A




ABORN, DANIEL
CT

“Captain,” Continental Navy

Daniel Aborn is listed as a Captain in the Continental Navy in NOAR, 1. He is known to have been the master of the merchant sloop Sally, chased ashore by HMS Unicorn on 12 January 1778, at Point Judith, Rhode Island. [NDAR, XI, 96n]


“ADAMS & DEXTER”

Owner, Connecticut Privateers

The firm of "Adams & Dexter, Boston"  is listed as owner of the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Lee (Commander JAMES HOPKINS) on 25 May 1780. [NRAR, 370] See THOMAS ADAMS.


ADAMS, DANIEL
MA

Captain, Continental Army Boston Squadron


In early 1775, Daniel Adams was a resident of Plymouth, Massachusetts. Adams was the owner of the schooner leased by Washington which later became the Continental Army Schooner Harrison. Adams signed the lease agreement on 22 October 1775, with rental beginning on 16 October 1775. [NRAR, 9] In November 1775, Daniel Adams was commissioned to the Continental Army Schooner Warren, part of the Boston Squadron. This may be the same Daniel Adams as the one below.


ADAMS, DANIEL
MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Daniel Adams was a resident of Salem and Beverly, Massachusetts. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424] Adams moved to Boston, Massachusetts later in the war. [NRAR, 311] Adams was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Massachusetts Navy on 19 September 1776 and assigned to the Massachusetts Navy Brigantine Independence (Captain SIMEON SAMPSON). On 10 February 1777 he was transferred to the Massachusetts Navy Brigantine Freedom (Captain JOHN CLOUSTON). [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424] When Freedom was captured, Adams became a prisoner at Rhode Island. He had not been exchanged by 25 March 1778. [NDAR, XI, 783-785] Adams was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Driver on 1 September 1779. [Allen, MPR, 120; Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424. Howe, Beverly Privateers, 408 says 1777.] On 20 April 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Lively. [NRAR, 377. Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424, says date of commission was 22 April.] While in the Lively, Adams rescued the crew of HM Frigate Blonde (Captain Edward Thornbrough), which had been wrecked on Nantucket Shoals. [Maclay, 216; Clowes, iv, 112] His third privateer command was the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner General Green, to which he was commissioned on 16 November 1782. [NRAR, 311; Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424, says 18 November to an un-named privateer.] On 3 December 1782 Adams was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hawk. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424. But see Hawk]


ADAMS, JACOB

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Jacob Adams, a native of Boston, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Mercy on 16 December 1782. Adams was also the Mercy’s owner. [NRAR, 391]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/16/75

MA

Schooner Mercy (4/10)

Jacob Adams

Jacob Adams

Jacob Adams, Isaac Bridges, Samuel Brown

[NRAR, 391]


ADAMS, JOHN

MA

Delegate, Continental Congress

Member, Naval Committee

Member, Marine Committee

American Commissioner to France


John Adams was born in 1735, the son of John and Susanna Boylston Adams. The young lad was raised in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts. He graduated from Harvard in 1755 and was admitted to the Boston bar in 1758. Adams now built up a law practice, and, in October 1764 married Abigail Smith. Adams took the patriot side in all the events of the Revolutionary period. On 14 June 1774 he was chosen as a Delegate to the First Continental Congress and was also a Delegate to the Second Continental Congress. Adams was instrumental in Washington's selection as Commander-in-Chief. [Boatner, 6] Adams' association with naval affairs began on 5 October 1775 when he was appointed to a committee of three, to draw up a plan for intercepting two British vessels, after a ferocious debate. This committee's two reports, on 5 October and 6 October, began the Continental Navy. [Paullin, Navy of the American Revolution, 35-37] On 30 October the Navy was actually authorized and Adams was appointed to the standing Naval Committee to oversee the equipping and manning of the fleet. [Paullin, Navy of the American Revolution, 38-39] The rules and regulations of the Navy, adopted in November 1775, were the work of Adams. [Paullin, Navy of the Revolution, 47] Early in December 1775 Adams returned to Massachusetts. [Paullin, Navy of the American Revolution, 41] He was not named to the Marine Committee. On 19 April 1777 Adams sponsored the resolution that created the Navy Board of the Eastern Department. [Paullin, Navy of the American Revolution, 97]  Adams served on committees that wrote the Declaration of Independence, drew up plans for foreign treaties, on the newly created Board of War (13 June 1776) and was a delegate to the Peace Conference held on Staten Island (11 September 1776). He left Congress on 26 October 1777 to return home. On 28 November 1777 he was elected as an American Commissioner to France, to succeed Silas Deane. On 13 February 1778 he and his 10-year old son, John Quincy Adams, sailed for France on the Continental Navy Ship Boston (Captain Samuel Tucker) [Boatner, 6] arriving on 1 April 1778 at Bordeaux. [Smith, Marines, 146] Joining the American Commissioners Adams performed few naval functions, those mostly being performed by Franklin.









ADAMS, JOHN

MA

Captain, Continental Army Boston Squadron

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


John Adams, who listed his address as Philadelphia, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Chance on 11 April 1776, listed as having four guns and forty-five men. [NDAR, IV, 774-775 and 775 note; NRAR, 249] He sailed in company with the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Congress (Commander George McAroy) from Philadelphia on 15 April. [NDAR, IV, 838; V, 427-428 and 428 note] On 22 April the two privateers, accompanied by other vessels, sailed down the Cape May Channel into Delaware Bay and escaped HM Frigate Roebuck after a cat and mouse game. [NDAR, IV, 1202 and note] The two privateers sailed south on a fabulous cruise. A series of rich prizes, the schooner Thistle, ship Reynolds, ship Lady Juliana, and ship Juno were captured. The two privateers arrived at Egg Harbor, New Jersey, before 5 June 1776. These prizes were extremely valuable. One writer estimated that the owners would receive £5,000 each and the sailors £500 each from the sale of the cargoes and vessels. An ugly little incident now came to light. The wealth of the Lady Juliana had been too much for skipper Adams of the Chance: he had helped himself to the loot. On 9 August 1776, Philip Moore, on behalf of the owners, filed suit in the Pennsylvania Admiralty Court to recover 1000 dollars, three bags of coins, eight pounds of gold, and plate, valued at £1508.0.15, which Moore claimed Adams had embezzled. Adams' defense was to deny jurisdiction of the court. [NDAR, VI, 130-131 and 131 note. For full references to this cruise see Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Chance] This John Adams may be the one who next shows up as being appointed to command the Continental Army Schooner Lynch. [NOAR, 1]  Lynch had sailed to France to obtain supplies and departed the Loire River for America on 9 May 1777. Offshore she was sighted by HMS Foudroyant. After a long chase during which Adams used every trick to elude the British, he surrendered. The British removed the crew and sunk the Lynch. On 25 May the Foudroyant arrived at Portsmouth. After initially obtaining liberty, Adams was arrested within two or three hours and committed to Forton Prison. [NDAR, IX, 373-374, 379-380, 381-382, 390-391. According to Kaminkow, 2, he was sent to Mill Prison on 1 June 1777] Adams escaped and, by late October 1777, he was in Nantes, France. [NDAR, IX, 1013-1014 and 1014 note] On 13 May 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Lively, operating out of Boston. On 7 December 1779 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Huntington, and, on 5 June 1780, to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Phoenix. [Allen, MPR, 236] On 15 November 1780 Adams was one of the securities for the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Fox (Commander LEVI DOANE), a vessel which Adams partly owned. [NRAR, 300] His next commission was to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine George and Fanny, on 6 February 1781. [NRAR, 317] Again, on 7 September 1781 Adams was one of the securities for the Fox, under her new skipper DAVID ALLEN. [NRAR, 301] On 3 October 1782 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brig Dragon. [NRAR, 277]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/15/80

MA

Sloop Fox (8/40)

Levi Doane

John Adams, Samuel Greenough

Levi Doane, John Adams, Samuel Greenough

[NRAR, 300]

9/7/81

MA

Sloop Fox (4/35)

David Allen

John Adams, Samuel Greenough

David Allen, John Adams, Samuel Greenough

[NRAR, 301]


ADAMS, JOHN

VA

Captain of Marines, Virginia Marines


John Adams was born about 1749. He was a resident of Fairfax County, Virginia. [Stewart, 140] After serving as a corporal of Marines aboard the Virginia Navy Sloop American Congress (Commodore JOHN THOMAS BOUCHER) in early 1776, [Stewart, 9] he was commissioned as Captain of Marines aboard the American Congress, [Stewart, 9, 140] possibly about November 1776. The sloop was later used in the trading department, (see Captains WILLIAM SKINNER; PULLEY) being laid up on 1 June 1780. [Stewart, 44]


ADAMS, JOSEPH


NC/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Joseph Adams was Second Lieutenant of the Continental Navy Ship Hancock (Captain JOHN MANLEY). He was a prisoner at Halifax, Nova Scotia on 8 November 1777, when exchanges were being arranged. [NDAR, IX, 433 and notes] He had been exchanged by 17 January 1778, [NDAR, 147-148 and 148 note] and was in Boston on 20 February 1778. [NDAR, XI, 384] Lieutenant Joseph Adams resigned his commission on 19 June 1778 to serve on a privateer. According to this source he was from North Carolina. [NOAR, 1]


ADAMS, R.


“USS Nancy, Capt. R. Adams, was captured by HMS Viper, Capt. Samuel Graves,” on 18 August 1776 off Maine. [Peckham, Toll, 112] [this whole entry is suspect.]


ADAMS, ROBERT

MD

[Owner], Maryland Privateers


Robert Adams was a resident of Baltimore, Maryland. He was associated with JOHN McLURE and ROBERT T. HOOE in privateering. Vessels associated with Adams were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/7/81

MD

Brigantine Alexandria (12/40)

John Thomas Boucher

John McLure, Robert T. Hooe et al

John Thomas Boucher, Richard Conway, Robert Adams

John Fitzgerald, Samuel Drill [NRAR, 224]


ADAMS, THOMAS

MA

Owner, Connecticut Privateers

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


Thomas Adams’s normal residence was Boston, Massachusetts. He was one of the owners of the second Massachusetts and American privateer of the Revolution, schooner Boston Revenge. [NDAR, II, 1316] He also listed his address as Salem, Massachusett, in September 1777. [NDAR, X, 355] Thomas Adams, listing his address as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was listed as a co-owner of the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Huntington (Commander JOHN STILLWELL) on 6 March 1780. [NRAR, 348] Another Adams, perhaps Thomas, was perhaps the co-owner of the Connecticut Privateer Schooner Lee (Commander JAMES HOPKINS) commissioned on 25 May 1780. The owners are listed as "Adams & Dexter of Boston." [NRAR, 370] It is not clear if all these individuals are the same person. Adams was associated in privateering with numerous individuals in Boston. Vessels associated with Adams were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/7/75

MA

Schooner Boston Revenge

Stephen Mascoll

Thomas Adams, Stephen Mascoll, William Shattuck

Thomas Adams, Stephen Mascoll, William Shattuck

John Pickering, Timothy Pickering [NDAR, II, 1316]

8/8/76

MA

Schooner Independence (4/35)

John Gill

Thomas Adams, Paul Dudley Sargent, William Shattuck

John Gill, Paul Dudley Sargent, Thomas Adams

Gustavus Fellows, John Marston [Allen, MPR, 185]

9/24/76

MA

Ship Boston (22/210)

William Brown

Paul Dudley Sargent, James Swan, Mungo Mackay, Thomas Adams

William Brown, James Swan, Elias Parkman

[Allen, MPR, 86]

4/25/77

MA

Schooner Buckram (8/45)

William Morony

Daniel Martin, Thomas Adams

William Morony, Thomas Adams, Paul Dudlet Sargent

Timothy Foster [NDAR, VIII, 417-418;  Allen, MPR, 88]

6/4/77

MA

Schooner Buckram (8/45)

Thomas Snoden

Daniel Martin, Thomas Adams

Thomas Snoden, Daniel Martin, Thomas Adams

Timothy Foster, William Lawrence [Allen, MPR, 89]

6/9/77

MA

Schooner Cleora (4/14)

Richard Ellinwood

Thomas Adams

Richard Ellinwood, Thomas Adams, William Shattuck

[Allen, MPR, 100]

7/26/77

MA

Brigantine Sturdy Beggar (14/90)

Heman Doane

Mungo Mackay and Thomas Adams

Heman Doane, Mungo Mackay, Thomas Adams

John Wheelwright, Timothy Foster [Allen, MPR, 290]

9/4/77

MA

Sloop Revenge (8/25)

Nathaniel Coit Webb

Thomas Adams, Benjamin Loring et al

Nathaniel Coit Webb, Thomas Adams, Benjamin Loring

Thomas Chase, Jonathan Pollard [Allen, MPR, 261]

9/23/77

MA

Schooner Lizard (4/30)

William Steward

Mungo Mackay, Thomas Adams

William Steward, Mungo Mackay, Thomas Adams

None. [Allen, MPR, 211]

2/3/78

MA

Sloop General Montgomery (6/30)

William Steward

Thomas Adams et al

William Steward, Thomas Adams, Michael Pruddock

None. [Allen, MPR, 149]

3/27/78

MA

Schooner Lizard (6/25)

John Blackler

Thomas Adams et al

John Blackler, Thomas Adams, John Brown for Mackay

James Ingels, John Cloon [Allen, MPR, 211]

5/4/78

MA

Schooner Lee (10/50)

John Hyer

Paul Dudley Sargent, Joseph Barrell, Thomas Adams, Daniel Martin

John Hyer, Paul Dudley Sargent, Daniel Martin

William Baker, Jr. [Allen, MPR, 203]

10/14/78

MA

Schooner Favorite (8/16)

John Guliker

Thomas Adams, David Clark

John Guliker, Thomas Adams, Daniel Clark

None. [Allen, MPR, 128-129]

11/4/78

MA

Schooner Lee (10/50)

William Steward

Job Prince, Thomas Adams

Job Prince, Thomas Adams

Jonathan Dall [Allen, MPR, 203]

4/26/79

MA

Schooner Resolution (2/30)

Abel Gore

Thomas Adams et al

Abel Gore, Daniel Martin, Thomas Adams

John Hildreth, Zacheus Morton [Allen, MPR, 256]

6/3/80

PA

Brig Huntington (8/35)

John Stillwell

Thomas Adams, James Boylan

James Boylan, William Hardy

John Stillwell, James Trimble [NRAR, 348]

25/5/80

CT

Schooner Lee (10/14)

James Hopkins

Adams & Dexter

James Hopkins, John Welles, Charles Caldwell

Hezekiah Fitch, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. [NRAR, 370]

8/31/82

MA

Sloop Revenge (4/10)

Isaiah Simmons

Thomas Adams, Job Prince et al

Isaiah Simmons, Thomas Adams, Nathaniel Byfield Lyde

Daniel Boyer, Thomas Adams [NRAR, 442]

10/29/82

CT

Brigantine Diana (6/15)

Seth Harding

Thomas Adams & Co.

Seth Harding, David Trumbull, John Alden

Jabez Huntington, John Porter [NRAR, 269]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/18/78

MA

Brigantine Black Prince (14/70)

William Steward

Job Prince et al

William Steward, Job Prince, Thomas Adams

[Allen, MPR, 84]

6/3/79

MA

Schooner Lee (6/23)

James Thompson

Daniel Martin et al

James Thompson, Thomas Adams, Daniel Martin

Francis Archbald, Joseph Wheaton [Allen, MPR, 203-204]

7/26/80

MA

Brigantine Dispatch (14/30)

James Thompson

James Swan et al

James Thompson, Thomas Adams, James Swan

Edward Sands, Thomas Adams, John Keyes [Allen, MPR, 115]

4/20/82

MA

Brig Diana (8/25)

Robert Cushing

Daniel Bell wt al

Robert Cushing, Thomas Adams, Daniel Bell

Charles Williams, Amos Windship [NRAR, 269


ADAMS, THOMAS

MA

Second Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Thomas Adams was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Buckram (Commander JOHN CROSS) as Second Lieutenant on 21 August 1777. [NRAR, 243; Allen, MPR, 89; NDAR, X, 347-349] Buckram sailed about mid-September. [Allen, MPR, 89] On 16 September 1777 she was captured by HM Frigate Diamond. [NDAR,  IX, 931 and note] She was sent to Halifax on 22 September 1777. [NDAR, IX, 950] Adams was sent aboard HM Frigate Lark on 27 September. [NDAR, X, 347-349]


ADAMS, WILLIAM

PA

Surgeon, Continental Navy


William Adams was a resident of Philadelphia and an officer in the 3rd Battalion of Associators (the Philadelphia militia). Adams was aboard Continental Navy Sloop Hornet in December 1775, when he was paid a month's wages as Surgeon by Paymaster James Reed. This was possibly his advance pay. On 20 May 1776 he requested permission to resign and also solicited an appointment as a Marine officer on one of the new frigates. His resignation was accepted on 19 June 1776. The same person (according to NOAR, 1-2) or another William Adams was appointed as Surgeon on the Continental Navy Sloop Independence (Captain JOHN YOUNG) on 26 September 1776 [NDAR, ] He resigned from this post in January 1777. [Clark, The First Saratoga, 153] On 5 May 1779 he was in Philadelphia, when he wrote a letter of resignation to John Jay, President of the Continental Congress. His resignation was accepted. [NRAR, 106]


ADAMS, WINBORN

NH

Captain, Continental Army Boston Squadron


Winborn Adams of New Hampshire was in command of the Continental Army Schooner Warren in the fall of 1775. [Smith, Marines, 34]


ADAMSON, JAMES

Midshipman, Continental Navy


James Adamson entered the Continental Navy Sloop Providence (Captain John Peck Rathbun) as a Midshipman on 7 November 1777. He was transferred to another vessel later. [NDAR, XI, 403] However, Adamson was still with the Providence on 25 March 1778, when he delivered a letter from Captain of Marines JOHN TREVETT to the Continental Agent in Massachusetts, JOHN BRADFORD. [NDAR, XI, 782-783 and 783 note] On 31 March Adamson was in Providence, Rhode Island, where he successfully petitioned Governor Nicholas Cooke for a privateer commission for the Rhode Island Privateer Schooner Congress, with himself as commander. [NDAR, XI, 842-843 and 843 note]


ADAMSON, ROBERT


MA/(P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Robert Adamson was probably the “Capt Adams” of Boston, Massachusetts, that the Rhode Island Frigate Committee (building the new frigates in Providence, Rhode Island) wanted for their ship. On 27 May 1776 the Committee suggested that Captain JOHN BURROUGHS HOPKINS  write to “Capt” Adams, offering him a first lieutenant's position on one of the frigates; or, if preferred, Hopkins could travel to Boston to make the offer. If Hopkins declined, then Colonel Bowen was to make the offer, stating he was recommended to the Colonel by Commodore Hopkins. [NDAR, V, 268-269] Adamson was recommended to Congress by the Marine Committee on 1 July 1776 as First Lieutenant aboard Continental Navy Ship Warren. [NDAR, V, 856 and note] Adamson evidently served aboard the Warren without any particular distinction. When a group of Warren's officers, discontented, approached Adamson to join in their petition to the Marine Committee against Commodore ESEK HOPKINS, Adamson declined to be involved. Yet he informed neither Captain Hopkins, or Commodore Hopkins, of the discontent. Adamson sat on the court-martial of Third Lieutenant RICHARD MARVIN of the Warren, held aboard the Continental Navy Ship Providence at Fields Point in the Providence River on 3 April 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 263-266] Adamson evidently left the Warren before the Penobscot Expedition of 1779, perhaps when Hopkins was relieved of command. On 7 August 1779 he was commissioned as Commander of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Renown. The Renown was taken into Massachusetts service for the Penobscot Expedition, and convoyed transports, [Allen, MPR, 253] but apparently left before the fleet was destroyed. [Alle, MPR, 253; Smith, Marines, 207] On 1 December 1781 he was appointed to command the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Revenge. [NRAR, 441]


ADDICOT [ADISCOTT, ADDISCOTT], WILLIAM

[MA]

Prize Master, Continental Army Boston Squadron


William Addicot was aboard Continental Army Schooner Lee (Acting Captain John Skimmer) as a Prize Master. He was given command of the snow Lively (William Frears) when she was captured, about August 1777, with a prize crew of nine men. Lively was re-captured by HM Frigate Diamond  on 22 September 1777. Addicot was taken to Halifax, Nova Scotia. His crew was sent to Halifax Jail on 25 October 1777, as was, perhaps, Addicot. [NDAR, X, 347-349] On 5 February 1778, he was listed as master of the Lee, in a report on the bad treatment of American prisoners at Halifax. It is noted there that he was forced aboard a British vessel. [NDAR, XI, 288-291 and 291 note]


ADDISCOTT, WILLIAM

See ADDICOT, WILLIAM


ADDISON, JOHN

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


John Addison, of Richmond, Virginia, was commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Schooner Non Pareil on 12 July 1781. [NRAR, 406]


ADELON, PIERRE

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Owner, Maryland Privateers


Pierre Adelon was a native of Bordeaux, France. He was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brig Le Comtesse Denery on 11 June 1778, a vessel of which he was listed as sole owner. [NRAR, 366] Adelon was also listed as sole owner of the Maryland Privateer Sloop Concord (Commander ROBERT BRISSON), for which a commission was obtained the same day. [NRAR, 257]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/6/78

MD

Sloop Concord (6/22)

Robert Brisson

Pierre Adelon

Robert Brisson, Isaac Van Bibber

[NRAR, 257]

11/6/78

MD

Brig La Comtesse Denery (8/25)

Pierre Adelon

Pierre Adelon

Pierre Adelon, Isaac Van Bibber

[NRAR, 366]


ADISCOTT, WILLIAM

See ADDICOT, WILLIAM


 ADKINSON, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Adkinson [Adkison, Atkinson] was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts when he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hound on 16 April 1781. [NRAR, 345]


ADKISON, JOHN


[see ADKINSON, JOHN]


AIKEN, MATTHEW

DL

Owner, Maryland Privateers


Matthew Aiken of Delaware is listed as co-owner of the Maryland Privateer Barge Independence (Commander THOMAS DEBURK) on 2 July 1781. [NRAR, 350]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/2/81

MD

Barge Independence (3/30)

Thomas Deburk

Joseph Handy, Mathew Aiken

Thomas Deburk, Joseph Handy

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 350]


AIKENS, JOSEPH

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Aikens was First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Freedom (Commander JAMES COLVEN), commissioned on 5 May 1777. [Allen, Massachusetts Privateers of the Revolution, 138; NDAR, VIII, 914-915]


AITKEN, ANDREW

Andrew Aitken was born in 1755. He was supposedly a Surgeon in “Army & Naval Service,” according to the DAR. He died in 1809. [NOAR, 2]


ALBERTSON, THOMAS

NC/(P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Thomas Albertson may have been from North Carolina. [NOAR, 2] He was in command of the Continental Navy Schooner Mosquito on 1 October 1776. [NRAR, 19; NOAR, 2] On 1 October the Marine Committee ordered him to proceed on a cruise to Edentown, North Carolina. [NRAR, 19] Albertson was taking a cargo to Continental Agents Joseph Hewes and Smith. The Marine Committee noted that tar, tallow and resin were needed. [NRAR, 20; see NDAR, 6, 1092, 1119-1120] First Lieutenant Thomas Albertson placed in command of the schooner Mosquito, and ranked as the twenty-sixth commander in the Continental Navy on 10 October 1776, being a commanding Lieutenant. [NDAR, 6, 1200-1202] He was ranked second on the lieutenant's seniority list of 12 October 1776. [NOAR, 2]  Mosquito was in Philadelphia in December 1776 [NDAR, 7, 574-576] and in February 1777. On 18 February, Robert Morris, acting for the Marine Committee, sent Albertson to deliver orders to Captain Elisha Warner (Continental Navy Sloop Fly) [NRAR, 39] then at Reedy Island. [NOAR, 2] Mosquito was at Philadelphia, fitting out, in April 1777. On 22 April the Navy Board of the Middle Department sent Albertson to the Pennsylvania Navy Board to obtain 2-pound shot, which was the only thing preventing him from sailing. [NDAR, 8, 403 and note] Mosquito was captured by a cutting out expedition from HM Frigate Pearl (Captain John Linzee) in Duck Creek, Delaware on 7 July 1777. At the time of her capture only the master and gunner were aboard. After removing the prisoners the sloop was burned. [NDAR, IX, 232-233 and note] He is possibly the “Mr. Albertson” despatched by Commodore John Hazelwood on 14 October 1777 to obtain ammunition for the Pennsylvania-Continental fleet in the Delaware River. [NDAR, X, 178]


ALCORN, ROBERT

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Robert Alcorn, a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Adriana on 20 July 1781. [NRAR, 220]


ALCOST, TIMOTHY

CT

First Mate, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Timothy Alcost, a Connecticut man, [NOAR, 2] enlisted in Benedict Arnold's Massachusetts regiment for service on Lake Champlain about 3 May 1775. He served aboard the Continental Army Sloop Enterprise (Captain JOHN PROUT SLOAN) in the capacity of First Mate from 20 May 1775 until about 1 July 1775, when Arnold's men were discharged. [NDAR, I, 797 and note]


ALDEN, JOHN

CT

[Owner], Connecticut Privateers


John Alden was a resident of Lebanon, Connecticut. Although never listed as an owner, he was a security on a large number of privateers. Alden was associated in privateering with JOSEPH WILLIAMS, JACOB DE WITT, JOHN NEWMAN, HOWLAND, COIT & CO., SAMUEL BROOME, DAVID TRUMBULL, WILLIAM COIT, JOHN FOSTER, and others. Privateers associated with Alden were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/10/77

CT

Sloop Lydia (4/15)

Joseph Williams

Joseph Williams & Co.

Joseph Williams, Jacob De Witt, John Alden

John Trumbull, Ephraim Carpenter [NRAR, 379]

5/1/79

CT

Schooner Hornet (4/15)

Sylvester Pendleton

John Newman & Co.

Sylvester Pendleton, Acors Sheffield, John Alden

David Mumford [NRAR, 344]

5/1/81

CT

Sloop Phoenix (14/75)

William Watters

Howland, Coit & Co.

William Watters, Samuel Wolcott, John Alden

Joel Loomis, Joseph Abel [NRAR, 414]

7/3/81

CT

Brig Minerva (16/120)

James Angell

Samuel Broome & Co.

James Angell, David Trumbull, John Alden

John Porter, Kromer Bill [NRAR, 393]

7/16/81

CT

Schooner Young Cromwell (10/45)

William Reed

Joseph Williams & Co.

William Reed, William Coit, Jr., John Alden

Hooker St. John, Ebenezer Mead [NRAR, 495]

11/1/81

CT

Schooner Terror (4/12)

John Park

 

John Park, Thomas Park, John Alden

George Hough, William Torrey [NRAR, 473]

11/1/81

CT

Sloop Defiance (8/20)

Thomas Park

Thomas Park & Co.

Thomas Park, John Park, John Alden

George Hough, William Torrey [NRAR, 264]

11/1/81

CT

Brigantine Samuel (4/15)

Elisha Lathrop

Christopher Leffingwell & Co.

Elisha Lathrop, John Alden, Carey Leeds

John Porter, Stephen Brown [NRAR, 454]

11/1/82

CT

Galley Lion (2/28)

Aaron Meech

John Foster & Co.

Aaron Meech, John Foster, John Alden

John Porter, David Trumbull [NRAR, 374]

11/5/81

CT

Galley Rainbow (2/32)

Aaron Meech

Jonathan Brewster & Co.

Aaron Meech, Jonathan Brewster, John Alden

John Porter, Zephaniah Smith [NRAR, 426]

4/10/82

CT

Brigantine Pilgrim (16/90)

Humphrey Carey

Joseph Williams & Co.

Humphrey Carey, William Torrey, John Alden

Eliphalet Dyer, Nathaniel Wales [NRAR, 415]

7/2/82

CT

Schooner Jolly Robin (4/25)

Isaac Sheffield, Jr.

Jonathan Waldron & Co.

Isaac Sheffield, Jr., Jabez Perkins, John Alden

William Williams, William Hillhouse [NRAR, 360]

7/15/82

CT

Galley Shelally (2/35)

Elnathan Hatch

John Foster & Co.

Elnathan Hatch, John Foster, John Alden

Nathaniel Wales, Jabez Perkins [NRAR, 459]

7-31-82

CT

Galley Young Lion (4/25)

Peter Vail

John Foster & Co.

Peter Vail, Robert Usher, John Alden

Jonathan N. Havens, John Porter [NRAR, 495]

9/16/82

CT

Brigantine Thomas (4/15)

Elisha Lathrop, Jr.

Howland, Coit & Co.

Elisha Lathrop, Jr., Hezekiah Perkins, John Alden

Hezekiah Manning, Thomas Fleming [NRAR, 474]

9/16/82

CT

Brigantine Hancock (8/16)

Hezekiah Perkins

Howland, Coit & Co.

Hezekiah Perkins, Elisha Lathrop, Jr., John Alden

Hezekiah Manning, Thomas Fanning [NRAR, 324]

10/29/82

CT

Brigantine Diana (6/15)

Seth Harding

Thomas Adams & Co.

Seth Harding, David Trumbull, John Alden

Jabez Huntington, John Porter [NRAR, 269]


ALDEN, JONATHAN

CT

Midshipman, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Jonathan Alden was a native of Lebanon, Connecticut. [NOAR, 2] He was a midshipman on the Connecticut Navy Brig Defence (Captain SAMUEL SMEDLEY) with his date of entry given as 15 November 1776. [NDAR, IX, 116-118] On 22 March 1777 Alden commanded the ship Grog as prizemaster. [NOAR, 2] Alden was discharged on 15 June 1777, his pay being £25.04.00. [NDAR, IX, 116-118] In 1782 he was a resident of New London, Connecticut, when he was commissioned on 30 July 1782 to the Connecticut Privateer Galley John. [NRAR, 360] Alden captured the schooner Adventure on 15 August 1782. [NOAR, 2]


ALEXANDER, CHARLES


PA/(P/A)

Captain, Continental Navy

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Charles Alexander was a merchant skipper and citizen of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He entered the Pennsylvania Navy on 24 July 1775, when he was commissioned as a Captain and assigned to Pennsylvania Navy Galley Bull Dog. [NDAR, I, 964] He commanded the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Chatham in March 1776. On 6 March he requested appointment to command a floating battery then under construction by the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety. On 10 March he was ordered to go to New York to recruit sailors with Lieutenant John Hennessy. The two were back from the fruitless trip by the first week in April 1776. On 12 April Alexander resigned from the Pennsylvania Navy to enter the Continental service. He was commissioned as Captain in the Continental Navy on 18 April and assigned to Continental Navy Schooner Wasp. He participated, indirectly, in the Battle of the Delaware River on 8/9 May 1776. He was re-commissioned on 6 June 1776 and promoted to command Continental Navy Ship Delaware, one of the new frigates. Alexander was ranked 8th on the Captains' List of 10 October 1776. [xx] During the crisis following the British conquest of New Jersey, Alexander and his crew joined Washington's army, being assigned to Colonel Cadwalader's column. The captain and crew were recalled by Robert Morris (acting for the Marine Committee) on 13 December 1776. [Smith, Marines, 93] Alexander was in Philadelphia on 16 December 1776 and work was progressing on the Delaware. [NRAR, 30] On 8 April 1777 the Marine Committee issued sailing orders to Alexander. He was to go to sea and cruise along the American coast, searching for British transports. [NRAR, 42] The next day the Delaware dropped down the river to Fort Island. Here the Delaware remained throughout the spring and summer. [Smith, Marines, 124] Alexander was at Philadelphia, in the Delaware, in August 1777. On 5 August he was ordered to lend men to vessels under Captain Isaiah Robinson’s command. On 6 August Alexander was ordered down the river to command a task force. Alexander complained to the Pennsylvania Navy Board that one of its pilots had refused to go aboard the Delaware and pilot it through the chevaux-de-frise on 7 August. He commanded a task force in the lower Delaware from 7 August 1777-26 September 1777. He was down the river by 21 August, when a slight engagement was fought with the British, resulting in the capture of Pearl's tender. Another slight encounter occurred on 24 August. He was ordered to attack the enemy shipping on 25 August. On 15 September 1777 Alexander requested that lookouts be posted in certain riverside towns. Delaware was anchored off Billingsport, New Jersey on that date. On 26 September he was ordered to take Continental Navy Sloop Fly and Pennsylvania Navy Ship Montgomery and defend Philadelphia. [xx]  On 26 September 1777 the Marine Committee (then at Lancaster, Pennsylvania) notified Alexander that Commodore Hazelwood of the Pennsylvania Navy was assuming control of all naval forces in the Delaware River. Valor in defense of the river was urged on Alexander. [NRAR, 53] On 27 September Alexander led his force to battle against British shore batteries. During the Battle off Philadelphia he and the Delaware were captured. [xx] Alexander and his officers were confined in the state house in Philadelphia. The place had a clock tower, with the clock’s faceplate removed and the hole boarded up. On the night of 30 November/1 December 1777, Alexander and four of his officers climbed the tower, removed the boards, and threw the lines holding the clocks’ weights to the outside, by which they climbed down to the ground. The remaining prisoners drew up the lines and replaced the boards. Nevertheless, the escape was detected the next day. [NDAR, X, 645] On 9 December Alexander wrote to the Marine Committee, which referred his letter to the Continental Congress, where it was read on 17 December. [JCC 9:1032] Alexander delivered a proposal to George Washington on 22 January 1778 concerning attacking the British shipping in the Delaware River, which was then iced up. [NDAR, XI, 188 and note, 213 and note] On 8 December 1778, Alexander was commissioned commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Elizabeth, a vessel of twelve guns and a crew of thirty men, owned by Andrew and James Caldwell of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 280] On 21 May 1779 Alexander was commissioned as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Active, owned by John Wilcocks & Co. of Philadelphia. Active was a fourteen gun vessel with a crew of forty. [NRAR, 218] On 2 March 1782 he was appointed as commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship General O'Reily, with fourteen guns and a crew of fifty men. [NOAR, 3]


ALEXANDER, GILES

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Giles Alexander was a resident of the Maine portion of Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with STEPHEN BRUCE and JOSEPH CHRISTOPHERS. Privateers associated with Alexander were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/27/82

MA

Schooner Ranger (4/20)

Joseph Christophers

Joseph Christophers et al

Joseph Christophers, Stephen Bruce, Giles Alexander

Thomas Dennie, George Horner [NRAR, 431]


ALEXANDER, PHILIP

PA

Third Mate, Continental Navy


Philip Alexander enlisted aboard the Continental Navy Ship Alfred (Captain DUDLEY SALTONSTALL) on 3 January 1776 at Philadelphia. He served aboard her during the New Providence Expedition and the ensuing Battle off Block Island. He was transferred to the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (Captain ABRAHAM WHIPPLE) on 7 August 1776, serving as Third Mate. He was paid $12 by Deputy Continental Agent John Manley on 19 October 1776, while at Newport.


ALEXANDER, SAMUEL

PA

First Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy


Samuel Alexander of Pennsylvania was commissioned as First Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy on 10 October 1776 and assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Bull Dog. [NOAR, 3] In 1781 he was First Lieutenant on the Pennsylvania Privateer [unknown] Lion. Lion was captured by the British and Alexander was sent to Mill Prison, near Plymouth, England on 31 August or 7 September. [Kaminkow, 3]


ALEXANDER, THOMAS

First Mate, Continental Navy


Thomas Alexander entered aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Providence (Captain JOHN PECK RATHBUN) on 13 November 1777 as First Mate (“1 Mastr mate”). [NDAR, XI, 403]


ALGER, WILLIAM B.

NY

[Second Lieutenant, Continental Marines]


William B. Alger was a native of New York and a lieutenant of New York militia. During the late fall of 1776, the need was seen for a guard for the incomplete Continental Navy Ships Congress and Montgomery during the winter. Alger was encouraged by one Captain Patrick Dennis to form such a guard: a company of Marines for the Montgomery. By 31 October 1776 Alger had enlisted a company of “fine young men,” suitable for sailors or artillerymen. He requested the appointment from the New York Convention and terms for the men on that date. [NDAR, VI, 1478 and note] No other record of Alger can be found. First Lieutenant of Marines VICTOR BICKER, JR., assigned to the Congress, formed a company in December or January 1776. All three Marine officers of the Montgomery are known: Alger was not among them. He may have served on the Congress, perhaps as Second Lieutenant of Marines; and then again he may have gone into land service.


ALL, ISAAC

PA

American Pilot, D’Estaing’s Fleet


Isaac All was an American merchant skipper, in France in early 1778. He was selected by American Commissioner in France Silas Deane to serve aboard D’Estaing’s fleet as a pilot for the American coast. [NDAR, XI, 1130-1132 and 1132 note]


ALLAN, JOHN

MA

Continental Agent for the Eastern Indians

Colonel, Massachusetts Militia


ALLEN

[See HEWES, SMITH, and ALLEN]


ALLEN [ALLINE], BENJAMIN

Surgeon, [unknown] Privateers


Dr. Benjamin Allen [Alline] was a prisoner of the British in 1778. He was listed with the rating of Surgeon and was committed to Fortun Prison at Gosport (near Portsmouth), England, on 20 October 1778. He was pardoned, in preparation for exchange, on 11 December 1779. [Kaminkow, 3]


ALLEN, BENJAMIN

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Benjamin Allen, perhaps a resident of Baltimore, Maryland, was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Dolphin on 7 November 1778. [NRAR, 271] On 22 November 1780 he was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Schooner Success. [NRAR, 466]


ALLEN, DAVID

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


David Allen was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 247] He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Snatch Cat on 22 June 1778. [Allen, MPR, 281] Allen was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine William on 9 October 1779. [Allen, MPR, 327] He next commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Cato, commissioned 26 September 1780. [NRAR, 247] Allen then commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Shark, commissioned 12 April 1781. [NRAR, 458] His final command of the war was the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Fox, commissioned 7 September 1781. [NRAR, 301]


ALLEN, EDWARD

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Edward Allen was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with JOHN CABOT, ANDREW CABOT, JOHN FISK, and JAMES CAREY. Vessels associated with Allen were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/30/81

MA

Ship Buccaneer (18/150)

Hoysted Hacker

John Cabot and Andrew Cabot

Hoysted Hacker, John Cabot, Andrew Cabot, Edward Allen

Job Prince, Jr., Timothy Newman [NRAR, 242]

As witness:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/20/82

MA

Brigantine Montgomery

James Barr, Jr.

John Fisk

James Barr, Jr., John Fisk, James Carey

Edward Allen, Joseph Mackintire [NRAR, 397]

8/20/82

MA

Brig Juno (12/16)

John Felt

John Fisk et al

John Felt, John Fisk, James Carey

Daniel Hathorne, Edward Allen [NRAR, 364]


ALLEN, EDWARD

SC

Captain, South Carolina Navy


Edward Allen was master of the brig Industry, captured 25 March 1776 in the West Indies by HMS Squirrel. He was commissioned to the South Carolina Navy Brigantine Comet by vote of the South Carolina General Assembly on 10 October 1776, and was ordered to round up his crew and sail. By 7 November 1776 he had been ordered to patrol off the Georgia-Florida coast. By 5 December 1776 he was back in Charleston with prize sloop George and prize schooner Maria. After recruiting Allen sailed again about 16 January 1777. Allen took a ship from Honduras (which made Charleston on 20 February 1777), another ship, and a snow (which safely arrived in Charleston). By 23 February the Comet was back in Charleston. He was at sea again in April and May, returning to Charleston on 31 May 1777. During this cruise Allen's Comet fought actions with the Apalachicola (21 May) and sloop Rebecca and a transport ship (25 or 27 May). Allen was ordered to sea again on 20 June. Comet was in Rebellion Road on 17 July 1777. Allen was at Charleston on 2 October 1777, preparing to sail. [NDAR, X, 20]


ALLEN, JACOB

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Jacob Allen was possibly a native of Cape Ann (Gloucester), Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Langdon on 28 August 1776. [Allen, MPR, 201]


ALLEN, JEREMIAH

[see YELLOTT, JEREMIAH]


ALLEN, JESSE

MA

First Lieutenant, Massachusetts Privateers


Jesse Allen was a resident of Manchester and Beverly, Massachusetts. He served as First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Franklin (Commander JOHN LEACH), commissioned on 15 October 1778. [However JACOB OLIVER was said to be aboard at the same time, with the same job.] Allen then served in the same capacity on the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Pilgrim (Commander JOSEPH ROBINSON), commissioned 14 August 1782. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424]


ALLEN, JOHN

MA

[Prize Master], Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Allen was serving aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hawke (Commander Jeremiah Hibbert) as a Prize Master in 1777. Hawke sailed from Newburyport, Massachusetts on 26 July 1777, proceeding to Spain and taking several prizes en route. Hawke arrived at Corunna about 24 September 1777. Hawke was at sea in late October or early November 1777. She captured the ship Brittania (John Wood). Hibbert removed the entire crew and put his own men aboard, appointing Allen as prize master. Allen carried the Brittania into St. Sebastian, Spain. He brought her in under American colors and reported she was from Newburyport, Massachusetts. Unfortunately for Allen, another vessel was in the harbor under one John Hooper, who had sailed in the same convoy with Brittania. Hooper knew she was the property of John Goss of Teignmouth, England. When Hooper found out how she had entered the port he reported to the commandant of the port that she was falsely entered. He filled out an affidavit and Allen and his crew were arrested and jailed. Brittania was detained pending further inquiry. [NDAR, X, 1157 and note] On 25 December 1777 Arthur Lee appealed to the Spanish Ambassador to France, Conde de Aranda, to forward to his court a request for the release of the Americans.  Lee noted that Allen was “condemned on his own confession, which he was obliged to make and sign in a language of which he understood not a word.” When Hibbert sent his first lieutenant, Marston Watson, with a copy of his commission, the commandant only said he would not comply with what was requested. [NDAR, X, 1145-1146 and 1146 note] Allen and his crew eventually got clear of the Spanish prison by July 1778. [NDAR, XI, 879 and notes] Unfortunately, Hawke and Hibbert were captured by the British in April 1778. [NOAR, 149] This is probably the same John Allen who commanded the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Newbury. He was captured by HMS Alarm about November 1782. [NOAR, 4]


ALLEN, JOSEPH [JOSHUA]

RI

Acting Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Joseph (or Joshua) Allen was aboard the Continental Navy Sloop Providence (Captain HOYSTED HACKER) in November 1776 as an Acting Lieutenant. He was aboard during the Cape Breton Expedition. Allen was assigned as prize master of the snow Kitty on 15 November 1776. [NDAR, VII, 160-161] Kitty  parted company in the afternoon of 15 November, bound for Newport. Allen got down to the Nantucket Shoals area where he was recaptured by HM Frigate Unicorn (Captain John Ford). [NDAR, VIII, 613; VII, 844-845] Before Unicorn's prize crew could get her into port, she was captured again, by Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Reprisal (Commander JOHN WHEELWRIGHT). [NDAR, VII, 906-907; VII, 844-845] The privateer sent Kitty into Boston, where she arrived 27 December. [NDAR, VII, 844-845]


ALLEN, JOSHUA

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joshua Allen, a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Betsey on 20 November 1779. [NRAR, 235] He then commanded the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Neptune, commissioned 17 August 1780. [NRAR, 403] Listing his age as 39, [NOAR, 4] Allen next commanded the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Lydia, commissioned 18 August 1781. [NRAR, 380]


ALLEN, OLIVER

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Oliver Allen was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop True Blue on 28 October 1776. [Allen, MPR, 307]


ALLEN, RICHARD

[see CONYNGHAM, GUSTAVUS]


ALLEN, THOMAS

CT

[see ALLON, THOMAS]


ALLEN, THOMAS

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


According to Society of the Cincinnati. [NOAR, 4] Also listed in Stewart, 140.


ALLEN, WILLIAM

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


William Allen is listed as a resident of Biddeford, Massachusetts. He was listed as an owner of the following vessel:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/26/76

MA

Sloop Putnam (4/45)

John Harmon

Joseph Morrill, Thomas Donnell, Ebenezer Norwood, William Allen,  James Scamman

John Harmon, Ebenezer Prout, David Sewall

[Allen, MPR, 245-246]


ALLEN, WILLIAM

PA

Midshipman, Continental Navy

Captain, Pennsylvania Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


William Allen was a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 259] He was a Midshipman aboard Continental Navy Sloop Providence (Captain HOYSTED HACKER) in November 1776. [NOAR, 4] On 15 May 1777 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Navy Ship Montgomery, [NOAR, 4]. Allen advertised for a deserter on 26 June 1777. [NDAR, IX, 178] Montgomery was with the mixed Pennsylvania Navy-Continental Navy fleet at Mud Island on 10 October 1777. [NDAR, X, 112 and note] Allen signed a petition to the Pennsylvania Supreme Executive Council, requesting provision to be made for sailors injured or maimed in service, on 8 January 1778. [NDAR, XI, 65] On 3 June 1779, he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Convention. [NRAR, 259] On 13 June 1782 Allen was the leading signatory on a petition to the Continental Congress from masters of vessels captured by the British. The masters noted that over a thousand prisoners were at New York and prayed Congress to make arrangements for their exchange. [NRAR, 190-191]


ALLEN, WILLIAM

SC

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


William Allen was in command of the South Carolina Privateer Sloop Family Trader at an unknown date,  [Coker, 300] but presumably in 1776 or early 1777.


ALLIBONE, WILLIAM

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers

[Commissioner, Pennsylvania Navy]


William Allibone was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was listed among the co-owners of the Pennsylvania Privateer Xebec General Wayne (Commander ROBERT COLLINGS) on 31 August 1779. [NRAR, 315] He served as a security for the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig General Wayne (Commander JOHN RICE) on 28 March 1780. [NRAR, 315] Allibone was listed among the co-owners of the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner John (Commander STEPHEN TINKER) on 9 July 1781. [NRAR, 359] He served as a security for the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Totten (Commander THOMAS BLUNDELL) on 17 August 1781. [NRAR, 476] Allibone is listed as a co-owner of the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Betsey (Commander GEORGE DAMES) on 3 November 1781. [NRAR, 237] He served as a security again, for the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Hyder Ally (Commander HENRY HAWKINS) on 28 November 1781 When Hyder Ally was re-commissioned under Commander JOSHUA BARNEY on 2 April 1782, Allibone was listed as co-owner. [NRAR, 348] He was still listed in that capacity when she was re-commissioned under Commander JUSTUS STARR on 27 April 1782. [NRAR, 349] However, this was surely in her capacity as a Pennsylvania Navy vessel, for Allibone was one of three commissioners appointed to fit out vessels for the defense of the trade. [Maclay, 179]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/31/79

PA

Xebec General Wayne (3/70)

Robert Collings

John Hazelwood, William Allibone & Co.

John Hazelwood, William Allibone

James Trimble [NRAR, 315]

7/9/81

PA

Schooner John (4/12)

Stephen Tinker

William Allibone, Alexander Stewart, Robert Totten, John Wright Stanly

William Allibone, Stephen Tinker

James Trimble [NRAR, 359]

11/3/81

PA

Schooner Betsey (4/12)

George Dames

William Allibone, John Wright Stanly et al

William Allibone, George Dames

James Trimble [NRAR, 237]

4/2/82

PA

Ship Hyder Ally (16/100)

Joshua Barney

Thomas Fitzsimons, Francis Gurney, William Allibone

Joshia Barney, William Allibone

James Trimble [NRAR, 348]

4/27/82

PA

Ship Hyder Ally (16/100)

Justus Starr

Thomas Fitzsimons, Francis Gurney, William Allibone

Francis Gurney, Justus Starr

James Trimble [NRAR, 349]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

3/28/80

PA

Brig General Wayne (12/60)

John Rice

John Hazelwood & Co.

John Hazelwood, William Allibone

James Trimble [NRAR, 315]

8/17/81

PA

Brigantine Totten (8/20)

Thomas Blundell

John Wright Stanly, Stewart & Totten

Thomas Blundell, William Allibone

James Trimble [NRAR, 476]

11/28/81

PA

Ship Hyder Ally (12/40)

Henry Hawkins

John Wright Stanly, John Wilcocks, Nicholas Low

William Allibone, Henry Hawkins

James Trimble [NRAR, 348]


ALLINE, BENJAMIN

[See ALLEN, BENJAMIN]


ALLISON, BLANEY


PA/(P/A)

Midshipman, Pennsylvania Navy

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


Blaney Allison was a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was the nephew of Dr. Francis Allison, Vice Provost and Professor of Moral Philosophy of the College of Philadelphia and Chaplain of the Continental Congress. On 26 February 1776 he was appointed as a Midshipman in the Pennsylvania Navy, being assigned to the Pennsylvania Navy Ship Montgomery. In August 1776 he was discharged to “go with Captain Read” into Continental service. He served as a Master's Mate under Read on the Continental Navy Ship Washington. On 20 December 1776 he was promoted to Lieutenant, still serving aboard the Washington. Following the loss of the Washington in November 1777, Allison's record is vague. Allen sat on the courts-martial of five deserters on 25 November 1777. [NDAR, X, 598-601] He was a prisoner in New York at one time. [Clark, First Saratoga, 35] He was assigned to the Continental Navy Ship Saratoga (Captain JOHN YOUNG) in July 1780 as Second Lieutenant. [Clark, First Saratoga, 154] About November 1780 Allison was promoted to First Lieutenant, succeeding the captured JOSHUA BARNEY, and being replaced by JAMES PYNE. [Clark, First Saratoga, 110]  Allison was aboard the Saratoga when she vanished at sea on 18 March 1781 with her crew.


ALLISON, JOHN

VA

Captain of Marines, Virginia Marines


John Allison was a resident of Alexandria, Virginia. [Stewart, 140] He was appointed as a Captain of Marines in the Potomac River Department (aboard the Virginia Navy Sloop American Congress) on 22 March 1776, by the Virginia Council of Safety. [NDAR, IV, 457; Stewart, 9, 140] His juniors were First Lieutenant of Marines WILLIAM PAYNE, JR., and Second Lieutenant of Marines JAMES MOODY. [NDAR, IV, 457].  By 2 April 1776 Allison had raised his company of Marines and was drilling them. [Cross, 26] He was aboard the American Congress on 4 September 1776, when the American Congress was lying near Norfolk. [Stewart, 16]. He may have left the American Congress about October 1776. According to one source the Virginia Marines were disbanded in December 1776. [Sanchez-Saavedra "A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution. 1774-1787"] He was a Major in the 1st Virginia State Regiment on 3 March 1777 and a Lieutenant Colonel on 1 February 1778. He served until February, 1781. [Heitman] Another source lists him as Major 1st Virginia State from 5 June 1777 to 2 February 1778, and Lieutenant Colonel February 1778 to February 1782. [Sanchez-Saavedra "A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution. 1774-1787"] According to Stewart, Allison was a Lieutenant Colonel in the land forces from 18 April 1776 to 6 February 1778. [Stewart, 140, but see above. Perhaps this should be amended to 18 April 1777.] He married Rebecca McCrea in 1788 and died in Wilkes County, Georgia on 16 April 1803. [Stewart, 140]


ALLON [ALLEN], THOMAS

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Thomas Allon was a native of New London. [NRAR, 312]  A Thomas Allon of North Carolina was a security for the South Carolina Privateer Schooner Bachelor (Commander Nathaniel Bently) on 13 August 1777. Bently was a native of Rhode Island. [NRAR, 231] Allon was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Ship General Putnam on 23 April 1778. [NRAR, 312] He acted as a security for the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Nancy (Commander MICHAEL MELALLY), spelling his name Thomas Allen, on the same day. Both these vessels were owned by Nathaniel Shaw, Jr. [NRAR, 398] He subsequently captured six British brigs. [NOAR, 4]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/13/77

SC

Schooner Bachelor (4/14)

Nathaniel Bentley

Alexander Rose

Nathaniel Bentley, Alexander Rose, Thomas Allon

Nathaniel Peabody, Ebenezer Thompson [NRAR, 231]

4/23/78

CT

Brigantine Nancy (16/100)

Michael Melally

Nathaniel Shaw, Jr.

Michael Melally, Nathaniel Shaw, Jr, Thomas Allen

[NRAR, 198]


ALMY, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Almy was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. On 10 April 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Chance. [Allen, MPR, 96] In May 1781 Almy (and presumably the Chance) was captured by the British vessel Admiral Edwards. [NOAR, 4]


AMBROSE, ISRAEL

Commander, [unknown] Privateers


Israel Ambrose and Peter Simon sent a petition to the Continental Congress, dated 1 May 1776, concerning the capture of the sloop Sally, along with an inventory of the vessel and cargo. [NRAR, 11] Ambrose commanded the [unknown] Privateer Snow Bird in the fall of 1776, when he captured the sloop Swallow. [NOAR, 5]


AMIEL, PETER

(A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


A Lieutenant in 1776. [NOAR, 5]


ANABEL, CORNELIUS

[See ANNABLE, CORNELIUS]


ANABIL, CORNELIUS

[See ANNABLE, CORNELIUS]


ANABLE, CORNELIUS

[See ANNABLE, CORNELIUS]


“ANDERSON & CO.”

Owner, Virginia Privateers


“Anderson & Co.” is listed as the owner of the Virginia Privateer Brig Goldfinder (Commander NICHOLAS B. SEABROOK) on 1 March 1782. [NRAR, 318]


ANDERSON, CHARLES

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Charles Anderson, a resident of Boston, Massachusetts, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Little John on 23 August 1779. [Allen, MPR, 207]


ANDERSON, DAVID

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


David Anderson is listed as a Lieutenant in the Virginia Navy in the rolls of the Society of the Cincinnati. [NOAR, 5] On 11 March 1778, the Virginia Navy Board ordered that he receive certain articles of clothing for the use of the crew of the Virginia Navy Ship Dragon. [NDAR, XI, 606] He is described as a Midshipman in the NDAR index.


ANDERSON, EPHRAIM

NY

[Agent, Continental Army]


On 31 July 1776 Ephraim Anderson, at New York, sent a letter to John Hancock concerning preparation of fire ships to attack the British. [NRAR, 14]


ANDERSON, JAMES

MD

Lieutenant, Maryland Navy

Master, Maryland Privateers


James Anderson was enlisted as sailing master (Master) on the Maryland Privateer Schooner Harlequin (Commander JAMES HANDY), commissioned on 11 October 1776. [NRAR, 326] Possibly the same James Anderson, as Lieutenant in the Maryland Navy, reported on the condition of Maryland Navy Galley Baltimore, on 19 August 1777. [NDAR, IX, 768] Perhaps this is the same James Anderson who was accused of selling public stores as though they were his own, in a letter from the Navy Board of the Middle Department to the Marine Committee, dated 7 October 1779. [NRAR, 119]


ANDERSON, JOHN

MA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


John Anderson was possibly from Cape Ann (Gloucester), Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Virginia Privateer Schooner Protector on 2 September 1782. [NRAR, 422]


ANDERSON, LUKE

VA

[Midshipman], Virginia Navy


Luke Anderson was apparently a Midshipman in the Virginia Navy. He served on Virginia Navy Brig Jefferson from December 1779 to 20 January 1780. [Stewart, 140-141]


ANDERSON, THOMAS

CT

Lieutenant of Marines, Connecticut Privateers


Thomas Anderson served aboard the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Marshall (Commander NOAH SCOVELL), commissioned 6 March 1783, as “Officer of Marines.” He should be considered as a Lieutenant of Marines. [NOAR, 5] During the following cruise the brigantine Hope was captured. [see Marshall


ANDREW, GEORGE

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


George Andrew, of Marblehead, Massachusetts, was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Porcupine on 22 April 1779. [Allen, MPR, 243]


ANDREW, JOHN

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


John Andrew, of Salem, Massachusetts, is listed (with “others”) as the owner of the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Rattlesnake (Commander MARK CLARK) on 12 June 1781. [NRAR, 432] He is listed as a security for the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Recovery (Commander WILLIAM DENNIS) on 6 December 1782. [NRAR, 435]

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/12/.81

MA

Ship Rattlesnake (20/85)

Mark Clark

John Andrew et al

Mark Clark, John Andrew, Francis Boardman

Jeremiah Hall, Caleb Beall [NRAR, 432]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/6/82

MA

Brigantine Recovery (6/16)

William Dennis

Samuel Jones et al

William Dennis, Samuel Jones, John Andrew

John Brooks, Samuel Webb [NRAR, 435]


ANDREWS, ISHMAEL

VA

Second Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Ishmael Andrews was Second Lieutenant aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Accomac (Captain WILLIAM UNDERHILL), being recommended by the Virginia Navy Board on 16 October 1777. [NDAR, XI, 1153-1168; Stewart, 141] JAMES MILLINER was still aboard the Accomac as First Lieutenant in August 1778, but evidently left soon after, [Stewart, 225] Andrews was promoted to First Lieutenant. Early in 1779 Andrews was in command of the Accomac while the galley was at Chincoteague Inlet. A British vessel was captured and the commander brought aboard the Accomac. This man surely possessed one of history’s golden tongues: after a private conversation with Andrews he was returned to his vessel, supplied with gunpowder from the galley’s magazine, and the prize was liberated. The released British captain sailed to Metompkin Bay and launched a raid on the local plantations. The British were chased off.  Second Lieutenant ROBERT MILLINER of the Accomac resigned from the galley on account of Andrew’s behavior. Andrews was duly arrested for “forgery and bribery” and tried, convicted, and sentenced to death by a court-martial. The Virginia Navy Board “on examining find that the atrocities of which he was convicted, were not cognizable by any of the regulations for the government of the Navy of this State, have thought proper to remit the punishment ordered by the Court Martial have discharged him with ignominy and disgrace from the service, and have turned him over to the civil power for farther trial.” [Stewart, 68-69 and 68 note] He was discharged on 10 February 1779. [Stewart, 141]


ANDREWS, JEDEDIAH

CT

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


Jedediah Andrews of New Haven, Connecticut, [NOAR, 5] was aboard the Connecticut Privateer Sloop Wooster (Commander EBENEZER PECK) in February 1778. [NDAR, XI, 390-391 and 391 note] Andrews later commanded the Connecticut Privateer Boat Kingfisher. On 20 May 1781 he captured the British sloop Eley on the south side of Long Island. [NOAR, 5]


ANDREWS, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Andrews was born in 1755, [NOAR, 5] and was a resident of Cape Ann, Massachusetts. On 7 February 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Tryall. [Allen, MPR, 309] He died in 1807. [NOAR, 5]


ANDREWS, NEHEMIAH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nehemiah Andrews was a native of Salem. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Salem on 29 October 1780. [Allen, MPR, 271]


ANDREWS, WILLIAM

[Master, ]


William Andrews commanded the vessel Lydia. In the summer of 1777 he received a cargo at Bilbao, Spain, addressed to Elbridge Gerry, consisting of cloth, blankets, anchors, cable and cordage. This cargo was part of Spanish aid to the colonies. [NDAR, X, 1130-1131]


ANDRUS, MOSES, JR.

CT

[Owner], Connecticut Privateers


Moses Andrus, Jr. was a resident of Wethersfield, Connecticut.  He was associated in privateering with SAMUEL BORDMAN. Vessels associated with Andrus were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

1/10/78

CT

Schooner Independence (4/15)

Josiah Coombs

Samuel Bordman & Co.

Samuel Bordman, Josiah Coombs, Moses Andrus, Jr.

Ezekiel Williams, Emily Williams [NRAR, 350]


ANGEL [ANGELL], JAMES

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Navy

Commander, Connecticut Privateers


James Angel (Angell) was a native of New London, born about 1744. He was described as 5'7" tall, pitted with smallpox, and with black hair, in 1781. [NOAR, 5-6] Before the war he was a merchant skipper, sailing for Nathaniel Shaw Jr. of New London in the West Indies trade. [NDAR, I, 144-145, 147] [quote X, 649] He was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the Connecticut Navy and was aboard the Connecticut Navy Brig Defence (Captain SAMUEL SMEDLEY) from 7 February 1776 until he was discharged on 15 June 1777. His pay was £30.02.00. [NDAR, IX, 116-118] Angel promptly re-enlisted for the next cruise and was at Boston with the Defence in November 1777. [NDAR, X, 485 and note] Angel served aboard the Connecticut Privateer Sloop American Revenue (Commander SAMUEL CHAMPLIN) as First Lieutenant. She was captured on 6 August 1779 by HM Frigate Greyhound. Angel was exchanged on 25 August. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 52-53] Angel served as First Lieutenant on the Connecticut Privateer Ship Recovery (Commander Samuel Smedley). He was captured again, on 23 March 1780 and taken to New York. [NOAR, 5-6] After being exchanged again, he was commissioned, on 3 July 1781, to command the Connecticut Privateer Brigantine Minerva. [NRAR, 393] On 11 October 1781 he recaptured the brig Rose. On 10 June 1782 Angel was placed in command of Connecticut Navy Ship Retaliation, a prison vessel. [NOAR, 5-6]


ANGELL, JAMES

[see ANGEL, JAMES]


ANGUS, JOHN


PA (P)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Maryland Privateers

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Angus was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 265] He was appointed as a Lieutenant aboard the Continental Navy Ship Washington (Captain THOMAS READ) to replace JOHN NICHOLSON, who left in mid-October 1776. Angus signed the original Lieutenant's Petition of 15 May 1777, but did not endorse the “strike” paper of 21 July 1777. [xx] He was the only naval officer aboard the Washington on 26 October 1777. There was only a skeleton crew aboard the incomplete frigate, which was laid up abreast Whitehill. [NDAR, X,312] Presumably he left the service after the frigate was scuttled on 2 November 1777, and was later destroyed by the British. [Smith, Marines, 416] He was commissioned as commander of the Maryland Privateer Brig Delaware on 28 March 1778, a vessel of ten guns and thirty men. Delaware was owned by Joseph Williams and other citizens of Maryland (probably from the Annapolis area.) [NRAR, 265] Angus was appointed to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Hibernia on 1 July 1779, with ten guns and forty men in her crew. Hibernia was owned by Benjamin Harbeson & Co. of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 337] While on a voyage to Tenerife, Hibernia fought an action with a 16-gun snow, beating off the stranger. Shortly after, she was attacked by two armed schooners and a sloop, again beating off the enemy. Hibernia lost two killed and eight wounded. [Maclay, 134] Angus' third privateer command was the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Minerva, of eighteen guns and a crew of sixty men. Angus was commissioned to her on 18 December 1779. Minerva was owned by Mathew and Thomas Irwin & Co. of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 392] On 18 December 1780 Angus became commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Franklin, a large vessel of eighteen guns and a crew of ninety men. Franklin was owned by Jonathan Mifflin and Anthony Butler & Co. of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 303] On 4 January 1783, Angus was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Ship Caroline, with sixteen guns and a crew of sixty men. [NOAR, 6]


ANNABIL, CORNELIUS

[See ANNABLE, CORNELIUS]


ANNABLE [ANABLE, ANABIL, ANNABIL, ANABEL], CORNELIUS

CT

[Owner], Connecticut Privateers


Cornelius Annable [Anable, Anabil, Annabil, Anabel] was a resident of Connecticut. On 21 February 1778 he was one of several petitioners to the Continental Congress respecting the capture of a vessel called the Tryal, during the raid on New Providence by Continental Navy Sloop Providence in early 1778, with a claim for prize money. At that time he was in Newbern, North Carolina. [NRAR, 66; NDAR, XI, 400 and note] He was associated in privateering with AARON KELLOGG and JONATHAN DEMING. Vessels associated with Annable were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/28/81

CT

Schooner Freedom (12/60)

Shubael Brainerd

Jonathan Deming & Co.

Shubael Brainerd, Aaron Kellogg, Cornelius Annable

John Porter, Jabez Huntington, Jr. [NRAR, 194]


ANTHONY, HEZEKIAH

[SC] [PA]

Captain, South Carolina Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers

Commander, South Carolina Privateers


Hezekiah Anthony was probably a New Englander. [Coker, 88] He was commissioned on 10 August 1776 as First Lieutenant aboard the South Carolina Navy Brigantine Comet. After making a cruise in the Comet, Anthony failed to report for duty for Comet''s next cruise. About 10 December 1776 he nevertheless applied for his pay, from 10 August to 10 December. Six days later the South Carolina Navy Board ordered Anthony to either report to the Comet as Second Lieutenant; to report to the South Carolina Navy Schooner Rattlesnake as First Lieutenant; or to resign his commission. Anthony evidently resigned his commission, for, on 16 February 1777, he was commissioned to the South Carolina Privateer Sloop General Washington. [NDAR, IX, 237-239 and 239 note] She sailed for the French West Indies in the spring of 1777. General Washington arrived at Môle Saint-Nicholas, St. Domingue, about 18 May 1777, with two unidentified sloops taken en route. Both were sold at Môle Saint-Nicholas.  After delivering his cargo, Anthony set out on a very successful cruise around Jamaica. Anthony returned to Beaufort, South Carolina on 9 July, being chased in by HM Frigate Galatea. General Washington was soon back at sea, and, on 7 September 1777, fought the 12-gun brig Pensacola. Although General Washington knocked several of her gun ports into one, the Pensacola was too much for the weakly-manned General Washington. The British shot up her rigging and covered her decks with grape-shot. Finally, at 1000, Anthony had his men row General Washington out of action and made off. The Americans were fortunate to have no casualties. Anthony steered west and raided the Bay of Honduras settlements, taking two prizes. On 22 September Anthony was in the Bay of Honduras, where General Washington fought the armed snow Peggy. Peggy’s main topgallant mast was shot off but she escaped, sailing fast in a heavy sea. Turning toward home, Anthony evidently called at Môle Saint-Nicholas, St. Domingue and then steered north for Charleston. On 12 October 1777, Anthony met the sloop General Howe (Underwood). General Howe was armed with six guns and six swivels, and was sailing in company with an armed ship, the Fame, which was a great distance away. General Washington ran alongside but Underwood chose to fight. A short, fierce battle of thirty minutes followed. General Washington was hit in the hull and took three shots in her mast, and had her sails and rigging shot up. One man was killed and two wounded. General Howe surrendered and the Americans boarded her, but the Fame was sighted coming up. After being aboard seven hours the Americans relinquished the prize, after throwing her guns overboard. General Washington arrived at Charleston on 30 October 1777. [see General Washington] Following this very full and successful cruise Anthony left the General Washington, taking up a temporary appointment as a Captain in the South Carolina Navy, to command the hired privateer Sally. [NDAR, X, 750 and note] In December 1777 he was in command of the brig Polly, which was taken into South Carolina service to go on the Randolph expedition. Anthony was ordered to recruit his crew to ninety men. The expedition finally sailed on 12 February 1778. Following the fatal battle between the Randolph and the Yarmouth, Anthony safely returned to Charleston in April 1778. [Smith, Marines, 163-166] Anthony is also listed as the second commander of the South Carolina Privateer Brig Bellona. [Coker, 300] On 2 October 1780 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Cutter Hazard, listing his address as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 330;  NOAR, 6]


APPLETON, BENJAMIN

NC

Commander, North Carolina Privateers


Benjamin Appleton, presumably of North Carolina, was in command of the North Carolina Privateer Sloop Lydia in October 1777, owned by JOHN WRIGHT STANLY of New Bern, North Carolina. She sailed for Guadeloupe, French West Indies in the fall of 1777, and captured a large ship with slaves en route. [NDAR, X, 628 and note] On 20 October 1777 Lydia was captured by HM Frigate Daphne (Captain St. John Chinnery) and sent into Pensacola, Florida. [NDAR, X, 230]


APPLEBY, ROBERT

First Lieutenant, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Robert Appleby was First Lieutenant and commanding officer of the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Gondola New York, on 26 June 1777, at Fort Ticonderoga. [NDAR, IX, 174] Appleby apparently succeeded NATHAN COOPER in early March 1777. [NDAR, VIII, 954] The New York was presumably destroyed to prevent capture on 7 July 1777, during the Action at Skenesborough.


APPLEWHAITE, JOHN

[See APPLEWHITE, JOHN]


APPLEWHITE [APPLEWHAITE], JOHN

VA

Surgeon, Virginia Navy


John Applewhite (Applewhaite) was a resident of Isle of Wight County, Virginia. He served as Surgeon’s Mate (along with JONATHAN CALVERT and JOHN ORR) to Dr. JOHN RAMSAY. He was one of two surgeons retained after the close of the war. [Stewart, 141]


ARBOUSIER

[See D’ARBOUSIER]


ARBULA, JUAN JOSEPH DE

[see DE ARBULA, JUAN JOSEPH]


ARBULU, JUAN JOSEPH DE

[see DE ARBULA, JUAN JOSEPH]


ARCHER, JOHN

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


John Archer was a resident of Falmouth, Massachusetts [Maine]. He served as a bonder for Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Blackfish (Commander JAMES DILWORTH).

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/7/79

MA

Sloop Blackfish (4/12)

James Dilworth

Ebenezer Preble

James Dilworth, Enoch Ilsley, John Archer

[Allen, MPR, 83]


ARCHER, JOHN

VA

Second Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


John Archer was recommended on 2 January 1777 as Second Lieutenant aboard the Virginia Navy Sloop Scorpion. On 27 August 1777 he was recommended as Second Lieutenant aboard the Virginia Navy Galley Gloucester. [Stewart, 141] He was later a First Lieutenant on the Virginia Navy Sloop Liberty. [Stewart, 49 note, 141] He was captured by the British and imprisoned at New York. He returned to Virginia about the time of the surrender at Yorktown. On 12 May 1792 he married Elizabeth Calvert and died on 18 October 1793. [Stewart, 141]


ARDEL, PHILIP


[See ARDLE, PHILIP]


ARDLE [ARDEL], PHILIP

PA

Second Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Navy


Philip Ardle [Ardel], a Second Lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Navy, was absent on 1 December 1776. [NOAR, 6] On 3 July 1777, as Second Lieutenant aboard the Pennsylvania Navy Galley Effingham, his verdict of guilty in a court-martial and sentence to be cashiered, was confirmed by the Pennsylvania Navy Board. [NDAR, IX, 214]


ARELL, JOHN

VA

Captain, Virginia Marines


John Arell was a resident of Fairfax County, Virginia. He was a Captain in the Virginia Marines, succeeding VALENTINE PEERS, who resigned. [Stewart, 141] He was aboard the American Congress. [Stewart,235]


ARELL, SAMUEL

VA

Captain, Virginia Marines


Samuel Arell was a resident of Fairfax County, Virginia. [Stewart, 141] He was commissioned in October 1776 as a Lieutenant of Marines in the Virginia Marines. [NOAR, 6] He was a lieutenant of Marines on 13 November 1776. [Stewart, 141] On 19 December 1776 he was promoted to Captain of Marines. [NOAR, 6]


ARMISTEAD, THOMAS

VA

First Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


Thomas Armistead was commissioned on 5 July 1776 as [First] Lieutenant on the Virginia Navy Galley Henry commanded by Captain ROBERT TOMPKINS. [NOAR, 6] Alternatively he was a Lieutenant of Virginia Marines in 1776. He was possibly from Richmond, and died in 1809, if all these scattered references are to the same person. [Stewart, 142]


ARMISTEAD, WILLIAM

VA

[Owner], Virginia Privateers


William Armistead was presumably a resident of Virginia. He was associated in privateering with “BAKER & BLOW.” Vessels associated with Armistead were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/30/81

MA

Schooner Count de Grasse (14/80)

Alexander Stockdale

Baker & Blow

Alexander Stockdale, William Armistead

Charles Hay [NRAR, 260]


ARMITAGE, JAMES


PA/(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Armitage was born in 1720. [NOAR, 6] Armitage commanded the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Chance, commissioned about May 1776, a vessel of six guns and thirty-five men. [NDAR, 6, 1092-1093 and 1093 note] His only prize was ship William (John Bond), captured about September 1776. [NDAR, 6, 1092-1093 and 1093 note, 1107-1108; 8, 520] He was appointed a lieutenant in the Continental Navy, evidently, about January 1777, [conclusion] when he was about 56. He signed a petition of the various Navy lieutenants in Philadelphia, directed to the Marine Committee, protesting certain conditions of the service. After the Marine Committee had had the petition for some time, but before it had determined on what was to be done, twelve of the lieutenants, including Armitage, signed a letter to Captain JOHN BARRY, dated 21 July 1777, refusing to do duty until their “grievances” were redressed. Barry turned the letter over to the Marine Committee, which presented it to the Continental Congress. On 23 July Congress decided such combinations for the purpose of extorting pay and allowances from the public were “of the most dangerous tendency,” and immediately resolved to cancel the lieutenant's commissions, and cashier them [NDAR, IX, 321] This was scarcely the result expected by the lieutenants. They now petitioned for reinstatement, and, one by one, were called before the Marine Committee to make an abject apology and acknowledge their crime. After all had done this, Congress, on 28 July, ordered them reinstated. [NDAR, IX, 347] Armitage sat on the courts-martial of several Continental Navy deserters, held at Bordentown, New Jersey on 26 November 1777. [NDAR, X, 598-601] He was appointed commander of the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Sally (fourteen guns, thirty men) on 21 May 1779. Sally was owned by Joseph C. Fish and Thomas Leaming & Co. of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 452] His second privateering command was the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine James, on 10 July 1780, a vessel of six guns and thirty men. James was owned by John Pringle and Thomas Truxtun & Co. of Philadelphia. [NRAR, 355] He died in 1805. [NOAR, 6]


ARMITAGE, SHEWBART [SHUBERT, SHAWBERT]

PA

Lieutenant of Marines, Pennsylvania Privateers


Shewbart (Shubert, Shawbert) Armitage was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He served aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Greyhound (Commander JOHN KEMP), out of Philadelphia, as Lieutenant of Marines (or as a seaman). Greyhound was apparently captured by the British for Armitage was committed to Mill Prison on 9 January 1781. [Kaminkow, 6]


ARMSTRONG, THOMAS

PA

First Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Privateers


Thomas Armstrong was born about 1755. [NOAR, 7] He was appointed as First Lieutenant aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Brig Fame (Commander URIAH SMITH) on 2 December 1780. [NRAR, 288] In March 1781 the Fame was captured by the British. [NOAR, 7]


ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


William Armstrong was a native of Newburyport. On 29 September 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Porga. [NRAR, 419] In early 1781 he commanded the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Peggy. [Allen, MPR, 214] On 30 April 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Little Porga. [NRAR, 375] On 28 May 1781 Armstrong witnessed a bond for the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hibernia (Commander Jeremiah O'Brien), [NRAR, 338] and for the Massachusetts Privateer Cutter Salamander (Commander John O'Brien). [NRAR, 450] In November 1781 he was captured by the Guernsey. [NOAR, 7] On 13 August 1782 he witnessed a bond for the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Resolution (Commander John Odiorne). [NRAR, 437] Two days later he witnessed a bond for the Newburyport owned Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Black Prince (Commander George Rendall). [NRAR, 240]


ARNOLD, ALFRED

RI

Commander, Rhode Island Privateers


Following the end of the war, Arnold married Almy Reed, daughter of Oliver Reed, another ship master, in July 1783 [The Providence Gazette and the Country Journal, July 5, 1783]


ARNOLD, BENEDICT

CT

Brigadier General, Continental Army [Commodore, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron]


Was co-owner of Connecticut Privateer Ship General McDougall (Commander JOSEPH JAUNCEY) commissioned 6 April 1778. [NRAR, 311]


ARNOLD, DAVID

Master, Massachusetts Privateers


David Arnold was Master [Kaminkov, 6] probably aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Angelica (Commander WILLIAM DAVIS), in May, June, or July 1778. [NOAR, 85] Angelica was at sea about June 1778 when she encountered the British ship Andromeda, in which General Howe was returning home to England. Angelica was captured, the crew removed and the ship burned. Andromeda arrived at Portsmouth with her prisoners on 2 July 1778. [Allen, MPR, 74]


ARNOLD, FREGIFT

PA

Mate, Continental Navy


Fregift Arnold was a Mate aboard the Continental Navy Ship Alliance. He was captured by the British in a prize and confined to Forton Prison on 9 February 1780. [Kaminkow, 6]


ARNOLD, JAMES

NH

Commander, New Hampshire Privateers


James Arnold was a native of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. On 5 July 1777 he was commissioned to the New Hampshire Privateer Schooner Mary. [NRAR, 387]


ARNOLD, JOSHUA [JOSIAH]

Lieutenant, [unknown]


Lieutenant Joshua (Josiah) Arnold was captured by the British and confined to Forton Prison (near Portsmouth, England) on 18 February 1779. He was pardoned (a British fiction necessary before an exchange) on 11 December 1779. [Kaminkow, 6]


ARNOLD, NATHANIEL

CT

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Nathaniel Arnold was a native of Salisbury, Connecticut. On 14 April 1781 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Boat Jack, operating out of Newburyport, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 354]


ARNOLD, RHODES

RI (P/A)

First Lieutenant, Continental Navy

[First] Lieutenant, Rhode Island Navy


Rhodes Arnold was a native of Rhode Island. He was a lieutenant aboard the Rhode Island Navy Sloop Katy on 23 July 1775. [NDAR, I, 955-956] On 20 November 1775 he enlisted in the Continental Navy [NDAR, VII, 142-154] and sailed with the Katy to Philadelphia, arriving 3 December 1775. [NDAR, II, 1255] He was appointed First Lieutenant on the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (ABRAHAM WHIPPLE), and commissioned by Congress on 22 December 1775, as the second ranking First Lieutenant. [NDAR, III, 207-208 and 208 note; VII, 142-154] Arnold participated in the New Providence Expedition and the Battle off Block Island and sat on Whipple's court-martial aboard the Continental Navy Ship Alfred (DUDLEY SALTONSTALL) on 6 May 1776, and on Captain JOHN HAZARD's court-martial on the Alfred, on 8 May, both at Providence, Rhode Island. Arnold had left the ship by the end of April 1776, but he was discharged at Providence on 1 June 1776. [NDAR, VII, 142-154] He was succeeded by EZEKIAL BURROUGHS. Arnold was listed as First Lieutenant aboard the large Connecticut Privateer Ship Deane (Commander ELISHA HINMAN), commissioned 6 June 1780. At least one prize was taken on the following cruise. [Middlebrook, MCR, II, 66-67] Arnold witnessed a privateer bond, on 20 October 1780, for Massachusetts Privateer Ship Juno. [NRAR, 363]


ARNOLD, WELCOME

RI

Owner, Rhode Island Privateers


 

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Owners

Bonder

Witness

7/9/82

RI

[unknown] Yorick

Charles Handy, Jr.

Welcome Arnold

 

[Sheffield, 62]


ARROWSMITH, EDMUND [EDMOND, EDWARD]

[RI] (P)

Captain, Continental Marines


Edmund Arrowsmith was probably a native of Rhode Island, although possibly from New York. He was serving in the Rhode Island Brigade as an ensign in June 1776, when men were borrowed from Rhode Island to man various vessels of the Continental fleet depleted by illness. Arrowsmith and twenty enlisted men joined the Continental Navy Sloop Providence (JOHN PAUL JONES) on 14 June 1776. Arrowsmith acted as Second Lieutenant of Marines aboard the Providence. When Providence arrived in Delaware Bay on 1 August 1776 trouble developed between First Lieutenant of Marines ALPHEUS RICE and Master WILLIAM HOPKINS, which led Jones to confine Rice and then send him to the Marine Committee for reassignment. When Providence sailed near the end of August, Arrowsmith was acting First Lieutenant of Marines. He was listed as being entitled to prize shares in that rank for the ship Alexander, captured by the Providence on 20 September 1776. Arrowsmith was the star player in the famous musket vs. broadside incident during Providence's encounter with HM Frigate Milford during the same cruise. When Providence returned from her cruise on 7 October 1776 and preparations were begun for the Cape Breton Expedition, Arrowsmith went around town recruiting. One Robert Lillibridge was paid £17.6.0 for Arrowsmith's October recruiting bill by Deputy Continental Agent John Manley. When Jones was assigned to command Continental Navy Ship Alfred on 19 October 1776, (he took command on 22 October) Arrowsmith, along with most of the crew of the Providence, transferred to the Alfred. Jones later noted that he “obtained for Captn Arrowsmith his present Commission and introduced him into the service at the first.” Arrowsmith acted as Captain of Marines aboard the Alfred, succeeding SAMUEL NICHOLAS. Arrowsmith's junior officers were First Lieutenant of Marines WILLIAM HAMILTON (aboard about 20 October) and Second Lieutenant of Marines ALEXANDER NELSON, aboard the Alfred from about 11 October 1776. Arrowsmith was listed as a Captain of Marines on 23 October 1776, when he sat on the court-martial of Gunner James Bryant of Continental Navy Brig Hampden, held aboard the Alfred at [Newport]. After a false start on 27 October with Continental Navy Brig Hampden, the Alfred sailed with the Providence on the Cape Breton Expedition on 1 November 1776, returning to Boston, Massachusetts on 16 December 1776. Nine prizes were captured on the cruise. Arrowsmith participated in the activities of the Cape Breton Expedition, in particular he was the Marine officer who boarded the Rhode Island Privateer Sloop Eagle at Tarpaulin Cove, Massachusetts, on 1 November 1776, along with First Lieutenant John Peck Rathbun of the Navy. Deserters from the Navy were found among the crew and Rathbun and Arrowsmith then impressed most of the crew for the Alfred.  Arrowsmith shared prize money for the Active (captured 12 November 1776) and Mellish (captured 13 November 1776). Arrowsmith probably left the Alfred at Boston after 19 or 20 January 1777, when Jones was relieved of command, as many of Alfred's officers did. Arrowsmith then joined Continental Navy Brig Cabot (Captain JOSEPH OLNEY) as Captain of Marines. He was aboard the brig when it was driven ashore and captured by HM Frigate Milford, on 25 March 1777, on the coast of Nova Scotia. He made his way back to Boston with the rest of the crew, aboard a commandeered vessel, arriving at Salem on 9 April 1777. The officers had kept a journal of the voyage, which Arrowsmith witnessed on 16 April. He testified at Olney's court of inquiry on 19 April. Jones was appointed to the Continental Navy Ship Ranger on 2 July 1777. From Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Jones ordered his Captain of Marines, MATTHEW PARKE, to recruit in Providence. Arrowsmith, then in Providence, was requested to assist in the recruiting. Arrowsmith was formally promoted to Captain of Marines (or confirmed) on 20 October 1777. His further activities are unknown until 15 June 1779, when he was Captain of Marines aboard the Continental Navy Ship Queen of France (Captain JOHN PECK RATHBUN). [Arrowsmith may have been assigned to her in mid-1778. Smith, Marines, 177] Arrowsmith served aboard her until she was scuttled during the siege of Charleston. He and his company were then assigned to Gibb's Battery.  Both Arrowsmith and his Lieutenant, PETER GREEN, were captured there on 13 May 1780, when the city surrendered. Following the surrender Arrowsmith was (presumably) sent to Philadelphia, on parole, with the other officers. Nothing more is known of Arrowsmith. [Smith, Marines, 430]


ART, JAMES

PA

First Mate, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Art was born about 1759. NOAR, 7] He was the Second Mate on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Active (Commander CHARLES BIDDLE) in September 1781, and was one of the few survivors of that voyage. Active was captured by the British on 21 December 1781 and taken in to New York. Art was paroled about six weeks later. [see Active] On 13 April 1782 he was appointed as First Mate [First Lieutenant] on the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Sally (Commander JOHN FLEMING). [NOAR, 7]


ARTHER, JOHN

[see ARTHUR, JOHN]


ARTHUR [ARTHER], JOHN

Prizemaster, [unknown] Privateers


John Arthur (Arther) was a Prizemaster aboard an unknown privateer. He was captured by the British and committed to Forton Prison on 8 August 1777. He was pardoned to serve in the Royal Navy on 22 May 1779. [Kaminkow, 6]


ASH, GILBERT

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Gilbert Ash was a native of Boston. He was commissioned to the Connecticut Privateer Ship Mars on 11 May 1778. [NRAR, 385] On 23 May, Mars was in Massachusetts, where Ash and her owners gave a £2000 bond not to enlist any New England men outside Massachusetts. [Allen, MPR, 217] On 15 November 1778, Mars, with Connecticut Privateer Brig Fanny (Commander AZARIAH WHITTELSEY), captured the snow Scipio, with a cargo of wine. Scipio was later recaptured. [NOAR, 7-8, 336] On 1 August 1780, Ash was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship St. Tamany. [Allen, MPR, 271]


ASH, JAMES

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


James Ash was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Ash was associated in privateering with JAMES HOOD, SAMUEL ROBBINS, JOHN PATTON, PHILIP MOORE, WILLIAM HALL, GEORGE HENRY, ANDREW TYBOUT, DAVID DUNCAN, BLAIR MCCLENACHAN, and JAMES WHARTON. Vessels associated with Ash were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/31/78

PA

Sloop Liberty (4/8)

John Warner

James Hood, James Ash & Co.

James Hood, Samuel Robbins

James Montgomery, James Trimble [NRAR, 372]

8/31/78

PA

Schooner Rebecca (8/15)

James Martin

James Hood, James Ash & Co.

James Hood, Samuel Robbins

James Montgomery, James Trimble [NRAR, 433]

2/16/79

PA

Sloop Chance (6/40)

James Leach

John Patton, James Ash & Co.

James Ash, John Patton

James Trimble [NRAR, 249]

9/20/79

PA

Sloop Active (14/60)

Peter Day

Philip Moore, James Ash & Co.

Philip Moore, James Ash

James Trimble [NRAR, 218]

9/29/90

PA

Ship General Greene (18/100)

Samuel Carson

James Ash, George Henry & Co.

James Ash, William Hall

W. Stretch, James Trimble [NRAR, 310]

4/23/81

PA

Brigantine Delaware (4/17)

Richard Inkson

James Ash, Andrew Tybout & Co.

James Ash, Richard Inkson

James Trimble [NRAR, 265]

1/15/82

PA

Ship Trooper (8/)

Samuel Howell

David Duncan, James Ash et al

Samuel Howell, David Duncan

James Trimble [NRAR, 478]

5/19/82

PA

Ship Trooper (10/30)

John Earle

Andrew Tybout, James Ash & Co.

John Earle, James Ash

James Trimble [NRAR, 478]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/12/78

PA

Schooner Betsey (6/40)

Thomas Ridge

 

Blair McClenachan, James Ash

James Trimble [NRAR, 235]

12/11/79

PA

Ship General Greene (14/40)

James Montgomery

George Henry and James Wharton & Co.

George Henry, James Ash

Waters Sitton, James Trimble [NRAR, 309]


ASHBOURN, JOSEPH

[see ASHBURN, JOSEPH]


ASHBURN [ASHBOURN], JOSEPH

PA

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


Joseph Ashburn was a native of Philadelphia and was born about 1751. [NOAR, 8] On 31 July 1777 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Hetty. [NDAR, X, 1066 and note] In the late summer of 1777 she sailed to Bordeaux, France, arriving there from Sinepuxent on 10 October 1777. [NDAR, X, 942-945] There Ashburn enlisted, about 15 November, among others, three crew members from a captured British brig, the Emperor of Germany. These three were very bad choices. Hetty was loading with tea, bale goods and cordage, and was to proceed to St. Martin’s to take in salt, and was then to sail for Philadelphia. Hetty sailed on 22 November 1777. At sea the three British crewmen conspired with four others shipped at Bordeaux, and rose and took the brigantine on the night of 25 November. Ashbourn and three men were tied up, dumped into the ship’s boat. The rest of the crew assisted the mutineers in bringing in the prize to Dungarvin, Ireland on 1 December 1777. The ship and cargo were estimated to be worth £7000. Ashburn and the two men were taken up by a French sloop and were in Nantes by 29 November. [NDAR, X, 1050-1051, 1066 and note] On 7 December 1780 he was appointed as First Mate [First Lieutenant] aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Patty (Commander FRANCIS KNOX). [NRAR, 410] Joseph Ashburn was the second husband of Betsy Ross. In 1781 he commanded the Pennsylvania Privateer [unknown] Lion which was captured by the British. On 31 August 1781 Ashburn was confined to Mill Prison, [Kaminkow, 7] where he died on 8 May 1783. [NOAR, 8]


ASHBY, GEORGE, JR.

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


George Ashby, Jr. was a native of Salem. On 3 November 1780 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Cutter. [NRAR, 261] On 21 May 1781 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Lively. [NRAR, 377]


ASHBY [ASHLY], WARREN

VA

Midshipman, Virginia Navy


Warren Ashby (Ashly) is listed as a Midshipman on the Virginia Navy Brig Liberty. [Stewart, 142] He served to the end of the war. [NOAR, 8]


ASHDOWN [ASHDON, ASHTON], JOHN

SC

Second Lieutenant, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Ashdown (Ashton, Ashdon) was a native of Charleston, South Carolina. He served aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Sloop Comet (Commander DANIEL BROWN) as Second Lieutenant. She was captured by the British in late 1780. On 16 January 1781 Ashdown was committed to Mill Prison. [Kaminkow, 7]


ASHE, CINCINNATUS

NC

[Captain, Continental Marines]


Cincinnatus Ashe is listed as a Captain in the Continental Marines in NOAR, 8. This seems unlikely. See WILLIAM ASHE.


ASHE, WILLIAM

NC

[Lieutenant, Continental Marines]


William Ashe is listed as a Continental Marine Lieutenant in NOAR, 8. He is noted as belonging to the “First Regiment,” and having died in service. Ashe would seem to have been in the Continental Army.


ASHER, JOHN

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Navy


John Asher is listed as a Virginia Navy Lieutenant in NOAR, 8.


ASHLEY, BENJAMIN

CT

First Lieutenant, Connecticut Privateers


Benjamin Ashley was a native of New London and was appointed as First Lieutenant of the Connecticut Privateer [unknown] Two Sisters (Commander John Stevens). Ashley was captured and confined to Old Mill Prison on 2 March 1781. [NOAR, 8, 296. In Kaminkow, 7, this man is listed as Benjamin Ashby (or Ashbey), as a seaman, and as being committed to Mill Prison on 24 April 1781]
[Addit info: Stevens a native of Salem, Mass. No CT pvt Two Sisters listed.]


ASHLEY, WILLIAM

VA

[First] Mate, Virginia Navy


William Ashley is listed as a Master’s Mate in the Virginia Navy. [Stewart, 142]


ASHLY, WARREN

[See ASHBY, WARREN]


ASHMEAD, JOHN

PA

Captain, Continental Navy

Commander, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Ashmead was born about 1738. [NOAR, 8] He was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [NRAR, 226] Ashmead was in the merchant service as a master, in the West Indies trade, before the war. [NDAR, I, 217 and note] He was in command of the Continental Navy Brig Mercury (a packet vessel) on 24 June 1777, when he was ordered to Fort Island to await orders. [NDAR, IX, 165] On 30 March 1779 Ashmead memorialized the Marine Committee for an increase in pay. [NRAR, 101] He commanded the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Eagle, commissioned on 12 June 1779. [NRAR, 108, 279] However, it is apparent that she was considered a “Continental” vessel. [NRAR, 137-138] By 24 August 1779 he was expected to be returning from a cruise to St. Eustatius, Netherlands West Indies. [NRAR, 114] However, the Eagle was not to make it home. She was captured by British vessels while laying off Fort Saba, on 13 November 1779. [NRAR, 123, 137-138] Ashmead was back in Philadelphia by 21 March 1780. [NRAR, 137] On 19 May 1780 he commanded an armed vessel. He was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Brigantine Molly on 29 September 1781. [NRAR, 395] On 7 January 1782 he was commissioned to the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Anne. [NRAR, 226]


ASHTON, BENJAMIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Ashton was a resident of Marblehead when he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Montgomery on 29 March 1782. [NRAR, 396]


ASHTON, JACOB

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Jacob Ashton  was a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was associated in privateering with BARTHOLOMEW PUTNAM, JONATHAN INGERSOLL, CHARLES HAMILTON, and JONATHAN LAMBERT. He was associated with the following privateers:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/12/76

MA

Sloop Rover (8/50)

Simon Forrester

Jacob Ashton, Joseph Sprague,  Bartholomew Putnam

Jacob Ashton, Joseph Sprague

[NDAR, 5, 1034-1035 and 1035 note]

10/14/78

MA

Ship Franklin (18/120)

John Leach, Jr.

Elias Hasket Derby, Jacob Ashton,  Bartholomew Putnam

John Leach, Jr., Elias Hasket Derby, Jacob Ashton,  Bartholomew Putnam

[Allen, MPR, 136]

10/27/78

MA

Ship Bunker Hill (18/100)

Nicholas Ogelbe

Bartholomew Putnam, Jacob Ashton

Nicholas Ogelbe, Bartholomew Putnam, Jacob Ashton

Stephen Higginson, James Jeffry [Allen, MPR, 90]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

6/8/80

MA

Ship Jason (10/25)

Simon Forrester

Bartholomew Putnam et al

Simon Forrester, Bartholomew Putnam, Jacob Ashton

[Allen, MPR, 193]

6/13/81

MA

Ship Disdain (20/100)

William Patterson

Bartholomew Putnam et al

William Patterson, Jonathan Ingersoll, Jacob Ashton

Simon Forrester, Francis Burchmore [NRAR, 269]

6/30/81

MA

Ship Jason (16/70)

Charles Hamilton

Bartholomew Putnam et al

Charles Hamilton, Bartholomew Putnam, Jacob Ashton

William Pickman, Jonathan Messeroy [NRAR, 357]

5/21/82

MA

Brigantine Favourite (11/50)

William Patterson

 

Jonathan Lambert, Jacob Ashton

Samuel M. West, John Peters [NRAR, 291]

5/21/82

MA

Brigantine Active (11/50)

William Ross

 

Jonathan Lambert, Jacob Ashton

Samuel M. West, John Peters [NRAR, 219]


ASHTON, JOHN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Ashton was a resident of Beverly, Massachusetts. He was appointed as First Lieutenant of the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Scorpion (Commander ISRAEL THORNDIKE) on 7 November 1777. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424] Ashton resided in Salem [Allen, MPR, 161-162] when he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hampden on 16 July 1778 as commander. [Allen, MPR, 161-162. Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424, gives the date as 14 July.] He was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Neptune on 5 August 1779. [Howe, Beverly Privateers, 424; Allen, MPR, 227]


ASPANEL [ASPINAL, ASPENWAL, APINALL], PETER

VA

Lieutenant, Virginia Privateers


Peter Aspanel (Aspinal, Aspenwal, Apinall) was listed as from Virginia. He served aboard either the Hero or the General Sinclair (a brig from Virginia) as either a Lieutenant or a sailor. He was captured by the British and committed to Mill Prison on 9 January 1781. [Kaminkow, 7]


ASTURGAS, JAMES

VA

Naval Constructor


James Asturgas directed the construction of the Virginia Navy Galley Miami, built at Louisville, Kentucky for service on the Ohio River, in the spring of 1782. Asturgas charged two dollars a day for his services. [Smith, Marines, 267-268]


ATCHINSON, W.

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


W. Atchinson, presumably a Marylander, was commissioned to the Maryland Privateer Brigantine St. Patrick on 2 December 1782. [NOAR, 9]


ATHBUOY, JOHN

PA

First Mate [Lieutenant], Pennsylvania Privateers


John Athbuoy, possibly of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was appointed as First Mate [First Lieutenant] on the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Hope (Commander John Fleming) on 20 December 1781. [NRAR, 343]


ATKINS, BENJAMIN

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Benjamin Atkins commanded the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Industry in May 1780 when Industry was captured by the William Altham. [NOAR, 9]


ATKINS, HENRY

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Henry Atkins was a resident of Boston when he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Expedition on 23 December 1780. [NRAR, 284]


ATKINS, JOSEPH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Joseph Atkins was a resident of Newburyport. [NRAR, 422] Atkins was aboard the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner True Blue (Commander RICHARD STILES), commissioned on 28 April 1777, [Allen, MPR, 307] perhaps as a Lieutenant, Mate or Prize Master. True Blue sailed for European waters soon after. Snow Mary of Bideford, England, with a cargo of flour, was captured on 28 July 1777, off Terceira, Azores Islands. Atkins was put aboard as prize master and she was ordered to America. Mary was re-captured the next day by HMS Experiment (Captain Sir James Wallace) and ordered to New York. Mary arrived there on 3 October 1777. [NDAR, X, 25 and note, 1057] Atkins was no doubt imprisoned. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Prosper on 5 December 1780. [NRAR, 422] On 16 July 1782 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Hibernia. [NRAR, 338]


ATKINS, SILAS, Sr.

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers


Silas Atkins, Sr., was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He is described as a “mariner” in the bond for Cato. Atkins was associated in privateering with JAMES SWAN, JOHN LOWELL, SILAS ATKINS, JR., CALEB HOPKINS, ANDREW OLIVER, and JONATHAN NUTTING. Vessels associated with Atkins were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/12/77

MA

Schooner Bunker Hill (6/35)

Moses Lewis

Silas Atkins et al

Moses Lewis, Silas Atkins, Jr., Caleb Hopkins

Benjamin Hammatt Jr., James Hughes [Allen, MPR, 89]

5/4/78

MA

Schooner Bunker Hill (7/35)

Isaac Cobb

John Lowell, Silas Atkins, Silas Atkins, Jr., James Swan et al

Isaac Cobb, John Lowell, Silas Atkins, Jr.

[Allen, MPR, 89]

9/8/79

MA

Schooner Cato (4/30)

Samuel Trask

[Silas Atkins et al]

 

[Allen, MPR, 91]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/4/77

MA

Sloop America (8/35)

Nathaniel Coit Webb

James Swan et al

Nathaniel Coit Webb, James Swan, Silas Atkins

[Allen, MPR, 71]

5/1/79

MA

Schooner Cato (2/20)

William Steward

Jonathan Nutting et al

William Steward, James Swan, Silas Atkins, Andrew Oliver, Jonathan Nutting

Robert Lash, Nathaniel Baker [Allen, MPR, 91]


ATKINS, SILAS, JR.

MA

Owner, Massachusetts Privateers

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Silas Atkins, Jr. was probably a native of Boston. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Boston on 21 April 1776. [Allen, MPR, 86] During the ensuing cruise seven prizes were captured, one of which was re-captured by the British. Boston was back in port by November 1776. [See Boston for references] Subsequently Atkins was associated in privateering with his [father], SILAS ATKINS. Vessels associated with Atkins Jr. were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

5/4/78

MA

Schooner Bunker Hill (7/35)

Isaac Cobb

John Lowell, Silas Atkins, Silas Atkins, Jr., James Swan et al

Isaac Cobb, John Lowell, Silas Atkins, Jr.

[Allen, MPR, 89]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

8/12/77

MA

Schooner Bunker Hill (6/35)

Moses Lewis

Silas Atkins et al

Moses Lewis, Silas Atkins, Jr., Caleb Hopkins

Benjamin Hammatt Jr., James Hughes [Allen, MPR, 89]


ATKINSON, GEORGE


PA

First Mate [Lieutenant], Pennsylvania Privateers


George Atkinson was born about 1730, and was presumably a Pennsylvanian. He was appointed as First Mate (or Lieutenant) aboard the Pennsylvania Privateer Ship Mercury (Merewig, Herewig, Commander JOHN KERLIN, JR.) on 8 December 1780. [NRAR, 390; NOAR, 9, 174]


ATKINSON, JOHN

[see ADKINSON, JOHN]


ATKINSON, ROBERT

Pilot, Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron


Robert Atkinson entered the Continental Army Lake Champlain Squadron Galley Trumbull on 26 September 1776 as Pilot. He remained aboard until 25 November 1776 when he was discharged back to his regiment. [NDAR, 7, 280-281]


ATTWOOD [ATWOOD], SHEFFIELD

RI

Midshipman, Continental Navy


Sheffield Attwood entered aboard the Continental Navy Ship Columbus (HOYSTEED HACKER) as a Midshipman on 10 March 1777. Columbus was at Providence, anchored in the Providence River at the time. [NDAR, “Shipping Articles for the Continental Navy Ship Columbus,” 8, 118-120]


ATWOOD, EBENEZER

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Ebenezer Atwood was a native of Cape Cod. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine James on 15 January 1783. [NRAR, 356]


ATWOOD, JOHN

CT

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


John Atwood, of East Haddam, Connecticut, was appointed as First Lieutenant on the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Boston (Commander Silas Atkins, Jr.) [NDAR, VI, 248-250] After a very handsome cruise (seven prizes captured) Boston returned to port by November 1776. In May 1777 Atwood, (if this be the same Atwood) was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop American. Atwood now gave his address as Eastham, Massachusetts. [Allen, MPR, 72]


ATWOOD, SHEFFIELD

[see ATTWOOD, SHEFFIELD]


AUBIN, PHILIP

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Philip Aubin was allegedly from Newburyport, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer [unknown] Thorne, in which he was captured about September 1780 by the Grantham. [NOAR, 10] He was later exchanged and appointed to command Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Juno on 11 September 1781. [NRAR, 363] That same day Aubin witnessed the bond for Massachusetts Privateer Brigantine Pallas (Commander James Johnston). [NRAR, 409]


AUCHENLICK, HENRY

MD

First Lieutenant, Maryland Navy


Henry Auchenlick was First Lieutenant on the Maryland Navy Ship Defence in 1776 and 1777. He resigned his commission on 16 January 1777. [NOAR, 10]


AUDEBERT, JOHN

PA

Owner, Pennsylvania Privateers


John Audebert was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is listed as a co-owner (as a member of “Sidman, Audebert & Co.”) of the Pennsylvania Privateer Schooner Betsey (Commander JOHN HARR) on 11 July 1780. He was associated in privateering with ISAAC SIDMAN. See also PHILIP AUDIBERT. Vessels associated with Audebert were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

7/11/80

PA

Schooner Betsey (4/11)

John Harr

Sidman, Audebert & Co.

Isaac Sidman, John Audebert, John Harr

James Trimble [NRAR, 236]


AUDET [AUDETT], JOSEPH

MD

Commander, Maryland Privateers


Joseph Audet of Baltimore, Maryland, was commissioned to command the Maryland Privateer Schooner Resource on 9 September 1780. He was re-commissioned to the Resource on 7 July 1781. [NRAR, 438]


AUDETT, JOSEPH

[see AUDET, JOSEPH]


AUDIBERT, JOSIAH

(P/A)

Lieutenant, Continental Navy


AUDIBERT, PHILIP

PA

[Owner], Pennsylvania Privateers


Philip Audibert was a resident of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was associated in privateering with ARNOTT CORMERAIS, JONATHAN SMITH,  and ISAAC SIDMAN. Vessels associated with Audibert were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

1/10/81

PA

Brigantine Friends Goodwill (2/18)

William Leitch

Jonathan Smith, Philip Audibert & Co.

Philip Audibert, Jonathan Smith

James Trimble, William Leitch [NRAR, 305]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

11/10/82

PA

Sloop Sarah (8/20)

Arnott Cormerais

Arnott Cormerais

Philip Audibert, Arnott Cormerais, Isaac Sidman

James Trimble [NRAR, 454]


AUDOBON, JOHN

[see JOHN AUDUBON]


AUDUBON [AUDOBON], JOHN

VA

Commander, Virginia Privateers


John Audubon, [NOAR, 10] or Audobon, [NRAR, 227] supposedly from Virginia, was commissioned on 23 March 1782 to command the Virginia Privateer Ship Arnett. [NRAR, 227]


AULL, WILLIAM

[Dutch?]

[Continental] Agent


William Aull was a merchant residing at St. Eustatius, Netherlands West Indies. He was said to be an agent for the Continental Congress. [NDAR, X, 561-562 and 562 note]


AUSTIN, DAVID

CT

[Owner], Connecticut Privateers


David Austin was a resident of New Haven, Connecticut. He was associated in privateering with JOSEPH HART. Vessels associated with Austin were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

12/31/78

MA

Brig Neptune (4/15)

Azariah Whittlesey

Joseph Hart & Co.

Azariah Whittlesey, Joseph Hart, David Austin

Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., John Porter [NRAR, 402]


AUSTIN, JONATHAN LORING

MA

Owner, New Hampshire Privateers


Jonathan Loring Austin was (supposedly) a resident of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He is listed as sole owner of the New Hampshire Privateer Schooner McClary (Commander ROBERT PARKER) on 2 September 1776. [NRAR, 381] Austin was Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of War in 1777. Associated with Austin in this venture were THOMAS MARTIN and GEORGE TURNER of Portsmouth, as securities. [NRAR, 381] Vessels associated with Austin:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/2/76

NH

Schooner McClary (6/60)

Robert Parker

Jonathan Loring Austin

Robert Parker, Thomas Martin, George Turner

Titus Salter, Pierre Long [NRAR, 381]


AVERELL, JONATHAN

Surgeon's Mate, Continental Navy


Jonathan Averell was aboard the Resistance as Surgeon's Mate on 31 August 1777. Listed as “D.M.” (Doctor's Mate). [NDAR, IX, 855-856]


AVERY, JAMES

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


James Avery was a resident of Machias, Massachusetts [Maine] [NRAR, 437] or of Boston, Massachusetts. [NRAR, 330] He was associated in privateering with JOHN MCGOWN, ELIJAH AYER, and GEORGE STILLMAN. Vessels associated with Avery were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

4/20/81

MA

Schooner Resolution (4/30)

John Savage

George Stillman et al

John Savage, George Stillman. James Avery

Joseph Nye, Benjamin Loring [NRAR, 437]

12/3/82

MA

Schooner Hawk (4/20)

Elijah Ayer

Elijah Ayer et al

Elijah Ayer, James Avery, John McGown

Samuel Rogers, Jonathan Eddy [NRAR, 330]


AVERY, JOHN

MA

Construction Superintendent


John Avery was employed by Thomas Cushing, Superintendent for naval construction in Massachusetts, to supervise work on the Hancock and Boston at Newburyport in 1776-1777. This may be the same man as the John Avery, Jr. of Boston, who was security for the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop America on 6 September 1776. [Allen, MPR, 70]

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

9/6/76

MA

Sloop America (10/70)

Thomas Nicholson

Ephraim Spooner,  William Watson

Thomas Nicholson, James Warren, James Avery, Jr.

[Allen, MPR, 70]


AVERY, SAMUEL

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Samuel Avery was a resident of Boston, Massachusetts. He was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Eagle on 10 May 1777. [Allen, MPR, 120] Avery was next commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop American on 26 May 1778. [Allen, MPR, 72-73] On 7 September 1779 he was appointed to the Massachusetts Privateer Sloop Revenge. [Allen, MPR, 262] Avery was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Ship Twin Sisters on 19 April 1781. [NRAR, 479]


AVERY, WILLIAM

MD

Owner, Maryland Privateers


William Avery was a resident of Maryland and was associated in privateering with JAMES WILLIAMS, JOSEPH WILLIAMS, RICHARD BARNABY, and DAVID ROBINSON. Vessels associated with Avery were:

As owner:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

10/20/77

MD

Schooner Adventure (0/7)

Thomas Robinson

James Williams, Joseph Williams, Richard Barnaby, David Robinson, William Avery

Thomas Robinson, James Williams

Thomas Johnson, Jr. [NRAR, 221]


AYER, ELIJAH

MA

Commander, Massachusetts Privateers


Elijah Ayer was from Machias, Massachusetts (Maine). He was commissioned on 1 December 1781 to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Rover. [NRAR, 448] On 3 December 1782 he was commissioned to the Massachusetts Privateer Schooner Hawk. [NRAR, 330]


AYER, ELISHA

MA

[Owner], Massachusetts Privateers


Elijah Ayer was presumably a resident of Salem, Massachusetts. He was involved in privateering with NATHANIEL SILSBEE of Salem. Vessels associated with Ayer were:

As security:

Date

State

Rig/Name/Guns/Crew

Commander

Co-owners

Security

Witness

4/18/82

MA

Brigantine Surprize (14/70)

Benjamin Cole

Nathaniel Silsbee et al

Benjamin Cole, Elisha Ayer

John Becket, Thomas Welcome [NRAR, 468]


AYERS, [AYRES], JOHN

[see AYRES, JOHN]


AYLETT, WILLIAM

VA

[Deputy Continental Agent], Virginia


In 1777 William Aylett was a Colonel in the Continental Army and Deputy Commissary General of Purchases. [NDAR, X, 984-985] On 8 April 1777 the Virginia Navy Board placed the direction of the Virginia Navy trading vessels in Aylett’s hands. [Paullin, 405 and 405n3] On 26 March 1779 the Marine Committee ordered Maxwell and Loyal to supply provisions to any Continental vessels that called at Portsmouth, Virginia. They were to obtain these provisions from Aylett (then at Portsmouth?). [NRAR, 100] Aylett had previously been ordered to furnish Maxwell and Loyal with provisions (12 March 1779). [NRAR, 99] On 21 June the Marine Committee queried Aylett on the quality of bread purchased by Aylett for the Continental frigates. [NRAR, 109] On 25 July 1779 the Marine Committee ordered Aylett to dispose of any bread not needed by the Continental frigates. [NRAR, 112] On 31 January 1780, William Aylett was instructed to obtain supplies for the Continental Navy Ship Deane (Captain Samuel Nicholson), by the Board of Admiralty. [NRAR, 133] On 23 March the Board of Admiralty wrote to William Aylett (at Williamsburg, Virginia) to complete the cargo for a vessel in which Benjamin Harrison, Jr. (at Berkley, Virginia) was to forward coal to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, for construction of the America. [NRAR, 138]


AYRES [AYERS], JOHN

MA/(P/A)

Captain, Continental Navy


John Ayres was commissioned as a Captain in the Continental Army's Boston Squadron on 1 March 1776, in command of Continental Army Schooner Lynch. On 10 October 1776 he was commissioned as a Captain in the Continental Navy. [NOAR, 10] Master of the cartel vessel Two Pollys (Massachusetts) as early as March 1777 when she was a Newport, Rhode Island. Ayers was back at Boston by 4 April 1777, preparing for a voyage to Halifax, Nova Scotia in the cartel vessel. Ayers left for Philadelphia at some time after 23 April for the purpose of seeking a Continental naval command. James Warren, in a letter to John Adams, commented: “I don’t know his business but I suppose to apply for some appointment in the Navy. I have not much acquaintance with him. He seems to be an active smart man, has been long at sea, and as he has commanded one of your Schooners with reputation, I could wish he might succeed...” He was in command of the Massachusetts Navy Prison Brigantine Favourite on 7 October 1777, when he stopped an escape attempt. [NDAR, X, 67 and notes] On 22 October he was directed to receive water casks for the Favourite. [NDAR, X, 236 and note]


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