Argo. [NRAR, 229] After the war Bowen received 1000 acres as land bounty. [Northern, Men of Mark In Georgia, I, 15-18] He married Anne Dorsey on 3 March 1798 and died at Augusta, Georgia on 11 July 1800. [Coleman and Gurr, Dictionary of Georgia Biography, I, 102-103]


BOWEN, THOMAS

RI

Midshipman, Continental Navy


Thomas Bowen was a Midshipman in the Continental Navy on 22 June 1776, assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain ABRAHAM WHIPPLE). On 2 September 1776 he was a Midshipman on the Continental Navy Sloop Providence. [NOAR, 29. Commanded by William Barron, according to NOAR, 29].


BOWEN, WILLIAM

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


William Bowen, perhaps of Baltimore, Maryland, was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Swallow on 16 October 1778. [NRAR, 469]


BOWEN [BROWN], WILLIAM

PA

Captain of Marines, Pennsylvania Marines


William Bowen (or Brown) was commissioned as a Captain of Marines in the Pennsylvania Marines on 16 February 1776. [NOAR, 29]


BOWERS, DAVID, JR.

MA

Prize Master, [Pennsylvania] Privateers


David Bowers, Jr. was born in 1755 and died in 1809. He was a "Navy Captain" according to the DAR. Bowers was a prizemaster aboard the [Pennsylvania] Privateer [unknown] Angelica in 1778 and was captured by the British. On 7 July 1778 he was committed to Fortun Prison near Portsmouth, England. [NOAR, 29]


BOWMAN, FRANCIS

See BOARDMAN, FRANCIS


BOYCE [BOYS], ABRAHAM [ABRA’M]

PA/(P)

Captain, Continental Marines


Abraham Boyce may have been from New Jersey or Pennsylvania. He was the Marine officer aboard the Continental Navy Brig Lexington (Captain JOHN BARRY) in early 1776, but his rank and dates are unclear. The Lexington engaged the British tender Edward on 7 April 1776. The next day, 8 April, the Congress notified Barry that a vessel enroute to Cape May would deliver his "Lieutt of Marines and some men." Congress informed Barry on 11 April that "Capt. Boys" with some Marines had been sent to Cape May in the Continental Navy Schooner Wasp, where Barry was to retrieve them. These two persons may have been the same, although ABEL MORGAN is also identified as Lexington’s lieutenant of Marines about this time. Boyce stayed aboard when Captain WILLIAM HALLOCK took command. Lexington sailed for the West Indies in October 1776. On her return, in December 1776, she was captured by HM Frigate Pearl. The British removed the sea officers and sent over a seven man prize crew. In the night, under Boyce’s leadership, the Americans recaptured the brig and took her into Baltimore. Boyce informed Robert Morris of the incident, who reported it to John Hancock on 2 January 1777. Further details of Abraham Boyce are lacking. A return of men enlisted by Captain ROBERT MULLAN, dated 9 August 1779 to 1 January 1780, named two Marines as being aboard the Confederacy with "Captn. Boyce." However, during the latter part of this period Confederacy was in the West Indies with a full complement of Marine officers. [Smith, Marines, 433] Boyce is listed in Paullin as Captain of Marines [Paullin, 512] and as Lieutenant of Marines [Paullin, 513].


BOYCE, NATHAN [NATHANIEL]

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


Nathan Boyce was born in 1740 and died in 1803. On 29 August 1775 he was commissioned as a [First] Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Washington. On 1 July 1776 he was promoted to Captain and given command of the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Franklin. [NOAR, 30]

Nathan Boys was appointed as First Lieutenant on the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Washington on 29 August 1775. [Jackson, 338-339] He was promoted to captain and transferred to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Franklin on 6 December 1775. [Jackson, 339] absent from Fort Island at the time of the Davidson affair, but later joined in the protest. [Jackson, 421n12] commander of rump fleet from mid-August 1778 until early 1780. Discharged 20 December 1781 (last official act of the Navy.) [Jackson, 339] He commanded the Franklin during the Action in the Delaware River in May 1776 and the numerous battles in the Delaware during the British invasion of September-November 1777. Franklin was among those vessels which escaped the trap below Philadelphia and were saved. Boys served as senior captain of the Navy and commander-in-chief following the resignation of JOHN HAZELWOOD on 17 August 1778. [Jackson, 334] In command of the galley Franklin on 23 August 1777, when his galley formed part of the detachment (under command of THOMAS MOORE of galley Hancock) ordered down river to reinforce Captain Charles Alexander’s mixed Pennsylvania-Continental fleet. [Jackson, 115] Boys was at Billingsport in early October 1777, when he was sent on a liason mission to locate General Silas Newcomb of the New Jersey militia. [Jackson, 133] Participated in the salvage of articles from the Augusta and Merlin in October and November 1777. [Jackson, 203] Requested the Navy Board to loan him two guard boats [in January 1778] for a mission. The two boats went to Cooper’s Creek, then overland to Salem, to be refloated. At Cooper’s Creek the officers took a nap, the men deserted. [Jackson, 285] commanded patrol squadron of three galleys and three guard boats, plus sloop Liberty in late 1778 [Jackson, 303] responsible for enforcing a thirty day embargo in August 1778 [Jackson, 303-304] 20 July 1779: Boys ordered to assist Col John Bull in sinking new chevaux-de-frise at Billingsport. [Jackson, 367] 18 October 1779 Boys ordered to put an officer and 12 men in Fort Mifflin and Billingsport. [Jackson, 327-328] One of four captains retained after 3 December 1779. [Jackson, 328] offered to resign on 13 Feb 1781, but kept in service as caretaker, with three men until 20 December 1781 when discharged. [Jackson, 329] Discharged 20 December 1781 (last official act of the Navy.) [Jackson, 339]


BOYD, ADAM

PA

First Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy


Adam Boyd was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 1 December 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Burke. [NOAR, 30]


BOYD, JOHN JAMES

NY

Surgeon, Continental Army New York Squadron


John James Boyd was commissioned on 10 May 1776 as a Surgeon in the Continental Army’s New York Squadron. He was assigned to the Continental Army Schooner General Putnam (Captain THOMAS CREGIER). [NOAR, 30]


BOYER, ROGER

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Roger Boyer was commissioned on 27 August 1782 to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Ranger. [NOAR, 30]


BRACKETT, JOHN

MD

Second Mate, Maryland Privateers


John Brackett was Second Mate [NOAR, 30] on the Maryland Privateer Schooner Harlequin (Commander William Woolsey) on 6 July 1776. [NRAR, 326. He is described only as a "Minor officer" in NRAR.]


BRADDOCK, JOHN CUTLER

GA

Captain, Georgia Navy


John Cutler Braddock commanded the Georgia Navy Galley Lee in March 1777, during the invasion of East Florida. In April 1778, together with Colonel Samuel Elbert, Captain John Hardy (Georgia Navy Galley Washington), and Captain Hatcher (Georgia Navy Galley Bullock), he captured HM Schooner Hinchinbrook (10 guns), a prize brig, and the East Florida Provincial Marine Sloop Rebecca, which had run aground in Racoon Gut. In January 1779, following the fall of Sunbury, Georgia to the British, Washington and Bullock were burned to prevent capture. Braddock survived the war and was residing in St. Mary’s, Georgia in 1794, when he died.. [NOAR, 30 and information from J. G. Braddock, Sr.]


BRADFORD, JOHN

MA

Continental Agent for Massachusetts, Continental Navy


BRADFORD, JOHN

MA

Master, Massachusetts Privateers


John Bradford was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was appointed as (Sailing) Master aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Terrible Creature (Commander RICHARD ROBERTSON) on 9 March 1778. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425]


BRADFORD, JOSEPH

[MA]

Surgeon, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Bradford was a Surgeon [NOAR, 30] on the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Wexford (Commander JOHN PECK RATHBUN), commissioned on 4 August 1781. [NRAR, 491]. Wexford was captured by the British vessel Recovery in October 1781. [NOAR, 251]. On 26 October 1781 Bradford was apparently released by the British. [NOAR, 30]


BRADFORD, JOSEPH

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Bradford was as resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 412] He was commissioned as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy on 4 July 1777 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Wasp. [NOAR, 30] On 14 March 1780 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Peggy. [NRAR, 412]


BRADFORD, WILLIAM

RI

Master, Rhode Island Navy


William Bradford was a native of Providence, Rhode Island. He was appointed as a Master in the Rhode Island Navy on 12 June 1775 and assigned to the Rhode Island Navy Sloop Katy (Commodore ABRAHAM WHIPPLE). [NDAR, I, 664-665]


BRADHURST, BENJAMIN

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Benjamin Bradhurst was a resident of Annapolis [NRAR, 241] or Baltimore, Maryland. [NRAR, 235] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brig Betsey on 17 November 1778. [NRAR, 235] The Maryland Council had suspicions about the Betsey, then laying in the Eastern Bay and ready to sail. The commission for Bradhurst was delivered to Commodore Grason of the Maryland Navy, who was ordered, on 17 November, to send a Maryland Navy galley to search the Betsey. If she was found to have shipped excess provisions over and above those stated to be aboard on her application for a commission, she was to be seized. If everything was according to the application, then her commission was to be delivered to Bradhurst. [ Archives of Maryland: Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland, April 1, 1778 through October 26, 1779, 21:240] On 13 March 1780 he was commissioned again, to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Blossom. [NRAR, 241] A Benjamin Bradhurst, [NRAR, 398] listing his age as 29, [NOAR, 31] was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Morris (Commander THOMAS MISNARD) on 7 May 1781. [NRAR, 398]


BRADLEY, CHRISTOPHER

PA/(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Christopher Bradley was commissioned as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Betsey on 1 August 1778, a vessel of four guns and ten men, owned by Joseph C. Fisher and Robert Knox & Co. of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 234]


BRAINARD, JAMES

CT

First Mate, Connecticut Privateers


James Brainard was First Mate [NOAR, 31] on the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hamlin (Commander TIMOTHY STARR), commissioned 8 May 1781. [NRAR, 321] He is described as about 35 years old, 5'8" tall, a thick set man with a dark complexion. [NOAR, 31]


BRAINARD, PEMBERTON

CT

First Mate, Connecticut Privateers


Pemberton Brainard was First Mate on the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marshall (Commander NOAH SCOVELL) on 6 March 1783. [NOAR, 31]


BRAINARD [BRAINERD], SHUBAEL

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Shubael Brainard [Brainerd] was a native of Chatham, Connecticut. [NOAR, 31] Brainard was First Lieutenant aboard the Connecticur Privateer Schooner Eagle (Commander DAVID BROOKS) on 28 May 1779. Eagle made a prize, schooner Maria, on 22 July 1779, and was captured by HM Frigate Daphne on 20 September 1779. Brainard was delivered to the prison ship at New York on 2 October 1779. [Middlebrook, II, 74-76] Brainard was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Freedom on 28 September 1781. [NRAR, 304. Spelled Brainerd in this source.]


BRAINERD, SHUBAEL

[See BRAINARD, SHUBAEL]


BRAMBLE, JOHN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Bramble was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Hope (Commander WILLIAM HAYMAN) on 28 June 1781. [NRAR, 342] He listed his age as 22. [NOAR, 31]


BRANAN, SETH

VA

“Cadet,” Virginia Navy


Seth Branan is listed as a “Cadet,” aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Protector on 21 March 1778. [Stewart, 154]


BRAY, ASA

CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers


Asa Bray was a resident of Southington, Connecticut. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/1/81

CT

Galley Adventure (0/30)

Samuel Smith, Jr.

Asa Bray & Co.

Samuel Smith, Jr., Asa Bray, Jonathan Root

[NRAR, 222]


BRAY, DAVID

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


David Bray was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Mermaid on 21 July 1777. [NOAR, 31]


BRAY, JOHN

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Bray was a resident of Beverly [NRAR, 408] and Marblehead, [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] Massachusetts. Bray served aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner True Blue (Commander RICHARD STILES) as First Lieutenant, on 29 April 1777. At least two prizes were captured on this cruise. He was First Lieutenant aboard the Massachusetts Navy Brigantine Tyrannicide (Captain JONATHAN HARADEN), being commissioned on 15 September 1777. In the Tyrannicide Bray made a spectacular cruise to France: in company with other Massachusetts Navy vessels some twenty-five prizes were captured. He was then aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine General Pickering (Commander Jonathan Haraden) as First Lieutenant, on 30 September 1778. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] Bray may have been aboard her during the battle that resulted in the capture of the Royal George on 29 September 1779. [Allen, MPR, 150-151] Bray then entered the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Franklin (Commander JOHN TURNER) as First Mate. She was commissioned on 23 March 1780. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 410-411] Bray was reported as First Lieutenant on the Franklin on 2 December 1780. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Oliver Cromwell on 13 April 1781. Oliver Cromwell was soon on her maiden voyage, sailing north and east. On 7 July 1781 she had the misfortune to be captured by HM Frigate Maidstone (Captain William Parker) on the Newfoundland coast, while dogging a Quebec convoy. Bray was aboard a cartel vessel which arrived at Boston on 22 September 1781. [see Oliver Cromwell]


BRAZAIL, JAMES

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


James Brazail was, possibly, a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. He was appointed as First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Union (Commander WILLIAM LANGDELL) on 4 January 1779. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 425]


BREDEN [BUDDEN, BUDEN], WILLIAM

See BUDDEN, WILLIAM


BREWER, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Brewer was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. On 29 June 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Salem Packet. [NRAR, 451]


BREWSTER, MARTIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Martin Brewster was a native of Salem, [NRAR, 344] Beverly [Allen, MPR, 181] (or possibly, Cape Cod), [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426] Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hopewell on 21 October 1782. [NRAR, 344]


BREWSTER, PETER

PA/(P)

Captain, Continental Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Peter Brewster was commissioned a Captain in the Continental Navy on 12 October 1776. [NOAR, 32] He was commissioned as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Queen of France on 6 July 1779, a vessel of eight guns and twenty men, owned by Mathew Irwin and Thomas Irwin & Co. of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 424]


BREWSTER, WILLIAM

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Brewster was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 294, 416] He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Flora on 12 July 1780. He was re-commissioned to the Flora on 28 November 1780, [NRAR, 294] at which time he listed his age as 27. [NOAR, 32] Brewster was a co-owner and bonder for the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Plough (Commander EDWARD BURROWS), commissioned 4 June 1782. [NRAR, 416]


BREWSTER, ZADOCK

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy


Zadock Brewster was born in 1742 and died in 1811. He was First Lieutenant aboard the Connecticut Navy Galley Shark (Captain Theophilus Stanton) in July 1776. He was captured by the British in February 1777. [NOAR, 32]


BREWTON, MILES

SC

Politician, Delegate to Georgia


Emissary to Georgia from South Carolina in July 1775 regarding division of powder captured in the Philippa.


BRIAMANT [BRIAMENT], PETER

PA

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Peter Briamant was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 373, 399, 407] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Nancy on 6 May 1779. [NRAR, 399] About July 1779 he was captured by the British vessel Offer and later exchanged. [NOAR, 32] On 12 December 1780 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Liberty. [NRAR, 373] At this time he listed his age as 29. [NOAR, 32] He was next commissioned, on 19 June 1781, to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Nympha. [NRAR, 407] On 11 December 1782 he was given command of the [Pennsylvania] Privateer Ship Navigation. [NOAR, 32. His name is given as Briament in this source.]


BRIAMENT, PETER

see BRIAMANT, PETER


BRIAN, DANIEL

MD

Captain, Maryland Navy


So listed in NOAR, 32.


BRIANT [BRYANT, BRYAN], JAMES

[PA]

Lieutenant, [Pennsylvania] Privateers


James Briant was a Lieutenant on the [Pennsylvania] Privateer [unknown] Montgomery. He was captured by the British and committed to Fortun Prison on 8 August 1777. [NOAR, 32]


BRICE, JOHN

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers

Commander, Maryland Privateers


John Brice was commissioned as a Captain in the Pennsylvania Navy on 1 October 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Fire Sloop Aetna. On 19 October 1776 he resigned, but was reinstated to command on 1 November 1776. [NOAR, 32] On 11 March 1777 he was transferred to command of the Pennsylvania Navy Fire Brig Vulcano [Volcano]. [NDAR, VIII, 86] On 2 August 1777 the Pennsylvania Navy Board asked Commodore Hazelwood to enquire into the situation of the Vulcano, and fire ship Hecla, as to whether they were prepared to drop down the Delaware River with the Continental fleet, which was to sail on the 3rd. [NDAR, IX, 695] On 4 August Brice was ordered to place himself under the orders of the commander of the Continental squadron. [NDAR, IX, 704 and note] On 5 August Captain Isaiah Robinson (Continental Navy Brig Andrew Doria) was ordered to take command of this expedition. [NDAR, IX, 711-712] Vulcano was down the river with the fleet on 24 August when it was seen by HM Frigate Liverpool (Captain Henry Bellew). [NDAR, IX, 793 and note; IX, 809-810 and 810 note; 807-808] On 19 September the fleet was off Marcus Hook. [NDAR, IX, 942; 942 and note] Following the fall of Philadelphia Vulcano stayed with the fleet and was either expended or destroyed to prevent capture in November 1777. On 14 April 1780 Brice was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Hetty. [NRAR, 336] His next command, on 15 August 1780, was to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Hibernia. [NRAR, 337. NOAR, 32, gives the date as 13 August.] On 16 June 1781, [NRAR, 425] listing his age as 29, [NOAR, 32] he was given command of the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Racoon. [NRAR, 425] That same day Brice witnessed the bond of the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Merlin (Commander JOSIAH HILL). [NRAR, 391] The same or another John Brice of Philadelphia was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Betsey on 9 July 1781. [NRAR, 237] His next command was the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Dolphin, on 3 November 1781. [NRAR, 273] He now listed his age as 33. He was described as 5'8" tall. [NOAR, 32]


BRICE, JOHN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Brice, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate on the Pennstlvania Privateer Boat Spy (Commander DAVID McCULLOUGH) on 23 September 1781. [NRAR, 462] He listed his age as 23 and is described as 5'6" tall. [NOAR, 32]


BRICE, JOHN

See BRUCE, JOHN


BRIDGES, ROBERT

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

4/30/79

PA

Sloop Active (2/12)

William Green

Robert Bridges & Co.

Robert Bridges, William Smith

[NRAR, 217]


BRIGDON, JONATHAN

CT

First Mate, Continental Army Victuallers


Jonathan Brigdon was First Mate on the Continental Army Transport Sloop Eagle (Master LEVERIDGE STEVENS). The vessel was captured by the British on 10 June 1778. Brigdon was later exchanged. [Middlebrook, II, 78-79]


BRIGGS, JOHNSON

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Johnson Briggs was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 248] On 17 August 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Cato. [NRAR, 248] In the Cato Briggs captured the vessel St. Mary’s Packet, Jamaica to London, and brought her in to Salem in November 1781. The Cato and Briggs were captured on 29 March 1782 by a British privateer brig of sixteen guns and seventy-five men. He was later exchanged. In 1782 he commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Active. [NOAR, 33]


BRIGGS, WILLIAM

NA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


William Briggs was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. On 26 August 1777 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Charming Sally. [NOAR, 33] He captured the sloop John, about August 1777. [NDAR, X, 23] He was later commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Mary Ann, on 26 September 1781. [NOAR, 33] He was re-commissioned to the Mary Ann on 27 May 1782, this time as a Connecticut Privateer Brigantine. Briggs now listed his address as New London, Connecticut. [NRAR, 388]


BRIGGS, WILLIAM

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Briggs of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 222] He was born about 1755. [NOAR, 33] He served as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Adventure, commissioned 29 May 1782. [NRAR, 222] He listed his age as 27. [NOAR, 33]


BRIGHAM, JOHN

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


John Brigham was a Midshipman on the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty on 18 May 1778 and 30 July 1778. [Stewart, 155]


BRIGHT, FRANCIS

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


Francis Bright was a resident of York County, Virginia. He was appointed as a Captain in the Virginia Navy by the Virginia Council of Safety. [Stewart, 155] On 29 April 1776 he was commissioned to the "first armed cruiser for the Eastern Shore," [NOAR, 33] the Virginia Navy Brig Northampton. [Stewart, 155; he indicates that Bright commanded the Northampton from January 1776.] Bright resigned on 11 May 1778. [Stewart, 155] He was commissioned on 29 May 1782 to the Virginia Navy Brigantine Courtney (a privateer commission although the vessel was state owned) [NRAR, 261] and served to the close of the war. [NOAR, 33] Following the war Bright continued in service. He made a voyage to England in the Virginia Navy [unknown] Perseverance with a cargo of tobacco. He died 10 December 1811. [Stewart, 155]


BRIMBLECUM,

[MA]

Second Mate, Massachusetts Privateers


Brimblecum was the Second Mate aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Oliver Cromwell (Commander WILLIAM COLES) on her cruise to Spain from Massachusetts in July-August 1777. He was the prize master aboard the brig Ville de Bayonne, captured 16 August 1777. She was ordered into Boston. [NDAR, IX, 573-574 and 574 note] On 8 September 1777 Ville de Bayonne was at 43°31'N, 43°15'W when she was chased by a frigate, which proved to be Continental Navy Ship Raleigh (Captain Thomas Thompson). [NDAR, X, 875 and note] Ville de Bayonne safely arrived at Boston. [NDAR, X, 90 and note]


BRIMMER, MARTIN

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Martin Brimmer was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with HENRY MITCHELL and WILLIAM ERSKINE. Vessels associated with Brimmer were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/2/79

MA

Ship Batchelor (16/120)

Alexander Holmes

William Erskine et al

Alexander Holmes, Martin Brimmer, Samuel Nicholson

[Allen, MPR, 78]


BRINTNALL, WILLIAM

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


William Brintnall was in command of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Wooster by 30 November 1778. He was preparing to sail for St. Croix, Danish West Indies about 1 January 1779. Brintnall and Wooster were captured in the West Indies by the British in May 1779. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 245-246]


BRISSON, ROBERT

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Robert Brisson was possibly from Annapolis, Maryland. He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Sloop Concord on 11 June 1778. [NRAR, 257]


BRITTAIN, JOHN

[See BRITTON, JOHN]


BRITTON [BRITTAIN], JOHN

VA

Master, Virginia Navy


John Britton [Brittain] was a sailing master (Master) in the Virginia Navy. [Stewart, 155]


BRITTON, WILLIAM

PA

First Mate [Lieutenant], Maryland Privateers


William Britton was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was appointed as First Mate (or First Lieutenant) on the Maryland Privateer Schooner Baltimore Hero (Commander JOHN EARLE) on 15 May 1779. [NRAR, 232]


BROAD, WILLIAM

Second Mate, Continental Navy


William Broad enlisted aboard the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain HOYSTEED HACKER) at Providence, Rhode Island, on 22 February 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 118-120] Broad was sent on a recruiting trip by Hacker in July 1777. On 15 July Broad excused his long absence, pleading sickness (he was at Windham). Broad sent forward one recruit and expected to join the ship in three or four days. [NDAR, IX, 289 and note]


BROADSTREET, SAMUEL

NH

Prizemaster, [unknown] Privateers


Samuel Broadstreet was an officer on a privateer and a Prizemaster on the [unknown] Privateer [unknown] General Sullivan. He was captured by the British and committed to Fortun Prison on 26 April 1779. It is possible the General Sullivan was a prize. [NOAR, 33-34]


BROADSTREET, SIMON

NH

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


Simon Broadstreet was a resident of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Schooner Rover on 26 May 1780. [NOAR, 34]


BROADWATER, CHARLES LEWIS

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Charles Lewis Broadwater was a resident of Fairfax County, Virginia. He was a Midshipman aboard the Virginia Navy Sloop Congress in April 1776. In the spring of 1777 he entered the land service. [Stewart, 155]


BROADWATER, COVINGTON

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


So stated in NOAR, 34. According to Stewart, 155, he was a crew member of Virginia Navy Galley Accomac. [Stewart, 155]


BROADWATER, GAVIN

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Gavin Broadwater was a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy, serving aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Accomac. [Stewart, 155]


BROCKENBROUGH, JOHN

VA

[Surgeon], [Virginia Navy]


Dr. John Brockenbrough was born at Hobbs Hole, Essex County, Virginia in 1744. He signed a protest against the stamp act in 1764. [Stewart, 155-156] He was a "Surgeon in Naval Service" according to NOAR, 34. Stewart says he is mentioned for service connected with the Navy. [Stewart, 156] He died in 1801. [NOAR, 34]


BROOKE, LAWRENCE

VA

Surgeon, Continental Navy


Lawrence Brooke was a Surgeon in the Continental Navy. He served aboard the Continental Navy Ships  Alliance and the Bonhomme Richard, both under Captain John Paul Jones. [Stewart, 156]


BROOKE, WALTER

VA

Commodore, Virginia Navy


Walter Brooke was the son of Major Walter Brooke of Charles County, Maryland. He was commissioned in 1776 as a Captain in the Virginia Navy and assigned to the Virginia Navy Sloop Liberty. He was aboard the Liberty in August 1776. [Stewart, 156] On 29 March 1777 he was promoted to Commodore of the Virginia Navy. [NOAR, 34] He died in 1798. [Stewart, 156]


BROOKHOUSE, NATHANIEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nathaniel Brookhouse was a resident of Salem [NRAR, 253, 363, 378, 462] and Marblehead, [NRAR, 262] Massachusetts. On 11 December 1778 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Tyger. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426. Or on 14 December, to the Tiger, NOAR, 34] On 26 July 1781 he served as a bonder for the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Civil Usage (Commander PETER MARTIN). [NRAR, 253] On 6 August 1781 he served as a witness for the bond of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Surprize (Commander NATHANIEL PERKINS). [NRAR, 468] Brookhouse is listed as a bonder and an owner of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Dart (Commander LEMUEL PERKINS), commissioned on 28 August 1781. Brookhouse listed his address as Marblehead. [NRAR, 262] On 25 October 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Junius Brutus. Brookhouse again listed his address as Salem. [NRAR, 363. Or 26 October: Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426.] Under Brookhouse the Junius Brutus sailed for the West Indies. On 23 January 1782 she captured the ship Experiment (Daniel Sinclair), bound from England to Jamaica.  Experiment arrived at Salem on 19 February 1782. [Allen, MPR, 196, from the Salem Gazette of 21 February 1782] Junius Brutus was one of four American privateers (including Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Holker (Commander Roger Keane) and two others) which attacked several armed British vessels at Tortola, British West Indies in early March 1782. After a hot fight, two British vessels were captured. [Maclay, American Privateers, 214-215] Brookhouse was listed as an owner and bonder for the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Spitfire (Commander WILLIAM PERKINS), commissioned on 5 September 1782. [NRAR, 462] On 8 March 1783 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Lively. [NRAR, 378] Brookhouse was soon at sea. On 2 April 1783 he returned to port, having sailed on 25 March 1783. The cruise was short because two small British privateers were captured. Brookhouse soon learned that they had been captured one day after the day on which hostilities were to cease. The war being over, they had to be returned to their owners. [Allen, MPR, 21, from the Salem Gazette of 3 April 1783]


BROOKHOUSE [BOOKHOUSE], ROBERT

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Robert Brookhouse was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Lively on 14 April 1778. On 13 October 1778 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine True American. He was next commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hornet, on 15 June 1779. [NOAR, 34]


BROOKMAN, GEORGE

PA

First Mate, Continental Navy


George Brookman was appointed as First Mate on the Continental Navy Sloop Independence (Captain JOHN YOUNG) on 16 September 1776. [NOAR, 34]


BROOKS, DAVID

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


David Brooks was a resident of Chatham, Connecticut. [NRAR, 279, 453] He was First Lieutenant aboard the Connecticut Navy Galley Crane in July 1776, operating out of East Haddam. He was captured by HMS Unicorn in March 1777 and later exchanged. [NOAR, 34] Brooks then commanded the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Chatham. On 7 June 1778 he captured the British schooner Hope. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 65] He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Harlequin on 23 July 1778. On 5 October 1778, he took three prizes, the”pettiaugre” Necessity, the “pettiaugre” Henry and the sloop Jenny. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 112] On 28 May 1779 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Eagle. [NRAR, 279] In her he captured the schooner Maria on 22 July 1779. Brooks was captured again, by HM Frigate Daphne, on 20 September 1779. He was soon exchanged. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 75-77] He was next commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Hamden, on 5 August 1780, [NOAR, 35] and, on 5 April 1781, to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Sampson. [NRAR, 453]


BROOKS, EDWARD

NH

Chaplain, Continental Navy


Edward Brooks was the Chaplain aboard the Continental Navy Ship Hancock (Captain JOHN MANLEY). [NOAR, 35]


BROOKS, FRANCIS

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Francis Brooks was First Mate on the Pennsylvania Navy Ship Montgomery, on 2 April 1776. [NOAR, 35]


BROOKS, JACOB

(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


BROOKS, JOHN

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Brooks was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 363] He was appointed as Second Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner True American (Commander JOHN BUFFINTON) on 29 April 1777. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426] He was commissioned, on 27 February 1778, to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Scorpion. [Allen, MPR, 276. On 28 February, Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426.] On 27 April 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Saratoga. [Allen, MPR, 273] Brooks was listed as an owner and a bonder for the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Fortune (Commander JESSE FEARSON) on 24 April 1780. [Allen, MPR, 133] Brooks was next commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Junius Brutus on 23 August 1780 [NRAR, 362]. On 10 September 1781 Brooks is listed among the owners of the Massachusetts Privateer Privateer Schooner Hope (Commander ROBERT WORMSTED). [NRAR, 342]  He left the Junius Brutus but was re-commissioned to her on 15 June 1782. [NRAR, 363] Junius Brutus and Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Raven (Commander DANIEL NEEDHAM) sailed together and were  subsequently captured by the British. The crews were taken prisoner, being confined at Newfoundland. In October 1782 a cartel vessel arrived at Salem with the crew of the Junius Brutus aboard. [Allen, MPR, 196, from the Salem Gazette of 10 October 1782 and the Boston Gazette of 21 October 1782] Brooks served as a bonder, and was listed as an owner, for Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Thrasher (Commander WILLIAM BALDWIN), commissioned on 31 December 1782. [NRAR, 475] On 2 February 1783 he was listed as an owner and a bonder for Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Union (Commander JOHN FEARSON). [NRAR, 483]


BROOKS, LEMUEL

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Lemuel Brooks was a resident of Norwalk, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Gamecock on 13 May 1776. [NRAR, 307] Immediately after he took Gamecock to sea he was captured by HM Frigate Cerberus and sent into Newport, Rhode Island. [NOAR, 35]


BROOKS, NOAH

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Privateers


Noah Brooks was a [First] Lieutenant aboard the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marshall (Commander Noah Scovel). On 2 April 1783 the British brigantine Hope was captured. [NOAR, 35]


BROOKS, SAMUEL

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Samuel Brooks was a resident of Chatham, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Harlequin on 19 May 1779. [NRAR, 327] In August 1779 he captured the British schooner William. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 112]


BROOME, JOHN

NY

New York Navy Agent


John Broom was a member of the New York Provincial Congress in June 1776 [NDAR, 5, 337, 347, 359] and a Lieutenant Colonel in New York militia. [NDAR, 5, 359; 9, 23-25] He was part owner of New York Privateer Sloop Independence (Commander Thomas Truxtun) in July 1776 [NDAR, 5, 1103] with business connections in New Haven, Connecticut. He went to New Haven during the New York campaign, and supported actions by New York and Continental troops against Long Island. [NDAR, 6, 982-983] He was appointed New York Agent in Connecticut before May 1777. When New York Navy Sloop Montgomery (Captain WILLIAM ROGERS) arrived in eary May 1777 he took charge of her, dealing with manning, money, and officer problems. [NDAR, 8, 933-934, 1003]  He handled the sale of the Montgomery for New York and the discharge of her crew in late June 1777. [NDAR, 9, 23-25]


BROOME, JOHN

CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers


John Broome was associated with SAMUEL BROOME, JOSEPH TRUMBULL, JOHN TRUMBULL, DAVID TRUMBULL and JOHN LIVINGSTON in privateering. Vessels associated with Broome were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

3/6/78

CT

Sloop Beaver (12/65)

Joseph Dodge

Joseph Trumbull, Samuel Broome, John Broome, John Livingston

Joseph Dodge, Samuel Broome, John Broome

[NRAR, 232]

6/?/78

CT

Sloop beaver (12/65)

William Havens

  

[Middlebrook, II, 54-55]

9/3/79

CT

Sloop Beaver (12/65)

William Havens

Samuel Broome & Co. [Boston]

William Havens, David Trumbull, John Trumbull

[NRAR, 233]

3/4/80

CT

Sloop Beaver (12/70)

Dan Scovell

John Broome & Co. [Hartford]

Dan Scovell, David Trumbull, John Trumbull

[[NRAR, 233]


BROOME, SAMUEL

CT

Owner, Connecticut Privateers


Samuel Broome was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was associated with JOHN BROOME, JOSEPH TRUMBULL, JOHN TRUMBULL, DAVID TRUMBULL, ISAAC SEARS, PASCHAL N. SMITH and JOHN LIVINGSTON in privateering. Vessels associated with Broome were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

3/6/78

CT

Sloop Beaver (12/65)

Joseph Dodge

Joseph Trumbull, Samuel Broome, John Broome, John Livingston

Joseph Dodge, Samuel Broome, John Broome

[NRAR, 232]

6/?/78

CT

Sloop beaver (12/65)

William Havens

  

[Middlebrook, II, 54-55]

12/31/77

MA

Sloop Independence (10/55)

Peter Pollard

Isaac Sears, Paschal N. Smith

Peter Pollard, Isaac Sears, Paschal Nelson Smith

[Allen, MPR, 186]

9/3/79

CT

Sloop Beaver (12/65)

William Havens

Samuel Broome & Co. [Boston]

William Havens, David Trumbull, John Trumbull

[NRAR, 233]

3/4/80

CT

Sloop Beaver (12/70)

Dan Scovell

John Broome & Co. [Hartford]

Dan Scovell, David Trumbull, John Trumbull

[[NRAR, 233]

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/31/77

MA

Sloop Independence (10/55)

Peter Pollard

Isaac Sears, Paschal N. Smith

Peter Pollard, Isaac Sears, Paschal Nelson Smith

[Allen, MPR, 186]


BROUGHTON, NICHOLSON

MA

Captain, Continental Army Boston Squadron


Nicholson Broughton was a native of Marblehead, Massachusetts, born in 1724. He was commissioned by George Washington, on 2 September 1775, to the Continental Army Schooner Hannah, the first warship of the Army’s Boston Squadron. On 7 September 1775 Broughton, in the Hannah, recaptured the ship Unity (Flagg), with fish, naval stores, and lumber. On 16 October 1775 he was transferred to the Continental Army Schooner Hancock and sailed, as senior officer, on a cruise to the Nova Scotia area, with Continental Army Schooner Franklin (Captain Archibald Selman). Following his naval service he served as a Major (probably in the Massachusetts militia). He died in 1798. [NOAR, 35, has a confused account. Birth and death dates are from this source.]


BROWN, ANDREW

NJ

Commander, New Jersey Privateers


Andrew Brown was a resident of Middlesex County, New Jersey. He was commissioned to the New Jersey Privateer Sloop Endeavour on 20 November 1778. [NRAR, 281]


BROWN, DANIEL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Daniel Brown was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 29 August 1780 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Comet. [NRAR, 255] Comet was captured by the British and Brown was committed to Mill Prison on 9 January 1781. Prison was too much for Brown: in October 1781 he was pardoned to serve in the Royal Navy. [NOAR, 36]


BROWN, DAVID

VA

Surgeon, Virginia Navy


David Brown was a resident of Elizabeth City County, Virginia. He was a Surgeon in the Virginia Navy, assigned to the Virginia Navy [unknown] Dragon from 21 July [1776?] to 3 May 1778. He was then transferred to the Virginia Navy [unknown] Tartar. He died in New York about 1784. [Stewart, 157]


BROWN, ELISHA

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Elisha Brown was a resident of Hartford, Connecticut. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Betsey on 17 October 1778. [NRAR,235] On his first cruise he was captured by the British and taken into Antigua, British West Indies. [NOAR, 36]


BROWN, ESEK

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


Esek Brown was commissioned to an unnamed Virginia Privateer Brig on 5 December 1781. [NRAR, 227]


BROWN, FRANCIS

CT

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Francis Brown was a native of New Haven, Connecticut. [NRAR, 269] Before the war he was in the merchant service, and well known enough that Benedict Arnold suggested him as a galley commander on Lake Champlain in the summer of 1776. Brown was then in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in command of a merchant vessel. He sailed from Amsterdam about mid-June 1776 and arrived at Portsmouth, New Hampshire on 18 August 1776. En route Brown saw a fleet of thirty-one sail in the English Channel, which he took for Lord Howe’s. [McManemin, Privateers, 9] He was commissioned to the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Charming Sally on 8 October 1776. [McManemin, Privateers, 9; Sheffield] Charming Nancy sailed about 1 December 1776, took two prizes, fought two small actions, and was captured by HMS Nonsuch on 16 January 1777. Brown was confined aboard the Queen and then transferred to HMS Blenheim. He was committed to Mill Prison on 27 May 1777, but escaped before being sent there. After some time in France Brown was able to return to America. [see Charming Sally] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Independence on 12 January 1779, a vessel also known as the Union. She made a voyage to Amsterdam, The Netherlands. On her return the Independence was captured by HM Frigate Diana on 19 July 1779. [see Independence] Brown was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Discovery on 2 March 1781. [NRAR, 269]


BROWN, GARRET

MD

Captain of Marines, Maryland Marines

Prize Master, Maryland Privateers


Garret Brown was commissioned as Captain of Marines on 31 July 1776 and assigned to the Maryland Navy Ship Defence. [NOAR, 36] It is possible that this is the “G. Brown” who was a Prize Master aboard the Maryland Privateer Brig Sturdy Beggar (Commander JOHN McKEEL) in early 1777. He brought the prize ship Elizabeth into port on 23 March 1777. [see Sturdy Beggar]


BROWN, GAWEN, JR.

MA

Captain of Marines, Massachusetts Privateers


Gawen Brown, Jr. was appointed as Captain of Marines aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Boston (Commander WILLIAM BROWN), commissioned 24 September 1776. He served throughout her cruise, [1] November 1776-25 March 1777. [NDAR, VI, 922 and note; VIII, 210-211]


BROWN, GEORGE

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


George Brown was a resident of Culpeper County, Virginia. He enlisted as a soldier, then, in 1776, entered the Virginia Navy Galley Henry as a Midshipman. He returned in the winter of 1779-1780 and served in the militia. [Stewart, 157]


BROWN, HENRY

VA

Owner, Virginia Privateers

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

4/13/82

VA

Schooner York (14/40)

Isaiah Keel

Wells, Cowper & Co., Henry and Thomas Brown

Bristol Brown (for Keel), James Hunter

Archibald Blair [NRAR, 494]


BROWN [BREON], JAMES

[Surgeon, Continental Navy]


James Brown (or Breon) was a Surgeon aboard the [Continental Navy Schooner] Hornet. When she was captured by the British, Brown was sent to Fortun Prison, being committed on 13 October 1777. [NOAR, 36]


BROWN, JAMES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


James Brown was a native of Kittery, Massachusetts [Maine]. He commanded an American privateer which was captured by the British. He was committed to Mill Prison near Plymouth, England. While in the prison Brown operated a "school" which taught navigation to other American prisoners. [NOAR, 36]


BROWN, JAMES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


James Brown was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 299, 466] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Reprisal on 28 January 1778. [NOAR, 37] On 11 January 1781 he was given command of the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Success, [NRAR, 466] and, on 10 August 1781, he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Fortune. [NRAR, 299]


BROWN, JAMES

PA

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy


James Brown was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 4 October 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Brig Vesuvius, a fire vessel. [NOAR, 37] Four days later the Vesuvius received a new Captain, JOHN CHRISTIE. [NOAR, 59] Brown was  promoted to Captain on 1 February 1777 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Boat Tormentor. [NDAR, 1060 and note, 1104 and note]


BROWN, JAMES

SC

Member, Second South Carolina Provincial Congress and General Assembly


James Brown was appointed by the Provincial Congress to a Commission to Obstruct Passages over the Bar on 22 March 1776. The Commission was ordered to also prepare fire vessels the next day.


BROWN, JOHN

GA

Captain, Georgia Navy

Commander, Georgia Privateers


John Brown was in command of the initial Georgia Navy schooner in May 1776. He participated in the Action off Cockspur Island on 12/13 May 1776, in which he, his vessel, and his crew were captured. [xx] This is probably the same John Brown who was commander of the Georgia Privateer Schooner Nancy in late 1777. He was captured in the Nancy on 28 December 1777 by HM Brig Antigua (Lieutenant Billy Douglas). Brown was wounded in the action, his thigh being broken by a swivel shot. [see Nancy]


BROWN, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Brown was in command of the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Black Eagle in early 1777. He was captured of Antigua, British West Indies in February 1777. A John Brown of Marblehead, Massachusetts was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Raven on 28 August 1778. John Brown commanded the Little Porgy later, which was a prize of the Oliver Cromwell’s which had been released. The Little Porgy was captured by the British about December 1779. [NOAR, 37]


BROWN, JOHN

RI (P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy


John Brown was a native of Providence, Rhode Island. On 20 January 1776 Brown was given command of the brig Sally under orders of the Continental Congress to make a voyage to Surinam to obtain gunpowder. He was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Continental Navy on 15 June 1776 and assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Boston (Captain HECTOR MCNEILL). [NOAR, 37]


BROWN, JOHN

SC

Lieutenant of Marines, [Pennsylvania Privateers]


John Brown was a resident of South Carolina. He was acting as Lieutenant of Marines on the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Comet [NOAR, 37] (Commander DANIEL BROWN), commissioned 29 August 1780, [NRAR, 255] sailing out of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was captured by the British and confined to Mill Prison on 11 January 1781. [NOAR, 37]


BROWN, JOHN

RI

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers


John Brown and his brother, Nicholas, were very prominent merchants at Providence, Rhode Island. Vessels associated with John Brown were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/10/80

RI

[unknown] Adventure

Pardon Sheldon

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 61]


BROWN, JOHN

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


John Brown was commissioned, on 12 July 1781, to the Virginia Privateer Boat Swift. [NRAR, 471]


BROWN, JONATHAN

[Captain of Marines, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron]


Jonathan Brown was a former merchant master, [Bird, Navies, 132] who enlisted with Arnold’s Massachusetts regiment about 3 May 1775, as a Captain. He was part of the small detachment of Arnold’s men senmt to capture Skenesborough on 9 May. [Bird, Navies, 132] He was among those who commandeered Major Skene’s schooner at Skenesborough on 11 May 1775, where she became Continental Army Schooner Liberty. [NDAR, "Journal kept by Eleazer Oswald on Lake Champlain," 1, 312 and note] Liberty arrived at Fort Ticonderoga on 14 May, with Captains ELEAZER OSWALD, JOHN PROUT SLOAN, and fifty of Arnold’s regiment. [NDAR, "Journal Kept by Eleazer Oswald on Lake Champlain," 1, 327 and 330; "Colonel Benedict Arnold to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety," 1, 330] Brown probably participated in the raid on Fort St. Johns, [NDAR, "Journal kept by Eleazer Oswald on Lake Champlain," 1, 340 and note] 14 May 1775-19 May 1775, when Quebec Provincial Marine Sloop George was captured. [Bird, Navies, 135-136] It is possible that Brown replaced Oswald as Acting Captain of Marines aboard Liberty. He presumably left the lake after Arnold’s Mutiny on 25 June 1775.


BROWN, JOSEPH

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Brown, a resident of Philadelphia,  was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner General Scammell (Commander Giles Hall) on 26 December 1781. [NRAR, 313] He listed his age as 22. [NOAR, 37]


BROWN, JOSEPH

PA

Second Mate, Continental Navy

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Brown was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 226] He was born about 1745. [NOAR, 37] He was aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Providence as Second Mate on 30 April 1776. [NOAR, 37] He was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Anne, Commander John Ashmead. Anne was commissioned 7 January 1782. [NRAR, 226] Brown listed his age as 37 in 1782. [NOAR, 37]


BROWN, MOSES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Moses Brown was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts, [NRAR, 353, 393] born in 1742. [NOAR, 37] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine General Arnold on 16 April 1778. [NOAR, 37] On 7 April 1780 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Mercury. [NOAR, 38] Brown was next commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Ship Minerva, on 24 February 1781. [NRAR, 393] That same day he witnessed the bond for the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Queen of France (Commander JOHN DIXEY). [NRAR, 424] Brown served as a witness for the bond of the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Mercury (Commander WILLIAM FERRIS) and the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Port Packet (Commander GEORGE RAPALL), both executed on 1 June 1781. [NRAR, 390, 420] On 8 April 1782 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Intrepid. [NRAR, 353]


BROWN, MOSES

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


This Moses Brown was a resident of Newburyport, Massachusetts. He is not likely to have been the same man as the Moses Brown (mentioned above) who commanded privateers for the firm of Tracy & Tracy. Brown was associated in privateering with JOSEPH STANWOOD, JONATHAN MULLIKEN, ABNER GREENLEAF, PETTINGELL, and BARTLETT.
Privateers associated with Brown:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/11/80

MA

Brigantine Drake (6/14)

Newman

Moses Brown, Pettingell

 

[NRAR, 277]

1/31/81

MA

Ship Beaver (6/20)

William Russell

Moses Brown, Joseph Stanwood, Jonathan Mulliken, Abner Greenleaf

William Russell, Jonathan Mulliken, Joseph Stanwood

[NRAR, 233]

2/5/81

MA

Ship Beaver (6/20)

William Russell

Moses Brown, Joseph Stanwood, Jonathan Mulliken, Abner Greenleaf

William Russell, Moses Brown, Jonathan Mulliken

[NRAR, 233]

12/22/81

MA

Ship Liberty (4/12)

William Russell

Moses Brown, Bartlet

 

[NRAR, 373]

4/2/82

MA

Ship Reprisal (4/14)

Johnson

Moses Brown, Bartlett, Jonathan Mulliken

 

[NRAR, 436]

5/11/82

MA

Brigantine Lark (4/15)

Boardman

Moses, Brown, Abner Greenleaf, Jonathan Mulliken, Pettingell

 

[NRAR, 369]

5/23/82

MA

Ship Liberty (4/12)

William Russell

Moses Brown, Bartlet

 

[NRAR, 374]


BROWN, MOSES

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Moses Brown was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts, and is not likely to be identified with any of the Moses Browns listed above. He served as a witness for the bond of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Revolution (Commander Stephen Webb) on 14 February 1782 [NRAR, 443] and the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Lyon (Commander William Tuck) on 14 March 1782. [NRAR, 380] Privateers associated with this Brown:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/24/81

MA

Ship Scourge (20/120)

Parker

Thorndike et al

 

[NRAR, 456]

2/26/83

MA

Galley Shaker (6/40)

Lovett

Thorndike

 

[NRAR, 458]


BROWN, NATHAN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nathan Brown was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Pluto on 13 May 1777. On 5 February 1778 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Montgomery. Brown was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Putnam on 1 February 1779, and, on 15 April 1779, to command the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Hunter. On 14 September 1779 Brown moved to another command, being commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Jack. Exactly a year later, on 14 September 1780, Jack was in the St. Lawrence River, where she was captured by the British and sent into Quebec, Quebec. [NOAR, 38]


BROWN, NICHOLAS and JOHN

RI

Owners, Rhode Island Privateers


As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/8/76

RI

Sloop Snow Bird (0/6)

Lewis [Louis] Thomas

Nicholas Brown, William Wall, Richard Salter, Welcome Arnold

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR 5:427]

7/6/76

RI

Sloop Diamond (6/45)

William Chace [Chase]

John Brown, Nicholas Brown, Wiliam Chace

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR 5:945, 960]

[8/nd]/76

RI

Sloop Sally (10/100)

James Munro

[John Brown]

  

8/13/76

RI

Sloop Polly (6/20)

Joseph Tillinghast

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR 6:165 and note]

8/14/76

RI

Sloop Hawke

Arthur Crawford

John Brown, Nicholas Cooke

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR 6:1175, 1213-1215 and 1215 note]

8/20/76

RI

Sloop Diamond (6/45)

Thomas Stacy [Stacey]

Nicholas Brown, John Brown, William Chace, Lemuel Wyatt

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR 6:252-253]

9/11/76

RI

Brigantine Industry (12/100)

Thomas Child

Nicholas Brown, Jabez Bowen et al

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR 6:781 and note]

9/14/76

RI

Sloop Favourite (10/80)

Abner Coffin

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR 6:819 and note]

10/nd/76

RI

Sloop Snow Bird (0/20)

Israel Ambrose [Anderson]

Nicholas Brown, William Wall, Richard Salter, Welcome Arnold

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR, 5:427, 6:1253n]

10/16/76

RI

Sloop Retaliation (12/)

Isaac Jones [James]

John Brown, Thomas Greene

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR 7:1135-1136]

11/13/76

RI

Sloop Rover (14/)

John Horne

Nicholas Brown

 

[Sheffield, 59; NDAR, 8:722]

11/20/76

RI

Sloop Favourite (10/)

George Waith Babcock

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 59]

11/20/76

RI

Sloop Hawke

James Phillips

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 59]

11/20/76

RI

Sloop Sally

Joseph Peck

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 60]

11/21/76

RI

Ship Oliver Cromwell (20/)

Samuel Chace, Jr.

Nicholas Brown, William Russell

 

[Sheffield, 58]

7/3/77

RI

Sloop Retaliation (12/70)

John Tillinghast

John Brown, Thomas Greene

 

[Sheffield, 60; NDAR, 9:210]

8/4/77

RI

Ship Oliver Cromwell

Samuel Chase, Jr.

Nicholas Brown et al

 

[Sheffield, 60]

11/5/77

RI

Sloop Diamond (6/45)

Thomas Stacy [Stacey]

John Brown, Nicholas Brown

 

[Sheffield, 60]

12/30/77

RI

Marlborough

George Waith Babcock

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 60]

4/17/79

RI

Happy Return

William Jacobs

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 61]

nd/79

RI

Happy Return

Jonathan Treadwell

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 61]

5/11/79

RI

Friendship


Thomas Jackson

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 61]

12/31/79

RI

Providence


Thomas Jackson

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 61]

3/20/80

RI

Betsey

Joseph Cooke

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 62]

4/14/80

RI

Argo

Silas Talbot

John Brown et al

 

[Sheffield, 61]

4/18/80

RI

Crawford

John Updike

Nicholas Brown

 

[Sheffield, 62]

5/10/80

RI

Adventure

Pardon Sheldon

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 61]

5/12/80

RI

General Washington

James Monroe

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 62]

6/3/80

RI

Harbinger

William Malone

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 62]

11/25/81

RI

Brig Hope

Simeon Smith

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 62]

4/13/82

RI

Insurance

Isaiah Cahoone

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 62]

4/24/82

RI

Rising Sun

Thomas Jackson

Nicholas Brown

 

[Sheffield, 62]

6/20/82

RI

Sally

Jacob Westcott

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 62]

2/20/83

RI

Snake Fish

Josiah Cahoone

John Brown

 

[Sheffield, 63]


BROWN, OLIVER

See BOWEN, OLIVER


BROWN, PEREGRINE

[PA]/(P/A)

Second Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Peregrine Brown may have been from Philadelphia. He was commissioned on 25 June 1776, [Smith, MITR, 434] and was appointed as Second Lieutenant of Marines [Smith, MITR, 434, says a first lieutenant] on the Continental Navy Ship Washington the next day. Washington was launched on 7 August 1776. Brown served aboard the Washington, and presumably with the Marines in Washington’s army during the New Jersey campaign of 1776-1777. He apparently left the service about the end of June 1777. [Smith, MITR, 434]


BROWN, PETER, JR.

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Peter Brown, Jr. was a native of New London, Connecticut. [NRAR, 359, 426] On 3 July 1781 he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Galley Rainbow. [NRAR, 426] On 31 August 1781 he captured the British brig Samuel off Sandy Hook, New Jersey. [NOAR, 38] On 1 April 1782 Brown served as a witness on the bond for Connecticut Privateer Galley Fair American (Commander HENRY MURFITS). [NRAR, 287] Brown was commissioned, on 9 April 1782, to the Connecticut Privateer Galley John. [NRAR, 359] In April 1782 he captured the schooner Nancy. A sloop with a cargo of lumber was captured on 2 May 1782. [NOAR, 38]


BROWN, PHILIP

PA/(P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

First Mate (Lieutenant), Pennsylvania Privateers


Philip Brown was born about 1751 [NOAR, 38] and was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 230] He enlisted as a Midshipman on the Continental Navy Brig Andrew Doria (Captain NICHOLAS BIDDLE), on 15 May 1776. He was promoted to Master, replacing BENJAMIN DUNN, [NDAR, IX, 1007-1011] on 25 June 1776. [NOAR, 38] Brown was First Lieutenant on the Continental Navy Sloop Providence (Captain HOYSTEED HACKER) in November-December 1776 during the cruise with Continental Navy Ship Alfred (Captain JOHN PAUL JONES). He was entitled to a share in the prize money from Active and Mellish. [NDAR, VIII, 49-50] Brown reported aboard Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain HOYSTEED HACKER) as First Lieutenant on 5 January 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 118-120] At that time Columbus was anchored in the Providence River, off Providence, Rhode Island, refitting. On 3 April 1777 Brown served on the court-martial of Third Lieutenant RICHARD MARVIN of the Continental Navy Ship Warren, held aboard Continental Navy Ship Providence, anchored off Fields Point in the Providence River. [NDAR, VIII, 263-266] Philip Brown was First Mate (or Lieutenant) on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Ariel (Commander PETER MILLER), commissioned 8 March 1781. [NRAR, 230] He was still aboard the Ariel when she was re-commissioned on 8 May 1781. [NOAR, 38] On 18 June 1781 he was First Mate (or Lieutenant) aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Philadelphia (Commander MATTHEW LAWLER), [NRAR, 414; NOAR, 38, lists two Philip Browns, but these are almost certainly the same individual] when he listed his age as 30. [NOAR, 38]


BROWN, ROBERT WINDSOR

VA

Captain of Marines, Virginia Marines

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Robert Windsor Brown was said to be an Irishman by birth. He entered at Alexandria, Virginia. He was First Lieutenant of Marines, Virginia Marines, aboard “Sanders’ Cruizer” on 16 June 1776. He was later Captain of Marines, then First Lieutenant aboard the Virginia Navy Sloop American Congress. Brown was later Captain and paymaster of the 1st Virginia. He died in 1785. He may be the same person as WINSOR BROWN. [Stewart, 157]


BROWN, THOMAS

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Brown was appointed as First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Oliver Cromwell (Commander JOHN BRAY) on 18 April 1781. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426]


BROWN, THOMAS

VA

Owner, Virginia Privateers


As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

4/13/82

VA

Schooner York (14/40)

Isaiah Keel

Wells, Cowper & Co., Henry and Thomas Brown

Bristol Brown (for Keel), James Hunter

Archibald Blair [NRAR, 494]


BROWN, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Brown was a native of Lincoln, Middlesex County, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 38] He was commissioned on 24 September 1776 to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Boston. [NDAR, VI, 922 and note] Boston sailed for European waters about 1 November 1776. [NDAR, VII, 299-301] During this cruise Brown captured the ship Piercy (Simeon Rogerson), [NDAR, VII, 1180-1181, 1243; VIII, 309] a ship and a schooner from Guinea, bound to the West Indies with slaves. The ship was taken into North Carolina. [NDAR, VII, 1243; VIII, 37] A three deck Jamaicaman, which was wrecked getting into Nantucket; [NDAR, VII, 143; VIII, 37, 217] the brigantine Independence (Harvey), a former vessel of the Massachusetts Navy, [NDAR, VIII, 164, 210-211, 294, 309] and the brigantine Eunice (Charles Anderson). [NDAR, VIII, 210-211, 309] On 17 May 1779 Brown was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Mercury, and, on 2 June 1780 to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Raven. On 4 November 1782, a William Brown, listing his address as Boston, Massachusetts, was appointed to command the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Dauphin. [NOAR, 38]


BROWN, WILLIAM

PA

Captain of Marines, Pennsylvania Marines


William Brown was commissioned as Captain of Marines aboard the Pennsylvania Navy Ship Montgomery on 30 July 1776. This was the same man who later commanded the Pennsylvania Navy Floating Battery Putnam. [NOAR, 39, where two men are listed, but they are the same.] See also WILLIAM BOWEN.


BROWN, WILLIAM

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


William Brown was a resident of Kingston Parish, Gloucester, Virginia. He was a Midshipman aboard the Virginia Navy [unknown] Tempest in 1776 or 1777. He was aboard the Virginia Navy [unknown] Dragon on 2 September 1779. Dragon was frequently in Pepper Creek or East River. [Stewart, 157]


BROWN, WILLIAM

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


William Brown is listed as a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy. Brown was a native of Northampton County, Virginia. [Stewart, 157]


BROWN, WINDSOR

VA

First Lieutenant of Marines, Virginia Marines

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Windsor Brown was a First Lieutenant of Marines, under Captain JOHN LEE, in the Potomac Department of the Virginia Navy. [NOAR, 39] Midshipman, Virginia Navy, according to Stewart, 157. See also BROWN, ROBERT WINDSOR. There was also a Windsor Brown who was a Captain in the Virginia Line from March 1776 to 3 November 1783. [Stewart, 157]


BROWNE, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Browne, of Boston, Massachusetts, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Dispatch on 2 April 1778. [NOAR, 39]


BROWNELL, SAMUEL

RI

Master, Continental Navy


Samuel Brownell was listed as a Master on 30 April 1776, aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Providence (Captain XXX) at Providence, Rhode Island. [NOAR, 39]


BRUCE, STEPHEN

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Stephen Bruce was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. Vessels associated with Bruce were:

As bonder:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/14/78

MA

Ship Cumberland (20/150)

John Manley

Edward Carnes  et al

John Manley, Edward Carnes, Stephen Bruce

Job Prince, Richard Salter [Allen, MPR, 106]


BRUCE [BRICE], JOHN

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Bruce of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Delaware (Commander WILLIAM SMITH) on 8 December 1781. [NRAR, 265] He listed his age as 25 and is described as 5'1" tall. [NOAR, 33. His name is given as Brice in this source.]


BRUSH, JESSE

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Jesse Brush was a native of Norwalk, Connecticut. In late 1778 he commanded the Connecticut Privateer Boats Refugee and Revenge, armed whaleboats operating on Long Island Sound. [NOAR, 39] Brush more particularly seems to have commanded the Refugee. ELIJAH CHAMPLIN, Jr. commanded the Revenge [NOAR, 54] Revenge and Refugee took the sloop Success on 1 December 1778. [NOAR, 39, 54]


BRUSTAR [BUSTER], PETER

PA

Captain, Continental Navy


Peter Brustar (or Buster) was appointed as a Captain in the Continental Navy on 25 April 1777 and assigned to command the Continental Navy Xebec Repulse. [NOAR, 39]


BRYAN, GEORGE

PA

Naval Officer, Pennsylvania


George Bryan (of Philadelphia) was appointed Naval Officer of the Port of Philadelphia in June 1776. [NOAR, 39] Despite the title this was a position and function which regulated commerce and trade.


BRYANT, JAMES

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


James Bryant was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with his relative WILLIAM BRYANT. Vessels associated with Bryant were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/19/81

MA

Schooner Buckram (5/20)

John Obey

William and James Bryant

John Obey, William Bryant, James Bryant

[NRAR, 245; Allen, MPR, 89]

8/22/82

MA

Schooner Buckram (4/20)

Samuel Trask

William and James Bryant

Samuel Trask, William Bryant, James Bryant

[NRAR, 245; Allen, MPR, 89]


BRYANT, WILLIAM

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


William Bryant was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with his relative JAMES BRYANT. Vessels associated with Bryant were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/19/81

MA

Schooner Buckram (5/20)

John Obey

William and James Bryant

John Obey, William Bryant, James Bryant

[NRAR, 245; Allen, MPR, 89]

8/22/82

MA

Schooner Buckram (4/20)

Samuel Trask

William and James Bryant

Samuel Trask, William Bryant, James Bryant

[NRAR, 245; Allen, MPR, 89]


BRYNAN [BRYNON], JOHN

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


John Brynan (or Brynon), [NOAR, 39] possibly of Baltimore, Maryland, was appointed to command the Maryland Privateer Schooner Enterprize on 12 September 1777. [NRAR, 282]


BUBIER [BEUBIER, BOOBYER, BOUBIER], WILLIAM

MA

Second Lieutenant, Continental Marines


William Bubier was baptized on 30 March 1746 at Marblehead, Massachusetts, the son of Christopher and Margaret [Margarett] LeVallier. Bubier, with his brother-in-law, Thomas Grant was a goldsmith and traded in land. Bubier married Deborah Howard on 19 June 1770 at Marblehead. Two daughters were soon born to William and Deborah. Bubier enlisted on 24 April 1775 in Captain Thomas Grant’s 3rd Company of Colonel John Glover’s 21st (Essex County) Regiment. About 22 May the unit entered Continental service. On 22 June Bubier was commissioned a first lieutenant and stationed on the Charles River, Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was also a first lieutenant in the 14th Massachusetts (Continental) from 1 January to December 1776. Bubier was then appointed as Second Lieutenant of Marines on the Continental Navy Ship Hancock (Captain JOHN MANLEY), which sailed from Boston on 21 May 1777 with Continental Navy Ship Boston (Captain HECTOR MCNEIL) and several privateers. Bubier participated in both actions of this cruise, the capture of HM Frigate Fox on 7 June 1777 and the Action of 7/8 July, during which Hancock was captured. Bubier was imprisoned in Halifax. On 9 November 1777 Bubier was among fifty prisoners sent from Halifax to Boston in a cartel for exchange. Five days after he reached Marblehead he took ill and died. [Smith, MITR, 434]


BUCHANAN, GEORGE

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


George Buchanan, of Baltimore, Maryland,  [NRAR, 299] was commissioned on 19 December 1778, to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Salisbury. [NRAR, 451] On 13 March 1780 he was appointed to the Maryland Privateer Brig Fox, [NRAR, 299] and, on 22 February 1781, to the Maryland Privateer Ship Tom Lee. [NRAR, 476]


BUCHANAN, JAMES

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


James Buchanan served as a witness, on 16 December 1778, on the bond for the Maryland Privateer Sloop Bennington (Commander William Newton). Buchanan was presumably in Baltimore or Annapolis, Maryland, at this time. [NRAR, 234] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Revenge on 14 June 1779. [NRAR, 440] He was next appointed to the Maryland Privateer Brig Fox on 27 June 1780, listing his address as Baltimore. [NRAR, 300] His third privateer command was the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Ranger, commissioned 12 January 1781. [NRAR, 430] On 5 July 1781 he was commissioned as commander of the Maryland Privateer Ship Venus. [NRAR, 486] Buchanan’s final privateer command was the Maryland Privateer Ship Favorite, commissioned 3 August 1782. [NOAR, 40]


BUCK, ISAAC

[MD](P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Isaac Buck was appointed First Lieutenant on the Continental Navy Schooner Wasp from about 18 December 1775, serving to about 18 April 1776, when he apparently left the schooner. [xx] By November 1776 he was in command of the Continental Navy Schooner Georgia Packet. On 14 November 1776 he was ordered to sail from Philadelphia to Savannah, Georgia. [NOAR, 40]


BUCK, PHILIP

PA

Second Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy


Philip Buck was commissioned, on 6 March 1776, as Second Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Chatham. On 1 March 1777 he was promoted to First Lieutenant and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Congress. About this time Buck submitted his resignation, which was refused. [NOAR, 40]


BUCKLAND, STEPHEN

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Stephen Buckland of Hartford, Connecticut, [NRAR, 433] was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brig Artillery in the summer of 1780. On 19 August 1780 he captured the British Privateer Schooner British Legion of 45 tons. [NOAR, 40] On 6 March 1782 Buckland was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Raven. [NRAR, 433] Raven was captured on 8 April 1782 by the British brig Perseverance and sent into New York. [NOAR, 40]


BUCKLE, THOMAS

Merchant Captain, Naval Architect


Thomas Buckle agreed with South Carolina to import gunpowder for 18p. per pound before 24 January 1776, but apparently this voyage did not take place. By 8 March 1776 he had furnished a model and design for a galley to be built at Beaufort.


BUCKLEY [BULKLEY], JOHN

CT (A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


On 21 July 1781 the Navy Board of the Eastern Department reported that Captain John Barry had urged the promotion of John Buckley to a lieutenancy aboard the Alliance. [NRAR, 182] He is listed as a lieutenant in 1776. [NOAR, 40]


BUCKLIN, DANIEL

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Daniel Bucklin, presumably of Providence, Rhode Island, commanded the Rhode Island Privateer [unknown] Mongomery, sailing out of Providence. He recaptured the brig Betsey, a prize of HM Frigate Argo and sent her into Dartmouth, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 40]


BUCKMAN, JAMES

MA

Second Mate, Massachusetts Privateers


James Buckman was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. On 17 June 1780 he was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine General Wayne (Commander JOHN LEACH) as Second Mate. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426]


BUCKNER, WILLIAM

VA

Captain, Virginia Navy


William Buckner was a resident of Kingston Parish (later Matthews County), Virginia. He was master of a merchant ship before the outbreak of the war. He frequently attended to having the galleys and other vessels rigged. Buckner commanded in both the land and sea services. On 19 March 1781 he was made a prisoner and sent to England. He returned on 7 March 1782. He died on 29 February 1804. [Stewart, 158]


BUDD, GEORGE

MD

Surgeon, Maryland Navy


George Budd was commissioned, on 1 March 1776, as Surgeon aboard the Maryland Navy Ship Defence. Defence was captured on 2 April 1777. [NOAR, 40] [Virginia?]


BUDD, THOMAS

SC

Surgeon, Continental Navy


Thomas Budd was born about 1724. He reported for duty as a Surgeon in the Continental Navy at Charleston, South Carolina in January 1777, assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Randolph (Captain NICHOLAS BIDDLE). Budd stayed with the ship through all her cruises until she was blown up in action with HMS Yarmouth on 3 March 1778, all her crew being lost except for four sailors. [NOAR, 40]


BUDDEN [BUDEN, BREDEN], WILLIAM

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Budden (or Buden, Breden), possibly a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned, on 17 September 1779, to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Gannet. [NRAR, 308] He may be the same man as the William Breden of Philadelphia, who served as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Betsey (Commander PAUL COX) commissioned on 17 July 1781. Both Gannet and Betsey were owned by Blair McClenachan of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 237] As Breden he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Seaflower on 3 December 1781, [NRAR, 457] listing his age as 23. [NOAR, 31]


BUDDINGTON [BUDINGTON],, ELIPHALET

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Eliphalet Buddington was a native of Groton, Connecticut. He commanded the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Lady Trumbull. In company with Connecticut Privateer Sloop [NOAR, 144]  Beaver [NOAR, 41] (Commander William Havens), [NOAR, 144] on 29 June 1779, the British brig Thomas and William was captured. [NOAR, 41]


BUDDINGTON [BUDINGTON], JONATHAN

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Jonathan Buddington (or Budington) of Groton [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut, II, 247] and Norwich, Connecticut, [NRAR, 291] was in command of the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Young Cromwell in early 1781. In April 1781 he captured the brig Rochester from Madeira. In May 1781 the brig Salem and the sloop Tabitha were captured. Buddington also recaptured a schooner, commanded by a Lieutenant Douglass of the Royal Navy, and sent her into Bedford, Massachusetts.[Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut, II, 247] [NOAR has two separate entries for Jonathan Buddington, but this is probably incorrect.] He was commissioned, on 11 June 1781, to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Favourite. [NRAR, 291. Favourite was owned by Joseph Williams & Co, of Norwich] On 28 July 1781 he was off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, where he stopped several small boats and took eighteen prisoners. He was captured by HM Frigate Medea on 30 August 1781 and sent into New York. [NOAR, 41]


BUFFAN, SAMUEL

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy


Samuel Buffan was a Midshipman on the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain Timothy Parker) from 1777 until the ship was captured by the British on 5 June 1779. [NOAR, 41]


BUFFINGTON [BUFFINTON], JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Buffington (or Buffinton) was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 385] Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Oliver Cromwell was commissioned on 29 April 1777 under Commander William Coles (or Cole) of Beverly, Massachusetts. [NOAR, 66; NDAR, VIII, 463 and note; NDAR, X, 354-355 and 355 note; Allen, MPR, 230] Buffington is listed as a bonder for this vessel. [Allen, MPR, 230] Buffington was commissioned, on 3 May 1777, to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Sally. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426] On 29 July 1777 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner True American (also known as the True Blue). [NOAR, 41] On 20 May 1778 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig True American. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426] Buffington was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Rhodes on 21 July 1780. He was given a mission to search for the second division of the French fleet and inform them of the strength of the British fleet. Rhodes returned to port in September 1781 with an 18-gun prize ship. [NOAR, 41] On 13 March 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Marquis de La Fayette, [NRAR, 385] in which he captured a brig. [NOAR, 41]


BUFFINGTON [BUFFINTON], NEHEMIAH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nehemiah Buffington (or Buffinton) was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 394] He was commissioned, on 28 August 1778, to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hornet. [NOAR, 41] On 16 May 1781 he witnessed a bond for the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Fanny (Commander Samuel Tucker). [NRAR, 290] Later he commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Rhodes, which was captured by the British at some time before 22 April 1782. The prisoners were taken to Barbadoes. Buffington was exchanged. [NOAR, 41] On 3 August 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Minerva. [NRAR, 394]


BUFFINGTON [BUFFINTON], JONATHAN

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Jonathan Buffington (or Buffinton), of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [NRAR, 427, 478] was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Tryall on 17 September 1779. [NRAR, 478] He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Rambler on 11 September 1780. [NRAR, 427]


BUISSON, JOSEPH

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Buisson of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, served as a bondsman for the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Polly (Commander John Truebee) on 30 July 1781. [NRAR, 417] He was commissioned to the same vessel as commander on 25 September 1781. [NRAR, 418] On 12 February 1782, [NRAR, 480] listing his age as 43, [NOAR, 41] he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Two Rachels. [NRAR, 480]


BULFINCH, SAMUEL

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Samuel Bulfinch (of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was commissioned on 28 March 1781, [NRAR, 290] at the age of 48, [NOAR, 48] to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Fanny. [NRAR, 290]  Fanny and Bulfinch were captured by the British in January 1782. {NOAR, 42]


BULKLEY [BULKELEY], CHARLES

CT/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Charles Bulkley was a resident of Colchester [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 48-49]  Wethersfield, [NRAR, 219] and New London, Connecticut. Bulkley was the son of Major Charles Bulkley, who bought property in New London in 1754. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 48-49] Bulkeley enlisted in the Continental Navy at New London on 21 December 1775 and sailed in the sloop Lizard to join the fleet on 19 January 1776. These recruits joined the fleet about 1 February 1776. Bulkley was assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Alfred (Captain DUDLEY SALTONSTALL) as a Midshipman. [xx] Bulkley served aboard the fleet of Commodore ESEK HOPKINS in the New Providence Expedition and the Battle off Block Island. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 48-49] He was promoted to Master on 20 August 1776. [xx] He acted as a bonder for Connecticut Privateer Sloop Polly (Commander Eliphalet Roberts) on 27 June 1777. [NRAR, 416] Bulkely was captured, along with the Alfred, on 9 March 1778 and sent to Forton Prison near Portsmouth, England. Bulkley escaped and returned to New London early in 1779. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 48-49] He was appointed as commander of the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Active on 22 May 1781. [NRAR, 219] On 10 August 1781 he participated in the capture of the British schooner Hazzard. In September 1781 Active was badly damaged during Arnold’s raid on New London and was sold out of service. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 48-49] On 25 July 1782 Bulkely took command of the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marshall. [NRAR, 387] Bulkley later stated : “I took the command of the Brig Marshall of 14 Guns and and all the officers and men we could get to man her was forty-nine. The cause was if captured they would be sent to the Jersey Prison Ship and they were almost sure to die.” [McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 18, from the Autobiography of Charles Bulkley] He made a successful cruise in the Marshall, taking the sloop Hunter, two Brish privateers, the brig Ann and the ship New Salt Spring after an hour long fight, the brig Thomas and a schooner. Bulkley said of this cruise: “This cruise we captured a Schooner from the W. I. and a Ship and brig from Jamaica-the Ship and Brig we took in tow about a week and never cast them off until we arrived opposite Fisher’s Island Point.” [McManemin, Captains of the Privateers, 18, from the Autobiography of Charles Bulkley; see also Marshall] He also commanded the privateer Randolph. Bulkley commanded the privateer ship Mars in the War of 1812. He died in New London in 1848. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, 48-49


BULKLEY [BUCKLEY], JOHN

See JOHN BUCKLEY.


BULKLEY, JOHN, JR.

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


John Bulkley, Jr., a resident of Wethersfield, Connecticut, [NRAR, 284, 346, 399, 454] was listed as the owner, with "associates," of the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Humbird (Commander Oliver Goodrich), commissioned 21 October 1778. He also served as a bondsman for the Humbird. [NRAR, 346] He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Samuel on 17 August 1779. [NRAR, 454] The same day he served as a bondsman for the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Nancy (Commander Moses Tryon). [NRAR, 399] On a voyage to the West Indies he was captured by the British. He was later exchanged. On 22 September 1780 Bulkley was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Experiment. [NRAR, 284]


BULKLEY, JOSEPH

CT

Master, Connecticut Navy


Joseph Buckley, a resident of Wethersfield, Connecticut, was commissioned on 23 November 1776 by Connecticut to take the [Connecticut Navy Schooner (Trading Vessel) Oliver to the West Indies for a cargo of salt. Buckley voyaged to St. Thomas. On the return voyage he was captured by HM Frigate Amazon on 31 March 1777, as Oliver neared New London. [NOAR, 42]


BULL, JOHN

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


John Bull, possibly from Baltimore, Maryland, was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine Hawke on 5 December 1780. [NRAR, 329]


BULLFINCH

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Bullfinch can be assumed to be from Massachusetts. He was First Lieutenant aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Rising States (Commander James Thompson), commissioned 18 October 1776. She  sailed for European waters on 29 January 1777. After a rough beginning, three prizes were captured: snow Prince George, brig Fleece, and an unknown sloop. He served as boarding officer for the snow Prince George, captured 25 March 1777. Bullfinch was aboard during the action with an unknown British ship on 1 April 1777. He served as prize master to an unknown sloop captured on 11 April, and thus apparently avoided capture with the Rising States on 15 April (captured by HMS Terrible). [see Rising States]


BULLOCK, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Bullock, a native of Salem, Massachusetts, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Spy on 21 June 1777. [NOAR, 42]


BUNCE, WILLIAM

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


William Bunce was a native of Wethersfield, Connecticut. He was commissioned on 17 June 1779 to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Gull. [NRAR, 322]


BUNKER, ISAIAH [ISAAC]

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Isaiah (or Isaac) Bunker was First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Black Princess. He was captured by the British and was committed to Mill Prison in October 1781. [NOAR, 42]


BUNKER, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Bunker, of Nantucket, Massachusetts, was commissioned to command the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Round on 11 October 1779. [NOAR, 42]


BUNNER, GEORGE

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


George Bunner, a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, [NRAR, 255, 319, 418] was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Polly Sly on 5 September 1780. [NRAR, 418] He next served as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Comet (Commander John McCarthy), being appointed on 13 December 1780. [NRAR, 255] He listed his age as 36. [NOAR, 43] Bunner was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Governor Moore (Commander David Thompson) on 12 February 1782, [NRAR, 319] listing his age as 37. [NOAR, 43]


BUNTIN, JOHN

MA

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


John Buntin of Newburyport, Massachusetts was a Second Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Dalton. On 24 December 1776 he was captured by the British and committed to Mill Prison. On 5 August 1777 he escaped, but was recaptured the next day. On 26 December 1778 he was pardoned, pending exchange. [NOAR, 43]


BURCH, THOMAS ERSKINE

VA


Thomas Erskine Burch is listed as being a "Navy Ensign," born in 1756, died 1821, according to NOAR, 43 (quoting the DAR).


BURCHMORE, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Burchmore was a native of Salem, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 476] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Murr in 1780 [NOAR, 43] and to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Titus on 8 February 1783. [NRAR, 476] He witnessed the bond for the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Junius Brutus (Commander Nathaniel Brookhouse) on 25 October 1781. [NRAR, 363]


BURCHMORE, ZACHARIAH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Zachariah Burchmore was a native of Salem, Massachusetts, [NRAR, 415] or possibly, Beverly. He was in command of the brigantine Union in December 1776, which may have been a merchant vessel. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Hector on 27 March 1777. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426]  Burchmore served as First Lieutenant aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Terrible Creature (Commander ROBERT RICHARDSON) on 9 March 1778. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 426] Burchmore served as a bondsman for the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Pilgrim (Commander Joseph Robinson) on 14 April 1781. [NRAR, 415]


BURDOX, STEPHEN

MD

Second Mate, Maryland Privateers


Stephen Burdox was Second Mate on the Maryland Privateer Ship Fanny (Commander Benjamin Loxley, Jr.) on 14 June 1776. [NRAR, 290]


BURGES, JOSHUA

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Joshua Burges was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was appointed to command the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Fly on 23 March 1779. [NOAR, 43] Listing his address as Newburyport, Massachusetts, he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Fortune on 19 March 1781, [NRAR, 298] and, on 12 August 1782, to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Ranger. He now listed his address as Gloucester, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 431]


BURK, THOMAS D.

See THOMAS DEBURK


BURKE, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Burke of Boston, Massachusetts, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Dispatch on 27 November 1782. [NRAR, 271]


BURKE, EDWARD

PA (P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Marines


Edward Burke enlisted as a sergeant of Marines on 29 December 1775, probably in Philadelphia, and was in Captain SHOEMAKER’s company aboard Continental Navy Ship Columbus (ABRAHAM WHIPPLE). He was promoted to Second Lieutenant in April 1776 to replace (probably) ROBERT CUMMINGS. He is listed as being discharged at Newport, Rhode Island on 19 October 1776, however he sat on the court-martial of gunner James Bryant (of Continental Navy Brigantine Hampden), held aboard the Continental Navy Ship Alfred at Providence on 23 October 1776. Both Paullin and Allen list him as a Navy lieutenant. Burke signed aboard the Columbus, still in Providence River near Providence, on 6 January 1777, as First Lieutenant of Marines. [NDAR, VIII, 118-120] On 3 April Burke served on the court-martial of Third Lieutenant RICHARD MARVIN of the Continental Navy Ship Warren, held aboard Continental Navy Ship Providence, anchored off Fields Point in the Providence River. [NDAR, VIII, 263-266]


BURKE, WILLIAM

MA (P/A)

Captain, Continental Army Boston Squadron

Captain, Continental Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Burke was at the Navy Board of the Eastern Department in early 1778. On 6 April 1778 the Board notified the Marine Committee that Burke was bringing a letter from the Navy Board and was soliciting an appointment, but the Navy Board knew little of him. On 28 April 1778 the Marine Committee, in a letter to Continental Agent John Bradford at Boston, enclosed a copy of a resolve of Congress appointing Burke a Captain in the Navy. On 30 April Burke presented a memorial to Congress relating his career until taken prisoner and requesting employment. This was read on 1 May 1778. Burke was commissioned as a Captain in the Continental Navy on that date. [NOAR, 44] On 9 May 1778 the Marine Committee notified the Eastern Navy Board that a commission for Burke had been secured. On 30 May Burke was appointed to command the Resistance, and the Marine Committee so advised the Eastern Navy Board. On 24 August 1778 the Marine Committee ordered Captain John Barry of Continental Navy Ship Raleigh out on a cruise off the coast, with Burke in the Resistance to accompany him and act under his orders. Burke was ordered to follow Barry’s orders the same day. On 10 June 1779 Burke was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Sky Rocket, and, on 2 November 1779 to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Henry. [NOAR, 44] On 13 March 1780 Burke was commissioned as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General Greene, with sixteen guns and forty-five men. She was owned by George Henry and James Wharton & Co. of Philadelphia. On 11 October 1780, Burke, listing his address as Boston, served as a bonder for the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Polly (Commander George Leacey).


BURNELL [BURNEL], JOHN

MD

Master, Maryland Navy

Commander, Maryland Privateers


John Burnell (or Burnel) [NOAR, 44] was a native of Baltimore, Maryland. [NRAR, 396] He served aboard the Maryland Navy Ship Defence (Captain James Nicholson) as Master from 3 July 1776. [NOAR, 44] On 1 April 1777 he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Montgomery. [NRAR, 396] He was captured by the British before 24 June 1777, whe he was committed to Mill Prison. [NOAR, 44]


BURNAM, JOSIAH

[see JOSIAH BURNHAM]


BURNHAM, ASHBELL

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Ashbell Burnham was a resident of Middletown, Connecticut. [NRAR, 272, 484; Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 71] Burnham acted as a bonder for the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Dolphin (Commander Joseph Smith) on 30 July 1779. [NRAR, 271] On 25 December 1779 he was commissioned to the same vessel. [NRAR, 272; Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 71] He made a voyage to Hispaniola and back to Middletown in the Dolphin. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 71] On 3 January 1781 he again served as a bondsman, for the Connecticut Privateer Ship Chatham, again commanded by Smith. [NRAR, 252] He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Unity on 15 April 1782. [NRAR, 484]


BURNHAM, GURDON

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Gurdon Burnham was a resident of Hartford, Connecticut when he was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Gull. On 12 May 1779 the Gull captured the British sloop Lively. Burnham was subsequently commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Independence. Together with the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Arnold (Commander Moses Butler), he captured the British sloop Sally on 4 June 1779. [NOAR, 44]


BURNHAM [BURNAM], JOSIAH

CT

Master, Connecticut Navy


Josiah Burnham, of Norwich, Connecticut, was Master on the Connecticut Navy Brig Defence (Captain Seth Harding) on 1 April 1776. In October 1776 he had transferred to the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell (Captain William Coit). [NOAR, 44] Josiah Burnham (or Burnam) entered Connecticut Navy Brig Defence on 1 April 1776 as Master and remained aboard until at least 15 November 1776. [NDAR, 7, 170-177] He received cash payments from NATHANIEL SHAW, JR. on 5 October 1776 and 4 November 1776. [NDAR, 7, 178 and note] He resigned his office before 10 January 1777 and was succeeded by EDWARD BEEBE. [NDAR, 7, 914] Burnham was appointed as Master of the Connecticut Navy Ship Oliver Cromwell on 11 April 1777, [NDAR, 8, 319] succeeding LEVI YOUNG.


BURNHAM, MOSES

MA

Lieutenant, [Massachusetts] Privateers


Moses Burnham of Ipswich, Massachusetts, was a lieutenant on the [Massachusetts Privateer] [unknown] Marquis de Morbec when he was captured by the British. He was committed to Mill Prison on 2 October 1781. [NOAR, 44]


BURNLEY, JOHN

Merchant


John Burnley proposed a powder voyage to Georgia in January 1776. He was paid £5227.13.4 for a cargo of rice co-owned with Peter LePoole, in the brigantine Liberty, on 25 March 1776. His contract was, perhaps, with Georgia.


BURNS, THOMAS

[PA]

Surgeon’s Mate, Continental Navy

Surgeon, [Pennsylvania] Privateers


Thomas Burns, either a native of Pennsylvania or Rhode Island, [NOAR, 44] enlisted aboard the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain ABRAHAM WHIPPLE) as Second Surgeon’s Mate on 18 January 1776. On 25 January he was promoted to Surgeon’s Mate. In 1778 he was Surgeon aboard the [Pennsylvania Privateer] [unknown] Angelica and was captured, being committed to Fortun Prison on 7 July 1778. He escaped on 23 July 1778. [NOAR, 44]


BURROUGHS, EZEKIAL

RI (P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Ezekial Burroughs enlisted at Rhode Island (of which colony he was a native) on 20 November 1775 [NDAR, VII, 142-154] and sailed to Philadelphia with the recruits aboard Rhode Island Navy Sloop Katy (ABRAHAM WHIPPLE), arriving 5 December 1775. His name suggests he was related to Commodore ESEK HOPKINS by marriage. Burroughs was appointed Third Lieutenant (behind RHODES ARNOLD) on Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Abraham Whipple) and was commissioned by Congress on 22 December 1775 as the second ranking Third Lieutenant. He sailed on the New Providence Expedition and was in the Battle off Block Island. Burroughs was aboard the Columbus at the end of April 1776. He was recommended for promotion to Captain by Commodore Hopkins on about 19 June 1776. By 22 June 1776 he had been promoted to Second Lieutenant when he is so listed on a crew list of that date. However, he was probably promoted to First Lieutenant on 1 June 1776 when his predecessor, Arnold, was discharged.[NDAR, VII, 142-154] Burroughs was ranked fifth on the Lieutenants’ List of 12 October 1775. Burroughs was prizemaster of the Hester which was recaptured by the British. He was taken to Halifax as a prisoner in November 1776, where he awaited exchange. [NDAR, VII, 105] By 26 November he was at Marblehead, Massachusetts, seeking an adequate person to exchange with himself. [NDAR, VII, 290-291] On 9 February 1777 he was ordered to take command of the Continental Navy Brig Hampden and act as captain, apparently retaining his rank of First Lieutenant. [NDAR, VII, 1152 and note, 1199-1200] By 14 February Burroughs had Hampden manned and was preparing to sail. [NDAR, VII, 1199-1200] She had sailed by 28 February 1777. [NDAR, VII, 1318-1319] In June 1777 he commanded the Continental Navy Brigantine Resistance, in the Providence River, as First Lieutenant acting as captain. He was commissioned on 26 May 1778 to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Revenge, with ten guns and fifty men, and was re-commissioned to the Revenge on 6 May 1780. [NOAR, 44-45] On 2 October 1780 Burroughs served as a witness on the bond of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Aurora (Commander David Porter). [NRAR, 231] At the same time he was commissioned to Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hope, a vessel of four guns and ten men, and also owned by Mungo Mackay. [NRAR, 340] Burroughs was appointed to command the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Revenge on 28 June 1781, a vessel of four guns and fourteen men, owned by Joshua Blanchard of Boston. Burroughs listed his residence as Cape Ann. [NRAR, 441] Burroughs next was appointed to command the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Moore on 14 March 1782, a vessel of fourteen guns and forty men, owned by Mungo Mackay of Boston. [NRAR, 397]


BURROWS, EDWARD

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Edward Burrows, probably of Philadelphia, [NRAR, 416] listing his age as 22,[NOAR, 45] was appointed First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Governor Livingston (Commander Moses Griffing) on 30 June 1781. [NRAR, 319] On 4 June 1782, [NRAR, 416] listing his age as 23, [NOAR, 45] he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Plough. [NRAR, 416]


BURROWS, JOHN

PA

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Burrows of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was commissioned on 3 August 1778 to the Maryland Privateer Sloop Washington. [NRAR, 489] On 14 December 1779 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Hibernia. [NRAR, 337] On 21 April 1780 he was appointed to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Rebecca, [NRAR, 434] and, on 19 June 1781 to the Maryland Privateer Ship Betsey. [NRAR, 237] He listed his age as 35 in 1781 and he was noted as being 5'5" tall. [NOAR, 45]


BURROWS, JOHN

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Burrows of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Industry on 10 July 1780. [NRAR, 351] He was next commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Schuylkill on 20 September 1781, [NRAR, 456] listing his age as 30. [NOAR, 45] On 12 August 1782 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Don Quixote. [NRAR, 276] He still listed his age as 30, and was reported as being 5'6" tall. [NOAR, 45. He is not to be confused with the other John Burrows of Philadelphia.]


BURTON, WILLIAM

MA

Second Mate, Massachusetts Privateers


William Burton was appointed Second Mate on the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Hancock (Commander Wingate Newman) on 15 June 1776. [NOAR, 45]


BUSHNELL, DAVID

CT

Naval Constructor/Inventor, Mine and Submarine Warfare


David Bushnell was born in Saybrook, Connecticut in 1742. Bushnell designed and built the first combat submarine in the world, the American Turtle. An attempt to sink HMS Eagle in New York Harbor failed in 1776. In 1777 Bushnell succeeded in mining a British schooner. In December 1777 he devised a floating mine and deployed them in the Delaware River, destroying a British boat. He was captured in 1779 and died after the war in Georgia in 1826. [NOAR, 45]


BUSHNELL, EZRA

CT

Surgeon, Connecticut Navy


Ezra Bushnell of New Haven, Connecticut, was Surgeon aboard the Connecticut Navy Brig Defence (Captain SETH HARDING) on 10 March 1776. [NOAR, 45]


BUTLER, EDWARD

VA

Pilot, Virginia Navy


Edward Butler was a Pilot in the Virginia Navy. He entered the service early and continued until the end of the war. [Stewart, 159]


BUTLER, MOSES

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Moses Butler, of Hartford, Connecticut, commanded the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Arnold in 1779. In company with the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Independence (Commander GURDON BURNHAM) he captured the British sloop Sally on 4 June 1779. [Middlebrook, Maritime Connecticut During The Revolution, II, 53]


BUTLER, SAMUEL

NC

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Virginia Privateers


Samuel Butler was a native of Edonton, North Carolina. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hiram on 5 May 1779, sailing out of Boston. [NOAR, 45-46] He was subsequently commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Ship Wolfe on 10 May 1782. [NRAR, 494]


BUTMAN, THOMAS

MA

Second Mate, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Butman, a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts, was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Active (Commander BENJAMIN ELLINGWOOD) as Second Mate on 6 July 1780. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 405]


BUTTLER [BUTLER], DANIEL

PA

Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Privateers


Daniel Buttler (or Butler) was a Lieutenant aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Greyhound, sailing out of Philadelphia. She was captured by the British. On 11 January 1781 Buttler was committed to Mill Prison. He attempted to escape on 21 April. On 10 September he was pardoned to serve in the Royal Navy. [NOAR, 46]


BUTTON, MICHAEL

VA

Pilot, Virginia Navy


Michael Button was a Pilot in the Virginia Navy. [Stewart, 159]


BUTTS, COGSHALL

[RI]

Midshipman, Continental Navy


Cogshall (or Cogswell) Butts enlisted in the Continental Navy in Rhode Island on 20 November 1775, being part of the Katy’s cargo of recruits. When she arrived in Philadelphia, Butts was assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain ABRAHAM WHIPPLE) as a Midshipman. He participated in the New Providence Expedition and the Battle off Block Island. Butts was listed as a deserter from the Columbus at Providence, Rhode Island on 20 April 1776. [NOAR, 46]


BYRD [BIRD], LEVIN [LEAVIN]

VA

Pilot, Virginia Navy


Levin [Leavin] Byrd [Bird] was a Pilot in the Virginia Navy. In October 1777 he was assigned to the Virginia Navy Galley Diligence. [Stewart, 150, 159]


BYRNE, CLIFFORD

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Clifford Byrne (or Burn] [NOAR, 46] of Salem, Massachusetts, [NRAR, 281] was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Race Horse on 24 June 1780. [NOAR, 46] He was subsequently commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Elizabeth on 20 December 1781. [NRAR, 281]


BYRNE, JAMES

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Byrne of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Nympha (Commander PETER BRIAMANT) on 19 June 1781. [NRAR, 407] He listed his age as 27. [NOAR, 46] On 26 December 1781 Byrne was commissioned as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Two Esthers. [NRAR, 480] Byrne listed his age as 22. [NOAR, 46. Despite the apparent age discrepency, this is likely to be the same person.]


Revised 23 August 2014 © awiatsea.com