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Battle off Block Island
6 April 1776




-Atlantic Ocean:-

The Battle off Block Island:

“. . . yelping from the mouths of her cannon . . .”

Block Island, Rhode Island




1. The Battle off Block Island, 6 April 1776


a. Approach, 0000-0230


HM Frigate Glasgow was a sixth rate, twenty gun ship of the smallest class normally “rated.” She carried a nominal crew of 160 men under the command of Captain Tyringham Howe.1 In early April 1776 Glasgow was at Newport, Rhode Island, with the small squadron under Captain James Wallace. Wallace was under orders to withdraw to Halifax, and Glasgow had dispatches for the vessels to the south, and was under orders to proceed there.


However, Wallace had a particular project in mind and wanted to keep all his vessels together long enough to accomplish that task. Wallace had sent out the Bolton and Hawke to cruise off Block Island with the promise that his fleet would soon join them. At 1200 on 5 April the British squadron got under sail exiting Newport.2 At 1500, some of the fleet having difficulties, the Rose (Wallace’s flagship) bore away,3 and the fleet anchored off the south end of Gold Island at 1700.4 Glasgow continued out to sea,5 accompanied by a small tender with a crew of three men.


Glasgow steered out for Block Island, where Bolton and Hawke were supposed to be cruising. The night was very pleasant; “Light Airs & fair.”6 At 0200 Glasgow was twenty-four miles southeast of Block Island, under easy sail,7 with the water very smooth.8 Glasgow’s lookouts sighted a fleet of seven or eight sail on the weather beam, and Howe turned toward the strangers. He soon discovered “two, or three large ships, and other Square Rigged Vessels; Turned all hands to Quarters, and hauled up the Mainsail.” Glasgow, now under fighting sail, kept steering to the northwest, toward the strangers, who were coming down before the wind.9


The Continental fleet under Commodore Esek Hopkins was returning from a successful strike at Nassau in the Bahama Islands and was collecting to the south of Block Island. All day on 5 April the fleet had cruised off Block Island. As the sun set, Captain of Marines Samuel Nicholas commented “we were twelve sail in all, and had a very pleasant evening.”10 After supper Nicholas might have walked on deck to look at the evening cruising formation. The Commodore had formed two columns abreast, with Cabot leading one and Andrew Doria the other, followed by Alfred and Columbus respectively. The big ships were about a hundred yards behind the brigs, with the two columns about a quarter of a mile apart. Providence was placed astern and between the columns, with the prizes behind her, escorted by the Fly.11 After a pleasant turn around deck, Nicholas went below and turned in about midnight. But it was a very short nap: at 0130 the Continental Navy's first real battle was just getting underway.12


Unknown to Captain Howe, the American fleet had had the Glasgow and her tender under observation for an hour. At 0100 the Andrew Doria’s lookouts had sighted two sail to the east southeast of the fleet. Biddle was roused and came on deck. The signal was hoisted for the Alfred and the fleet came down.13 Alfred had noted the signal by 0130, when Captain of Marines Samuel Nicholas was awakened from his short nap by the cry of “all hands to quarters.”14


Nicholas soon mustered his Marines on deck. The main body under First Lieutenant Matthew Parke was placed in the ship’s barge, on the main deck. Captain Nicholas and the remainder, with Second Lieutenant John Fitzpatrick, took post on the quarterdeck.15 Aboard Columbus the crew was going to quarters in some confusion, for sixteen men were serving on the prizes, and some shifting around had to be done.16


The Glasgow looked large to Captain Nicholas as she bore down. Cabot was leading, with Alfred a hundred yards behind and slightly to windward.17 Just as the American column and the British warship closed, Glasgow turned to the north, cutting behind the Cabot and the Alfred,18 which turned parallel to her course. Columbus was placed behind all three by this maneuver and was forced to turn into Glasgow’s wake to pursue. Glasgow now blanketed Columbus’s sails so they would not draw and slowed her down considerably.19


Continental Navy Fleet in cruising formation. About 400 yards between columns, and 100 yards between the brigs and the ships. Glasgow tacks to investigate. About 0100-0200 6 April 1776.


About 0200 the brig Cabot came up with the stranger.20 To the men on the Glasgow she looked “much like the Bolton, but larger.”21 The British hailed the brig, identifying their vessel,22 but she “seemed to hesitate about giving any answers,” and kept on standing toward the Glasgow.23 Hopkins was steering as close as possible before committing any action. The British hailed again, demanding to know what ships were in company with the brig. Hopkins replied “the Columbus and Alfred, a two and twenty Gun frigate.”24 Immediately after the reply a hand grenade came spinning out of Cabot”s fighting top, and she unleashed a broadside into the Glasgow.25 It was then about 0230,26 Newport bearing northeast at a distance of forty-five miles.27


Cabot engages Glasgow. American columns breaking up as Alfred, Columbus and Andrew Doria attempt to come up with Glasgow. About 0230-0245.


b. Action, 0230-0600


Glasgow had one Marine killed and one wounded at the first fire,28 then she returned the broadside to Cabot,29 and got off another one before Cabot’s inexperienced gunners could reload. Cabot was damaged by the heavy weight of metal. Cabot’s master, Seymour Sinclair, and two Marines were killed, and Hopkins, Lieutenant of Marines John Hood Wilson and six other men were wounded in the return fire.30 Hopkins sheered off,31 (or shot ahead to lay on the bow)32 nearly fouling the Andrew Doria, which was forced to tack away from the action to avoid collision.33


As Cabot pulled away, “a large Ship, with a top light” took her place beside the Glasgow.34 It was the Alfred,35 the crew at quarters, battle lanterns shining below decks, where Lieutenant Jones commanded the main battery,36 happy that the sea was calm enough to open the gun ports. Alfred had been unable to open fire before now, for the Cabot was masking her.37 Alfred opened fire by raking the Glasgow as she approached,38 then lay alongside the British frigate, giving and receiving broadsides.39 At Glasgow’s first broadside into Alfred, Marine Lieutenant Fitzpatrick was shot dead by musketry.40 Meanwhile Columbus came up astern of the Glasgow, turned under her stern and raked as she passed, then luffed up on Glasgow’s port beam.41 Columbus however, must have been at a considerable distance from the Glasgow.42 Andrew Doria came up on Glasgow’s port quarter, and Providence moved about astern of the Glasgow. Howe now ordered the clerk who had charge of the confidential despatches for the Navy vessels to the south to destroy the despatches. They were thrown overboard in a bag weighted with shot.43


Two details from a fine painting by Major Charles H. Waterhouse USMCR, A Marine Lieutenant Dies, showing the fight from the deck of the Alfred. Marine Lieutenant Fitzpatrick is just shot down, Marines firing with musketry at Glasgow and sailors standing to the great guns. Published in Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 58-60. For a larger view, click here.


Alfred replaces Cabot alongside Glasgow. Cabot drifts into path of the other American ship and brig, forcing them to bypass her. About 0245-0300.


The action continued hot until about 0330 when the Alfred’s tiller block was shot away and she lost control, coming up into the wind, which gave the Glasgow a chance to rake her.44 It was perhaps at this point that the American gunners (according to Governor Montfort Browne, a prisoner on the Alfred) reportedly left their guns.45 No other observer records this action. The Columbus also dropped back on the Glasgow’s quarter and the Andrew Doria remained astern.46 According to Captain Howe the Americans made an attempt to board about this time.47 At 040048 Glasgow “made all the sail she possibly could” and bore away to the east for Newport,49 keeping up a hot running fight.50 The American vessels frequently yawed and raked the Glasgow,51 within musket shot on her quarters and stern.52 Howe’s sailors wrestled two guns out the cabin windows in the stern and opened fire on the pursuit.53 Columbus was still trailing the action and trying to close, but was engaging with her bow guns and an occasional broadside.54


Alfred is disabled and falls off, raked by Glasgow. Cabot out of action. Andrew Doria in action, Columbus coming up. About 0330-0345.


Alfred regains control, Andrew Doria is coming up and Columbus is coming up. Glasgow runs for Newport.


By now the running battle was within earshot of the land. As the citizens of Rhode Island rose to go about their daily chores those living on the coast could hear heavy guns far to the southeast. At daybreak eight to ten sail were sighted to the east of Block Island and “indeed the flashes of the cannon were seen by some people about daybreak.”55


Alfred, Andrew Doria and Columbus chasing Glasgow, which is running for Newport. About 0345-0600.


Alfred, Andrew Doria and Columbus in pursuit of Glasgow, with the rest of the fleet behind. Black and white photograph of a painting by C.T. or A.W. Warren. From Roscoe and Freeman, Picture History of the U. S. Navy, 83. A larger view is here.


The action and chase had now been underway for seven glasses (three and a half hours)56 and the fleet and Glasgow were approaching Newport.57 There was every chance that the British squadron at Newport would be encountered, which Hopkins had no desire to do.58 At 0600 Hopkins hoisted the recall signal,59 and a half hour later the Americans began to haul their wind and break off the pursuit.60


2. Into Port, 6-8 April 1776


At 0700 the Americans tacked and stood to the southwest.61 At 1200 the Andrew Doria caught up with the fleet. While the main battle had been underway, prize schooner Hawke had captured Glasgow’s three man tender. The fleet stood to the south and was nine miles northwest of Block Island at 1800.62


As for the Glasgow she proceeded to Newport, and began firing alarm guns to wake up the British fleet at Rhode Island about 0730.63 By 1100 she had come to anchor, while the other vessels were working out in pursuit.64 She came in “under all the sail she could set, yelping from the mouths of her cannon (like a broken leg’d dog) in token of her being sadly wounded.”65


There was considerable damage in the American fleet. Alfred had a shot through her main mast, one tiller block shot away, and was heavily damaged in rigging and hull.66 Alfred had taken seven 9-pound shot in her hull and was leaking badly. For three days she “scarce gain on the water she made.”67 One shot had penetrated to cockpit, killing a British midshipman (a prisoner from the Bolton), sitting beside Governor Browne.68 Alfred had six men killed and six or seven wounded.69 Marine Lieutenant John Fitzpatrick was among those killed.70 Three of the twelve Marines on the quarterdeck were killed, and two in the barge were wounded. Fitzpatrick was a “worthy officer, sincere friend and companion, that was beloved by all the ship’s company.”71 Hopkins later stated that the “Officers all behaved well onboard the Alfred.”72


Cabot had four men killed and seven wounded, including Captain John B. Hopkins73 wounded in the head.74 Master Sinclair Seymour, “a good officer,” was killed. Marine Lieutenant James Hood Wilson was mortally wounded. Commodore Hopkins noted that “too much Praise cannot be given to the Officers of the Cabot who gave and Sustain’d the whole Fire for some considerable time within pistol Shot.”75 Cabot was damaged in her hull, spars and rigging.76


Columbus had one man wounded.77 Andrew Doria had taken several shots in her hull and rigging. One shot hit her quarter, smashed the netting, and demolished the arms chest before wounding the drummer in the leg.78 The drummer later died of his wounds at New London.79


Glasgow was heavily damaged in the long fight. The log keeper aboard HM Sloop Swan reported she was “much Shattrd in er Riggin & Sails & her Mast Much Damaged.”80 All her lower masts were shot up and almost all her standing and running rigging shot away. She had begun repairs on rigging and sails after anchoring at 1100,81 with the carpenters busily fishing the masts.82 Observers ashore noticed Glasgow had all her pumps going, indicating several shots in the hull.83 Glasgow reported one man killed and three wounded, all by musketry.84 Howe attributed the low casualties to a supposed American attempt to fire high in an effort to disable the ship and carry it by boarding.85


Glasgow arrived at Halifax for repair on 18 or 19 April 1776.86 Glasgow was in “so shattered a Condition” and would take so long to repair, that Shuldham forwarded her to England, making only temporary patches.87 Howe was commended for his actions in beating off the American fleet and was promoted to command HMS Thames.88 Glasgow was out of action until she sailed for the West Indies on 5 December 1776,89 as part of the escort for a large outward bound convoy.90


Following the morning battle the Continental fleet collected to the south of Block Island. Hopkins ordered the fleet to sail to New London, Connecticut, there to refit and collect. He dispatched a small sloop (perhaps the Endeavour) to inform Nathaniel Shaw, Jr. (later Continental Agent for Connecticut) to put lights in the lighthouse for the incoming fleet. The sloop arrived on 7 April and Shaw saw three sail off the lighthouse by evening.91 American coast watchers on Long Island had sighted the fleet on the evening of 6 April, far out at sea south of Block Island, about sunset. Again the next morning the fleet was sighted when the fog cleared. These Americans thought the fleet was British.92 During the night the weather came up foggy with rainstorms and the various vessels lost sight of one another. At dawn the Andrew Doria and the Cabot found themselves alone on the water. By 1300, when Biddle anchored the brig off New London lighthouse, several of the fleet had collected. The fog cleared at 1600, and Andrew Doria and the others ran up into the harbor, anchoring at 1800. At 2000 the heavy ships, Alfred and Columbus came to off the lighthouse.93


At 0800 on 8 April, the Alfred and the remainder of the fleet got under way and sailed up to the town, dropping anchor right offshore.94 The Continental fleet was home from its cruise.





1 NDAR, “The London Chronicle, Tuesday, February 24, to Thursday, February 26, 1778,” XI, 1046 and notes

1 NDAR, “List of British Ships at or Going to America,” IV, 1090-1093

2 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680; “Journal of H.M.S. Rose, Captain James Wallace,” IV, 681-682

3 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Rose, Captain James Wallace,” IV, 681-682

4 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680; “Journal of H.M.S. Rose, Captain James Wallace,” IV, 681-682

5 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Rose, Captain James Wallace,” IV, 681-682

6 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680

7 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

8 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681; “Journal of John Paul Jones,” IV, 679-680; “Journal of John Paul Jones,” IV, 679-680

9 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681. Glasgow’s journal indicates the sighting was at 0300.

10 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

11 Morison, John Paul Jones, 47; Smith, Marines in the Revolution, 71

12 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

13 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

14 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

15 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

16 NDAR, “Captain Abraham Whipple to Commodore Esek Hopkins,” IV, 1328-1329 and 1329 note

17 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

18 NDAR, “Captain Abraham Whipple to Commodore Esek Hopkins,” IV, 1328-1329 and 1329 note

19 NDAR, “Captain Abraham Whipple to Commodore Esek Hopkins,” IV, 1328-1329 and 1329 note

20 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

21 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

22 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note; “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

23 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

24 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

25 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note; “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

26 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

27 NDAR, “Captain Tyringham Howe, R.N., to Philip Stephens,” IV, 1281

28 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680

29 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note; “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

30 Field, Edward, Esek Hopkins Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Navy during the American Revolution 1775 to 1778: Master Mariner. Politician, Brigadier General, Naval Officer and Philanthropist, Providence: The Preston & Rounds Co., 1898, 121

31 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note; “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

32 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

33 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

34 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

35 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

36 NDAR, “Journal of John Paul Jones,” IV, 679-680

37 NDAR, “:ieutenant John Paul Jones to Joseph Hewes,” IV, 815-818 and 818 notes

38 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

39 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

40 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

41 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

42 NDAR, “Captain Abraham Whipple to Commodore Esek Hopkins,” IV, 1328-1329 and 1329 note

43 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

44 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note; “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

45 NDAR, “Governor Montfort Browne to Lord George Germain,” VII, 48-51

46 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

47 NDAR, “Captain Tyringham Howe, R.N., to Philip Stephens,” IV, 1281

48 NDAR, “Captain Tyringham Howe, R.N., to Philip Stephens,” IV, 1281

49 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

50 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, IV, 680

51 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, IV, 680

52 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

53 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

54 NDAR, “Captain Abraham Whipple to Commodore Esek Hopkins,” IV, 1328-1329 and 1329 note

55 NDAR, “Newport Mercury, Monday, April 8, 1776,” IV, 707-709

56 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

57 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680; “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

58 NDAR, “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hancock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note

59 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681; “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

60 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681; “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note; “Captain Tyringham Howe, R.N., to Philip Stephens,” IV, 1281

61 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681; “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note; “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680

62 NDAR, “Journal of Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note

63 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681; “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680

64 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680

65 NDAR, “Newport Mercury, Monday, April 8, 1776,” IV, 707-709

66 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note; “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hancock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note

67 NDAR, “Governor Montfort Browne to Lord George Germain,” VII, 48-51

68 NDAR, “Governor Montfort Browne to Lord George Germain,” VII, 48-51; “Providence Gazette, Saturday, April 13, 1776,” IV, 797-800

69 NDAR, “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hancock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note; “Providence Gazette, Saturday, April 13, 1776,” IV, 797-800

70 NDAR, “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hancock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note

71 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

72 NDAR, “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hancock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note

73 NDAR, “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hanock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note

74 NDAR, “Providence Gazette, Saturday, April 13, 1776,” IV, 797-800

75 NDAR, “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hanock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note

76 NDAR, “Connecticut Gazette, Friday, April 12, 1776,” IV, 784-786

77 NDAR, “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hancock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note

78 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 679 and note; “Commodore Esek Hopkins to John Hancock,” IV, 735-736 and 736 note

79 NDAR, “Account of Officers and Men belonging to the Brigante Andrew Doria 1776,” IX, 1007-1011

80 NDAR, “Journal of H.M. Sloop Swan, Captain James Ayscough,” IV, 682

81 NDAR, “Journal of H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain Tyringham Howe,” IV, 680

82 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

83 NDAR, “Extract of a Letter from the Captain of Marines [Samuel Nicholas], on board the Ship Alfred, dated at New-London, April 10, 1776,” IV, 748-752 and 752 note

84 NDAR, “Remarks on board His Majesty’s Ship Glasgow Saturday the 6th day of April 1776,” IV, 680-681

85 NDAR, “Captain Tyringham Howe, R.N., to Philip Stephens,” IV, 1281

86 NDAR, “Captain Tyringham Howe, R.N., to Philip Stephens,” IV, 1281; “Vice Admiral Molyneux Shuldham to Philip Stephens,” IV, 1157-1159

87 NDAR, “Vice Admiral Molyneux Shuldham to Philip Stephens,” IV, 1157-1159

88 NDAR, “Lords Commissioners, Admiralty, to Captain Tyringham Howe, H.M.S. Thames, Spithead,” VII, 757-758

89 NDAR, “Marquis de Noailles to Vergennes,” VII, 702 and note

90 NDAR, “Lords Commissioners, Admiralty, to Captain Thomas Pasley, H. M. S. Glasgow, Spithead,” VII, 693-694

91 NDAR, “Nathaniel Shaw, Jr. to Joseph Trumbull,” IV, 696-697

92 NDAR, “Burnett Miller to the New York Committee of Safety,” IV, 697

93 NDAR, “Journal of the Continental Brig Andrew Doria, Captain Nicholas Biddle,” IV, 696

94 NDAR, “A Journal of the Cruise In The Brig Andrea Doria, Nicholas Biddle Esq Commander . . .”, in NDAR, IV, 1489-1502


Revised 6 August 2014 © awiatsea.com